Tutorial: Migrate MySQL to Azure Database for MySQL online using DMS
You can use Azure Database Migration Service to migrate the databases from an on-premises MySQL instance to Azure Database for MySQL with minimal downtime. In other words, migration can be achieved with minimum downtime to the application. In this tutorial, you migrate the Employees sample database from an on-premises instance of MySQL 5.7 to Azure Database for MySQL by using an online migration activity in Azure Database Migration Service.
In this tutorial, you learn how to:
- Migrate the sample schema using mysqldump utility.
- Create an instance of Azure Database Migration Service.
- Create a migration project by using Azure Database Migration Service.
- Run the migration.
- Monitor the migration.
Using Azure Database Migration Service to perform an online migration requires creating an instance based on the Premium pricing tier.
For an optimal migration experience, Microsoft recommends creating an instance of Azure Database Migration Service in the same Azure region as the target database. Moving data across regions or geographies can slow down the migration process and introduce errors.
Microsoft supports a diverse and inclusionary environment. This article contains references to the word slave. The Microsoft style guide for bias-free communication recognizes this as an exclusionary word. The word is used in this article for consistency because it's currently the word that appears in the software. When the software is updated to remove the word, this article will be updated to be in alignment.
To complete this tutorial, you need to:
Download and install MySQL community edition 5.6 or 5.7. The on-premises MySQL version must match with Azure Database for MySQL version. For example, MySQL 5.6 can only migrate to Azure Database for MySQL 5.6 and not upgraded to 5.7. Migrations to or from MySQL 8.0 are not supported. Migrations to or from MySQL 8.0 are not supported.
Create a Microsoft Azure Virtual Network for Azure Database Migration Service by using Azure Resource Manager deployment model, which provides site-to-site connectivity to your on-premises source servers by using either ExpressRoute or VPN. For more information about creating a virtual network, see the Virtual Network Documentation, and especially the quickstart articles with step-by-step details.
During virtual networkNet setup, if you use ExpressRoute with network peering to Microsoft, add the following service endpoints to the subnet in which the service will be provisioned:
- Target database endpoint (for example, SQL endpoint, Cosmos DB endpoint, and so on)
- Storage endpoint
- Service bus endpoint
This configuration is necessary because Azure Database Migration Service lacks internet connectivity.
Ensure that your virtual network Network Security Group rules don't block the following inbound communication ports to Azure Database Migration Service: 443, 53, 9354, 445, 12000. For more detail on virtual network NSG traffic filtering, see the article Filter network traffic with network security groups.
Configure your Windows Firewall for database engine access.
Open your Windows firewall to allow Azure Database Migration Service to access the source MySQL Server, which by default is TCP port 3306.
When using a firewall appliance in front of your source database(s), you may need to add firewall rules to allow Azure Database Migration Service to access the source database(s) for migration.
Create a server-level firewall rule for Azure Database for MySQL to allow Azure Database Migration Service access to the target databases. Provide the subnet range of the virtual network used for Azure Database Migration Service.
The source MySQL must be on supported MySQL community edition. To determine the version of MySQL instance, in the MySQL utility or MySQL Workbench, run the following command:
Azure Database for MySQL supports only InnoDB tables. To convert MyISAM tables to InnoDB, see the article Converting Tables from MyISAM to InnoDB
Enable binary logging in the my.ini (Windows) or my.cnf (Unix) file in source database by using the following configuration:
- server_id = 1 or greater (relevant only for MySQL 5.6)
- log-bin =<path> (relevant only for MySQL 5.6) For example: log-bin = E:\MySQL_logs\BinLog
- binlog_format = row
- Expire_logs_days = 5 (it's recommended to not use zero; relevant only for MySQL 5.6)
- Binlog_row_image = full (relevant only for MySQL 5.6)
- log_slave_updates = 1
The user must have the ReplicationAdmin role with the following privileges:
- REPLICATION CLIENT - Required for Change Processing tasks only. In other words, Full Load only tasks don't require this privilege.
- REPLICATION REPLICA - Required for Change Processing tasks only. In other words, Full Load only tasks don't require this privilege.
- SUPER - Only required in versions earlier than MySQL 5.6.6.
Migrate the sample schema
To complete all the database objects like table schemas, indexes and stored procedures, we need to extract schema from the source database and apply to the database. To extract schema, you can use mysqldump with the
Assuming you have MySQL Employees sample database in the on-premises system, the command to do schema migration using mysqldump is:
mysqldump -h [servername] -u [username] -p[password] --databases [db name] --no-data > [schema file path]
mysqldump -h 10.10.123.123 -u root -p --databases employees --no-data > d:\employees.sql
To import schema to Azure Database for MySQL target, run the following command:
mysql.exe -h [servername] -u [username] -p[password] [database]< [schema file path]
mysql.exe -h shausample.mysql.database.azure.com -u dms@shausample -p employees < d:\employees.sql
If you have foreign keys in your schema, the initial load and continuous sync of the migration will fail. Execute the following script in MySQL Workbench to extract the drop foreign key script and add foreign key script.
SET group_concat_max_len = 8192; SELECT SchemaName, GROUP_CONCAT(DropQuery SEPARATOR ';\n') as DropQuery, GROUP_CONCAT(AddQuery SEPARATOR ';\n') as AddQuery FROM (SELECT KCU.REFERENCED_TABLE_SCHEMA as SchemaName, KCU.TABLE_NAME, KCU.COLUMN_NAME, CONCAT('ALTER TABLE ', KCU.TABLE_NAME, ' DROP FOREIGN KEY ', KCU.CONSTRAINT_NAME) AS DropQuery, CONCAT('ALTER TABLE ', KCU.TABLE_NAME, ' ADD CONSTRAINT ', KCU.CONSTRAINT_NAME, ' FOREIGN KEY (`', KCU.COLUMN_NAME, '`) REFERENCES `', KCU.REFERENCED_TABLE_NAME, '` (`', KCU.REFERENCED_COLUMN_NAME, '`) ON UPDATE ',RC.UPDATE_RULE, ' ON DELETE ',RC.DELETE_RULE) AS AddQuery FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.KEY_COLUMN_USAGE KCU, information_schema.REFERENTIAL_CONSTRAINTS RC WHERE KCU.CONSTRAINT_NAME = RC.CONSTRAINT_NAME AND KCU.REFERENCED_TABLE_SCHEMA = RC.UNIQUE_CONSTRAINT_SCHEMA AND KCU.REFERENCED_TABLE_SCHEMA = 'SchemaName') Queries GROUP BY SchemaName;
Run the drop foreign key (which is the second column) in the query result to drop foreign key.
Azure DMS does not support the CASCADE referential action, which helps to automatically delete or update a matching row in the child table when a row is deleted or updated in the parent table. For more information, in the MySQL documentation, see the Referential Actions section of the article FOREIGN KEY Constraints. Azure DMS requires that you drop foreign key constraints in the target database server during the initial data load, and you cannot use referential actions. If your workload depends on updating a related child table via this referential action, we recommend that you perform a dump and restore instead.
If importing data using a backup, remove the CREATE DEFINER commands manually or by using the --skip-definer command when performing a mysqldump. DEFINER requires super privileges to create and is restricted in Azure Database for MySQL.
If you have a trigger in the data (insert or update trigger), it will enforce data integrity in the target ahead of the replicated data from the source. The recommendation is to disable triggers in all the tables at the target during migration, and then enable the triggers after migration is done.
To disable triggers in the target database, use the following command:
SELECT Concat('DROP TRIGGER ', Trigger_Name, ';') FROM information_schema.TRIGGERS WHERE TRIGGER_SCHEMA = 'your_schema';
Register the Microsoft.DataMigration resource provider
Sign in to the Azure portal, select All services, and then select Subscriptions.
Select the subscription in which you want to create the instance of Azure Database Migration Service, and then select Resource providers.
Search for migration, and then to the right of Microsoft.DataMigration, select Register.
Create a DMS instance
In the Azure portal, select + Create a resource, search for Azure Database Migration Service, and then select Azure Database Migration Service from the drop-down list.
On the Azure Database Migration Service screen, select Create.
On the Create Migration Service screen, specify a name for the service, the subscription, and a new or existing resource group.
Select an existing virtual network or create a new one.
The virtual network provides Azure Database Migration Service with access to the source SQL Server and the target Azure SQL Database instance.
For more information about how to create a virtual network in the Azure portal, see the article Create a virtual network using the Azure portal.
Select a pricing tier.
For more information on costs and pricing tiers, see the pricing page.
Select Create to create the service.
Create a migration project
After the service is created, locate it within the Azure portal, open it, and then create a new migration project.
In the Azure portal, select All services, search for Azure Database Migration Service, and then select Azure Database Migration Services.
On the Azure Database Migration Services screen, search for the name of Azure Database Migration Service instance that you created, and then select the instance.
Select + New Migration Project.
On the New migration project screen, specify a name for the project, in the Source server type text box, select MySQL, in the Target server type text box, select AzureDbForMySQL.
In the Choose type of activity section, select Online data migration
Alternately, you can choose Create project only to create the migration project now and execute the migration later.
Select Save, note the requirements to successfully use DMS to migrate data, and then select Create and run activity.
Specify source details
On the Add Source Details screen, specify the connection details for the source MySQL instance.
Specify target details
Select Save, and then on the Target details screen, specify the connection details for the target Azure Database for MySQL server, which is the pre-provisioned instance of Azure Database for MySQL to which the Employees schema was deployed by using mysqldump.
Select Save, and then on the Map to target databases screen, map the source and the target database for migration.
If the target database contains the same database name as the source database, Azure Database Migration Service selects the target database by default.
Though you can select multiple databases in this step, each instance of Azure Database Migration Service supports up to four databases for concurrent migration. Also, there is a limit of two instances of Azure Database Migration Service per region in a subscription. For example, if you have 40 databases to migrate, you can only migrate eight of them concurrently, and only if you have created two instances of Azure Database Migration Service.
Select Save, on the Migration summary screen, in the Activity name text box, specify a name for the migration activity, and then review the summary to ensure that the source and target details match what you previously specified.
Run the migration
Select Run migration.
The migration activity window appears, and the Status of the activity is initializing.
Monitor the migration
On the migration activity screen, select Refresh to update the display until the Status of the migration shows as Complete.
Under Database Name, select specific database to get to the migration status for Full data load and Incremental data sync operations.
Full data load will show the initial load migration status while Incremental data sync will show change data capture (CDC) status.
Perform migration cutover
After the initial Full load is completed, the databases are marked Ready to cutover.
When you're ready to complete the database migration, select Start Cutover.
Make sure to stop all the incoming transactions to the source database; wait until the Pending changes counter shows 0.
Select Confirm, and the select Apply.
When the database migration status shows Completed, connect your applications to the new target Azure SQL Database.
- For information about known issues and limitations when performing online migrations to Azure Database for MySQL, see the article Known issues and workarounds with Azure Database for MySQL online migrations.
- For information about Azure Database Migration Service, see the article What is Azure Database Migration Service?.
- For information about Azure Database for MySQL, see the article What is Azure Database for MySQL?.