Dictionary<TKey,TValue>.IDictionary.Add(Object, Object) Metoda

Definice

Přidá zadaný klíč a hodnotu do slovníku.Adds the specified key and value to the dictionary.

 virtual void System.Collections.IDictionary.Add(System::Object ^ key, System::Object ^ value) = System::Collections::IDictionary::Add;
void IDictionary.Add (object key, object value);
Sub Add (key As Object, value As Object) Implements IDictionary.Add

Parametry

key
Object

Objekt, který má být použit jako klíč.The object to use as the key.

value
Object

Objekt, který má být použit jako hodnota.The object to use as the value.

Implementuje

Výjimky

key je null.key is null.

key je typu, který nelze přiřadit k typu klíče TKey Dictionary<TKey,TValue>.key is of a type that is not assignable to the key type TKey of the Dictionary<TKey,TValue>.

-nebo--or- value je typu, který nelze přiřadit TValue, typ hodnot v Dictionary<TKey,TValue>.value is of a type that is not assignable to TValue, the type of values in the Dictionary<TKey,TValue>.

-nebo--or- V Dictionary<TKey,TValue>již existuje hodnota se stejným klíčem.A value with the same key already exists in the Dictionary<TKey,TValue>.

Příklady

Následující příklad kódu ukazuje, jak přistupovat k třídě Dictionary<TKey,TValue> prostřednictvím rozhraní System.Collections.IDictionary.The following code example shows how to access the Dictionary<TKey,TValue> class through the System.Collections.IDictionary interface. Příklad kódu vytvoří prázdnou Dictionary<TKey,TValue> řetězců s klíči řetězce a pomocí metody IDictionary.Add přidat některé prvky.The code example creates an empty Dictionary<TKey,TValue> of strings with string keys and uses the IDictionary.Add method to add some elements. Příklad ukazuje, že metoda IDictionary.Add vyvolá ArgumentException při pokusu o přidání duplicitního klíče nebo při zadání klíče nebo hodnoty nesprávného datového typu.The example demonstrates that the IDictionary.Add method throws an ArgumentException when attempting to add a duplicate key, or when a key or value of the wrong data type is supplied.

Příklad kódu ukazuje použití několika dalších členů rozhraní System.Collections.IDictionary.The code example demonstrates the use of several other members of the System.Collections.IDictionary interface.

using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Create a new dictionary of strings, with string keys,
        // and access it using the IDictionary interface.
        //
        IDictionary openWith = new Dictionary<string, string>();

        // Add some elements to the dictionary. There are no 
        // duplicate keys, but some of the values are duplicates.
        // IDictionary.Add throws an exception if incorrect types
        // are supplied for key or value.
        openWith.Add("txt", "notepad.exe");
        openWith.Add("bmp", "paint.exe");
        openWith.Add("dib", "paint.exe");
        openWith.Add("rtf", "wordpad.exe");
        try
        {
            openWith.Add(42, new Example());
        }
        catch (ArgumentException ex)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("An exception was caught for " + 
                "IDictionary.Add. Exception message:\n\t{0}\n",
                ex.Message);
        }

        // The Add method throws an exception if the new key is 
        // already in the dictionary.
        try
        {
            openWith.Add("txt", "winword.exe");
        }
        catch (ArgumentException)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("An element with Key = \"txt\" already exists.");
        }

        // The Item property is another name for the indexer, so you 
        // can omit its name when accessing elements. 
        Console.WriteLine("For key = \"rtf\", value = {0}.", 
            openWith["rtf"]);

        // The indexer can be used to change the value associated
        // with a key.
        openWith["rtf"] = "winword.exe";
        Console.WriteLine("For key = \"rtf\", value = {0}.", 
            openWith["rtf"]);

        // If a key does not exist, setting the indexer for that key
        // adds a new key/value pair.
        openWith["doc"] = "winword.exe";

        // The indexer returns null if the key is of the wrong data 
        // type.
        Console.WriteLine("The indexer returns null" 
            + " if the key is of the wrong type:");
        Console.WriteLine("For key = 2, value = {0}.", 
            openWith[2]);

        // The indexer throws an exception when setting a value
        // if the key is of the wrong data type.
        try
        {
            openWith[2] = "This does not get added.";
        }
        catch (ArgumentException)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("A key of the wrong type was specified" 
                + " when assigning to the indexer.");
        }

        // Unlike the default Item property on the Dictionary class
        // itself, IDictionary.Item does not throw an exception
        // if the requested key is not in the dictionary.
        Console.WriteLine("For key = \"tif\", value = {0}.", 
            openWith["tif"]);

        // Contains can be used to test keys before inserting 
        // them.
        if (!openWith.Contains("ht"))
        {
            openWith.Add("ht", "hypertrm.exe");
            Console.WriteLine("Value added for key = \"ht\": {0}", 
                openWith["ht"]);
        }

        // IDictionary.Contains returns false if the wrong data
        // type is supplied.
        Console.WriteLine("openWith.Contains(29.7) returns {0}",
            openWith.Contains(29.7));

        // When you use foreach to enumerate dictionary elements
        // with the IDictionary interface, the elements are retrieved
        // as DictionaryEntry objects instead of KeyValuePair objects.
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( DictionaryEntry de in openWith )
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Key = {0}, Value = {1}", 
                de.Key, de.Value);
        }

        // To get the values alone, use the Values property.
        ICollection icoll = openWith.Values;

        // The elements of the collection are strongly typed
        // with the type that was specified for dictionary values,
        // even though the ICollection interface is not strongly
        // typed.
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string s in icoll )
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Value = {0}", s);
        }

        // To get the keys alone, use the Keys property.
        icoll = openWith.Keys;

        // The elements of the collection are strongly typed
        // with the type that was specified for dictionary keys,
        // even though the ICollection interface is not strongly
        // typed.
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string s in icoll )
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Key = {0}", s);
        }

        // Use the Remove method to remove a key/value pair. No
        // exception is thrown if the wrong data type is supplied.
        Console.WriteLine("\nRemove(\"dib\")");
        openWith.Remove("dib");

        if (!openWith.Contains("dib"))
        {
            Console.WriteLine("Key \"dib\" is not found.");
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

An exception was caught for IDictionary.Add. Exception message:
        The value "42" is not of type "System.String" and cannot be used in this generic collection.
Parameter name: key

An element with Key = "txt" already exists.
For key = "rtf", value = wordpad.exe.
For key = "rtf", value = winword.exe.
The indexer returns null if the key is of the wrong type:
For key = 2, value = .
A key of the wrong type was specified when assigning to the indexer.
For key = "tif", value = .
Value added for key = "ht": hypertrm.exe
openWith.Contains(29.7) returns False

Key = txt, Value = notepad.exe
Key = bmp, Value = paint.exe
Key = dib, Value = paint.exe
Key = rtf, Value = winword.exe
Key = doc, Value = winword.exe
Key = ht, Value = hypertrm.exe

Value = notepad.exe
Value = paint.exe
Value = paint.exe
Value = winword.exe
Value = winword.exe
Value = hypertrm.exe

Key = txt
Key = bmp
Key = dib
Key = rtf
Key = doc
Key = ht

Remove("dib")
Key "dib" is not found.
 */
Imports System.Collections
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class Example
    
    Public Shared Sub Main() 

        ' Create a new dictionary of strings, with string keys,
        ' and access it using the IDictionary interface.
        '
        Dim openWith As IDictionary = _
            New Dictionary(Of String, String)
        
        ' Add some elements to the dictionary. There are no 
        ' duplicate keys, but some of the values are duplicates.
        ' IDictionary.Add throws an exception if incorrect types
        ' are supplied for key or value.
        openWith.Add("txt", "notepad.exe")
        openWith.Add("bmp", "paint.exe")
        openWith.Add("dib", "paint.exe")
        openWith.Add("rtf", "wordpad.exe")
        Try
            openWith.Add(42, New Example())
        Catch ex As ArgumentException
            Console.WriteLine("An exception was caught for " & _
                "IDictionary.Add. Exception message:" & vbLf _
                & vbTab & ex.Message & vbLf)
        End Try
        
        ' The Add method throws an exception if the new key is 
        ' already in the dictionary.
        Try
            openWith.Add("txt", "winword.exe")
        Catch 
            Console.WriteLine("An element with Key = ""txt"" already exists.")
        End Try

        ' The Item property is the default property, so you 
        ' can omit its name when accessing elements. 
        Console.WriteLine("For key = ""rtf"", value = {0}.", _
            openWith("rtf"))
        
        ' The default Item property can be used to change the value
        ' associated with a key.
        openWith("rtf") = "winword.exe"
        Console.WriteLine("For key = ""rtf"", value = {0}.", _
            openWith("rtf"))
        
        ' If a key does not exist, setting the default Item property
        ' for that key adds a new key/value pair.
        openWith("doc") = "winword.exe"

        ' The default Item property returns Nothing if the key
        ' is of the wrong data type.
        Console.WriteLine("The default Item property returns Nothing" _
            & " if the key is of the wrong type:")
        Console.WriteLine("For key = 2, value = {0}.", _
            openWith(2))

        ' The default Item property throws an exception when setting
        ' a value if the key is of the wrong data type.
        Try
            openWith(2) = "This does not get added."
        Catch 
            Console.WriteLine("A key of the wrong type was specified" _
                & " when setting the default Item property.")
        End Try

        ' Unlike the default Item property on the Dictionary class
        ' itself, IDictionary.Item does not throw an exception
        ' if the requested key is not in the dictionary.
        Console.WriteLine("For key = ""tif"", value = {0}.", _
            openWith("tif"))

        ' Contains can be used to test keys before inserting 
        ' them.
        If Not openWith.Contains("ht") Then
            openWith.Add("ht", "hypertrm.exe")
            Console.WriteLine("Value added for key = ""ht"": {0}", _
                openWith("ht"))
        End If

        ' IDictionary.Contains returns False if the wrong data 
        ' type is supplied.
        Console.WriteLine("openWith.Contains(29.7) returns {0}", _
            openWith.Contains(29.7))

        ' When you use foreach to enumerate dictionary elements
        ' with the IDictionary interface, the elements are retrieved
        ' as DictionaryEntry objects instead of KeyValuePair objects.
        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each de As DictionaryEntry In openWith
            Console.WriteLine("Key = {0}, Value = {1}", _
                de.Key, de.Value)
        Next 

        ' To get the values alone, use the Values property.
        Dim icoll As ICollection = openWith.Values
        
        ' The elements of the collection are strongly typed
        ' with the type that was specified for dictionary values,
        ' even though the ICollection interface is not strongly
        ' typed.
        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each s As String In  icoll
            Console.WriteLine("Value = {0}", s)
        Next s

        ' To get the keys alone, use the Keys property.
        icoll = openWith.Keys
        
        ' The elements of the collection are strongly typed
        ' with the type that was specified for dictionary keys,
        ' even though the ICollection interface is not strongly
        ' typed.
        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each s As String In  icoll
            Console.WriteLine("Key = {0}", s)
        Next s

        ' Use the Remove method to remove a key/value pair. No
        ' exception is thrown if the wrong data type is supplied.
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf + "Remove(""dib"")")
        openWith.Remove("dib")
        
        If Not openWith.Contains("dib") Then
            Console.WriteLine("Key ""dib"" is not found.")
        End If

    End Sub

End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'An exception was caught for IDictionary.Add. Exception message:
'        The value "42" is not of type "System.String" and cannot be used in this generic collection.
'Parameter name: key
'
'An element with Key = "txt" already exists.
'For key = "rtf", value = wordpad.exe.
'For key = "rtf", value = winword.exe.
'The default Item property returns Nothing if the key is of the wrong type:
'For key = 2, value = .
'A key of the wrong type was specified when setting the default Item property.
'For key = "tif", value = .
'Value added for key = "ht": hypertrm.exe
'openWith.Contains(29.7) returns False
'
'Key = txt, Value = notepad.exe
'Key = bmp, Value = paint.exe
'Key = dib, Value = paint.exe
'Key = rtf, Value = winword.exe
'Key = doc, Value = winword.exe
'Key = ht, Value = hypertrm.exe
'
'Value = notepad.exe
'Value = paint.exe
'Value = paint.exe
'Value = winword.exe
'Value = winword.exe
'Value = hypertrm.exe
'
'Key = txt
'Key = bmp
'Key = dib
'Key = rtf
'Key = doc
'Key = ht
'
'Remove("dib")
'Key "dib" is not found.
' 

Poznámky

Můžete také použít vlastnost Item[Object] k přidání nových prvků nastavením hodnoty klíče, který ve slovníku neexistuje. například myCollection["myNonexistentKey"] = myValue.You can also use the Item[Object] property to add new elements by setting the value of a key that does not exist in the dictionary; for example, myCollection["myNonexistentKey"] = myValue. Nicméně pokud zadaný klíč už ve slovníku existuje, nastavení vlastnosti Item[Object] přepíše starou hodnotu.However, if the specified key already exists in the dictionary, setting the Item[Object] property overwrites the old value. Naproti tomu metoda Add vyvolá výjimku, pokud zadaný klíč již existuje.In contrast, the Add method throws an exception if the specified key already exists.

Pokud je Count menší než kapacita, tato metoda přistupuje k operaci O (1).If Count is less than the capacity, this method approaches an O(1) operation. Pokud je potřeba zvýšit kapacitu tak, aby vyhovovala novému prvku, tato metoda se změní na operaci O (n), kde n je Count.If the capacity needs to be increased to accommodate the new element, this method becomes an O(n) operation, where n is Count.

Platí pro

Viz také