Run SAP HANA for Linux virtual machines in a scale-up architecture on Azure

Virtual Machines
Linux Virtual Machines

This reference architecture shows a set of proven practices for running SAP HANA in a high-availability, scale-up environment that supports disaster recovery on Azure. This implementation focuses on the database layer and is designed to support various SAP applications, such as S/4HANA and SAP BW/4HANA.

Reference architecture for SAP HANA ScaleUp


Deploying this reference architecture requires appropriate licensing of SAP products and other non-Microsoft technologies.


This reference architecture describes a common production system. You can choose the virtual machine sizes to accommodate your organization's needs. This configuration can also be reduced to a single virtual machine.

The architecture includes the following components:

Azure Virtual Network (VNet). The VNet service securely connects Azure resources to each other. In this architecture, a VNet connects to an on-premises environment through a gateway deployed in the hub of a hub-spoke topology. The spoke is the VNet used for the SAP applications and the database tiers.

SAP HANA. For high availability, SAP HANA runs on two or more Linux virtual machines. SAP HANA System Replication (HSR) is used to replicate data between the primary and secondary (replica) SAP HANA systems. HSR is also used for cross-region or cross-zone disaster recovery.

Availability zones. Virtual machines providing the same service are deployed in to two different Availability Zones within an Azure region for a higher service-level agreement (SLA). Two or more virtual machines providing the same service can also be grouped into a highly available availability set.

Load balancers. To direct traffic to virtual machines in the database tier, Azure Standard Load Balancer is used. This option supports Availability Zones for scenarios that need higher application availability. It's important to highlight that the Standard Load Balancer is secure by default, and no virtual machines behind the Standard Load Balancer will have outbound internet connectivity. To enable outbound internet in the virtual machines, you must consider your Standard Load Balancer configuration.

Network security groups. To restrict incoming, outgoing, and intra-subnet traffic in the virtual network, you can define network security groups (NSGs) for subnets or individual virtual machines.

Storage. Azure Premium managed disks provide the recommend storage for the SAP executables and the SAP HANA data and logs. Other storage configurations are available, such as Ultra disk and Azure NetApp Files.


This architecture describes a small, production-level deployment that can scale up in the number and size of virtual machines, based on your business requirements. These recommendations are intended as a starting point.


SAP HANA is deployed on virtual machines in this reference architecture. Azure offers single-node scale up to 11.5 terabytes (TB) on virtual machines and single-node scale up to 24 TB on Azure Large Instances. The SAP Certified and Supported SAP HANA Hardware Directory lists the virtual machines that are certified for the SAP HANA database. For details about SAP support for virtual machine types and throughput metrics (SAPS), see SAP Note 1928533. (To access this and other SAP notes, an SAP Service Marketplace account is required.)

Microsoft and SAP jointly certify a range of virtual machine sizes for SAP HANA workloads. For example, smaller deployments can run on an M-series virtual machine with 192 GB of RAM. To support the largest SAP HANA memory sizes on virtual machines—up to 11.5 TB—you can use the Azure M-series v2 (Mv2) virtual machines. The M208 virtual machine types achieve approximately 260,000 SAPS, and the M416 virtual machine types achieve approximately 488,000 SAPS.

The physical distance between the application and database tiers can impact performance, especially for SAP applications that require frequent communication with the database. We recommend using Azure proximity placement groups for virtual machines deployed in availability sets. Proximity placement groups ensure that the virtual machines reside in the same datacenter to minimize application latency (but note that Azure Site Recovery does not support the replication of virtual machines in proximity placement groups). Scripts and utilities are available on GitHub.

Load balancer

We recommend using the Standard Load Balancer and enabling high availability ports. This setup avoids the need to configure load-balancing rules for many SAP ports. With Standard Load Balancer, you can also create a high availability solution across Azure Availability Zones. It's important to highlight that the Standard Load Balancer is secure by default, and no virtual machines behind the Standard Load Balancer will have outbound internet connectivity. To enable outbound internet in the virtual machines, you must consider your Standard Load Balancer configuration. Alternatively, you can use Azure Basic Load Balancer—it’s offered at no charge but does not support zones and has no SLA.

For SAP HANA database clusters, you must enable Direct Server Return (DSR), also known as Floating IP. This feature allows the server to respond to the IP address of the load balancer front end. This direct connection keeps the load balancer from becoming the bottleneck in the path of data transmission. If virtual machines in the back-end pool require public outbound connectivity, additional configuration is required.


We recommend using a hub-spoke topology, where the hub VNet acts as a central point of connectivity to an on-premises network. The spokes are VNets that peer with the hub, and they can be used to isolate workloads. Traffic flows between the on-premises datacenter and the hub through a gateway connection.

Availability Zones

As mentioned, you can increase application availability by using Availability Zones.

Subnets and NSGs

The database subnet includes an NSG that defines access policies for all the virtual machines within this subnet. To control the flow of traffic between the servers in a subnet, set up NSGs using either the Azure portal, PowerShell, or Azure CLI. For added control, you can also associate the SAP HANA subnet with application security groups.

Performance considerations

This implementation uses Azure managed disks. To achieve high input/output operations per second (IOPS) and disk bandwidth throughput, the common practices in storage volume performance optimization also apply to Azure storage layout. For example, combining multiple disks together to create a striped disk volume improves IO performance, although if you later resize the virtual machines, you may need a corresponding change to the disk configuration.

Enabling the read cache on storage content that changes infrequently enhances the speed of data retrieval. See also recommendations about storage configurations for various virtual machine sizes when running SAP HANA.

To meet the intensive IOPS and transfer bandwidth demands of SAP HANA, ultra disk storage provides the best IO performance. You can dynamically change the performance of ultra disks and independently configure metrics like IOPS and MB/s without rebooting your virtual machine. Ultra disk capabilities continue to evolve. To see if these disks meet your requirements, review the latest information about the service scope of ultra disks, especially if your implementation includes Azure resiliency features such as availability sets, Availability Zones, and cross-region replication.

For details about SAP HANA performance requirements, see SAP Note 1943937, "Hardware Configuration Check Tool."


As specified in SAP Note 2731110, do not place any network virtual appliance (NVA) in between the application and the database layers for any SAP application stack. Doing so introduces significant data packets processing time and unacceptably slows application performance.

Scalability considerations

This architecture runs SAP HANA on virtual machines that can scale up to 11.5 TB in one instance.

If your workload exceeds the maximum virtual machine size, Microsoft offers Azure Large Instances for SAP HANA. Rev. 4 of these physical servers is located in an Azure datacenter and, as of this writing, provides up to 24 TB of memory capacity for a single instance.

A multi-node configuration is also possible with a total memory capacity of up to 48 TB for online transaction processing (OLTP) applications and 96 TB for online analytical processing (OLAP) applications. For example, you can deploy SAP HANA in a scale-out configuration with standby on virtual machines—running either Red Hat Enterprise Linux or SUSE Linux Enterprise Server—using Azure NetApp Files for the shared storage volumes.

Availability considerations

This reference architecture depicts a highly available SAP HANA database system consisting of two virtual machines. The database tier's SAP HANA native system replication feature provides either manual or automatic failover between replicated nodes:

  • For manual failover, deploy more than one SAP HANA instance and use SAP HSR.

  • For automatic failover, use both HSR and Linux High Availability Extension (HAE) for your Linux distribution. Linux HAE provides the Pacemaker cluster services to the SAP HANA resources, detecting failure events and orchestrating the failover of errant services to the healthy node.

For SAP HANA high availability on Linux, create a Pacemaker cluster. This option is available for both SUSE Linux Enterprise Server and Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

This architecture uses Linux clustering to detect system failures and facilitate automatic failover. A storage-based or cloud-based fencing mechanism ensures that a failed system is isolated or shut down to avoid a cluster split-brain condition.

Disaster recovery considerations

In this architecture, HSR is used for database replication to a database instance in the secondary region. It’s optional to use a cluster in the secondary region, but doing so can improve SAP HANA availability after a disaster recovery failover.

In addition to a local, two-node high availability implementation, HSR supports multi-tier and multitarget replication, allowing for inter-zone and inter-region replication. Multitarget replication is available for SAP HANA 2.0 SPS 03 and later.

Disaster recovery failover is a manual process.

Virtual network peering

To support disaster recovery in this architecture, virtual networks in the secondary region have their traffic directed over ExpressRoute to the on-premises gateway and then routed back to Azure, destined for services in the primary region.

You can also use virtual network peering, where multiple virtual networks are peered together to provide network segmentation and isolation for the services deployed on Azure. Through network peering, services in disparate networks in one region can connect with each other. Global network peering bridges virtual networks in remote regions.

Azure NetApp Files

As an option, Azure NetApp Files can be used to provide a scalable and high-performance storage solution for SAP HANA data and log files. It’s also a good solution for Linux cluster shared storage—for example, when building Pacemaker clusters for (A)SCS. Azure NetApp Files makes it easy to provision file shares for Linux workloads without the effort of deploying an NFS file server, and it helps simplify the SAP landscape.

Azure NetApp Files supports snapshots for fast backup, recovery, and local replication. For cross-region content replication, you can use the NetApp Cloud Sync Service, rsync, or another copy function.

Azure Site Recovery

You can use Azure Site Recovery to automatically replicate your production configuration in a secondary location. Then, to extend your recovery plans, you can use customized deployment scripts. An example of the custom Site Recovery Automation Runbooks script is available on GitHub.


As of this writing, Site Recovery does not support the replication of virtual machines in proximity placement groups. Make sure to verify your target region’s resource capacity. Like all Azure services, Site Recovery continues to add features and capabilities. For the latest information about Azure-to-Azure replication, see the support matrix.

Management and operations considerations


SAP HANA data can be backed up in many ways. After migrating to Azure, you can continue to use any existing partner backup solutions you already have. Azure provides two native approaches to backup—SAP HANA file-level backup and Azure Backup for SAP HANA over the Backint interface.

For SAP HANA file-level backup, you can use your tool of choice, such as hdbsql or SAP HANA Studio, and store the backup files on a local disk volume. A common mount point for this backup volume is /hana/backup. Your backup policies will define the data retention period on the volume. As soon as the backup is taken, a scheduled task should copy the backup files to Azure Blob storage for safekeeping. The local backup files are kept for expedient recovery.

Azure Backup offers a simple, enterprise-grade solution for workloads running on virtual machines. Azure Backup for SAP HANA provides full integration with the SAP HANA backup catalog and guarantees database-consistent, full or point-in-time recoveries. Azure Backup is BackInt-certified by SAP. See also the Azure Backup FAQ.


To monitor your workloads on Azure, Azure Monitor offers a comprehensive solution for collecting, analyzing, and acting on telemetry from your cloud and on-premises environments.

To provide SAP-based monitoring of supported Azure infrastructure and databases, Azure Monitor for SAP Solutions (preview) is being used. Azure Monitor for SAP Solutions provides a simple setup experience. The customer can collect telemetry data from Azure resources, and then correlate data to various monitoring KPIs, and use data to help with troubleshooting.

To provide SAP-based monitoring of resources and service performance of the SAP infrastructure, the Azure SAP Enhanced Monitoring Extension is used. This extension feeds Azure monitoring statistics into the SAP application for operating system monitoring and DBA Cockpit functions. SAP enhanced monitoring is a mandatory prerequisite for running SAP on Azure. For details, see SAP Note 2191498, “SAP on Linux with Azure: Enhanced Monitoring.” To monitor SAP application and associated infrastructures, Azure Monitor for SAP Solutions (preview) can be used. Azure Monitor for SAP Solutions provides a simple setup experience. The customer can collect telemetry data from Azure resources, and then correlate data to various monitoring KPIs, and use data to help with troubleshooting

Security considerations

Many security measures are used to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of an SAP landscape. For example, to secure user access, SAP has its own User Management Engine (UME) to control role-based access and authorization within the SAP application and databases. For details, see SAP HANA Security—An Overview.

For data at rest, encryption provides security as follows:

  • Along with the SAP HANA native encryption technology, consider using an encryption solution from a partner that supports customer-managed keys.

  • To encrypt virtual machine disks, you can use Azure Disk Encryption. The solution also works with Azure Key Vault to help you control and manage the disk-encryption keys and secrets in your Key Vault subscription. Our recommended approach to encrypting your SAP data at rest is as follows:

    • Azure Disk Encryption for SAP Application servers: Operating system disks and data disks.
    • Azure Disk Encryption for SAP Database servers: Operating system disks and data disks not used by the DBMS.
    • SAP Database servers: Use Transparent Data Encryption offered by the DBMS provider (for example, SAP HANA native encryption technology) to secure your data and log files and to ensure the backups are also encrypted.
  • Data in Azure physical storage is automatically encrypted at rest with an Azure managed key.


Do not use the SAP HANA data-at-rest encryption with Azure Disk Encryption on the same storage volume. Also, operating system boot disks for Linux virtual machines do not support Azure Disk Encryption, nor does Site Recovery yet support Azure Disk Encryption-attached data disks on Linux.

For network security, use network security groups (NSGs) and Azure Firewall or a network virtual appliance as follows:

  • Use NSGs to protect and control traffic between subnets and application/database layers.

  • Use Azure Firewall or Azure network virtual appliance to inspect and control the routing of traffic from the hub virtual network to the spoke virtual network where your SAP applications reside, and also to control your outbound internet connectivity.

For User and Authorization, implement role-based access control (RBAC) and resource locks as follows:

  • Follow the least privilege principle, using RBAC for assigning administrative privileges at IaaS-level resources that host your SAP solution on Azure. Basically, the main purpose of RBAC is segregation and control of duties for your users/group and to grant only the amount of access to resources that's needed for users to perform their jobs.

  • Use resource locks to avoid risk that's accidental or which might be caused by malicious intention, whereby an administrator may delete or modify critical Azure resources where your SAP solution resides.

More security recommendations can be found at theses Microsoft and SAP articles.


Communities can answer questions and help you set up a successful deployment. Consider the following: