Use PowerShell to sync data between SQL Database and SQL Server

APPLIES TO: Azure SQL Database

This Azure PowerShell example configures Data Sync to sync data between Azure SQL Database and SQL Server.

If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.

Note

This article has been updated to use the Azure Az PowerShell module. The Az PowerShell module is the recommended PowerShell module for interacting with Azure. To get started with the Az PowerShell module, see Install Azure PowerShell. To learn how to migrate to the Az PowerShell module, see Migrate Azure PowerShell from AzureRM to Az.

Use Azure Cloud Shell

Azure hosts Azure Cloud Shell, an interactive shell environment that you can use through your browser. You can use either Bash or PowerShell with Cloud Shell to work with Azure services. You can use the Cloud Shell preinstalled commands to run the code in this article without having to install anything on your local environment.

To start Azure Cloud Shell:

Option Example/Link
Select Try It in the upper-right corner of a code block. Selecting Try It doesn't automatically copy the code to Cloud Shell. Example of Try It for Azure Cloud Shell
Go to https://shell.azure.com, or select the Launch Cloud Shell button to open Cloud Shell in your browser. Launch Cloud Shell in a new window
Select the Cloud Shell button on the menu bar at the upper right in the Azure portal. Cloud Shell button in the Azure portal

To run the code in this article in Azure Cloud Shell:

  1. Start Cloud Shell.

  2. Select the Copy button on a code block to copy the code.

  3. Paste the code into the Cloud Shell session by selecting Ctrl+Shift+V on Windows and Linux or by selecting Cmd+Shift+V on macOS.

  4. Select Enter to run the code.

If you choose to install and use PowerShell locally, this tutorial requires Az PowerShell 1.4.0 or later. If you need to upgrade, see Install Azure PowerShell module. If you are running PowerShell locally, you also need to run Connect-AzAccount to create a connection with Azure.

For an overview of SQL Data Sync, see Sync data across multiple cloud and on-premises databases with SQL Data Sync im Azure.

Important

SQL Data Sync does not support Azure SQL Managed Instance at this time.

Prerequisites

  • Create a database in Azure SQL Database from an AdventureWorksLT sample database as a hub database.
  • Create a database in Azure SQL Database in the same region as sync database.
  • Create a database in a SQL Server instance as a member database.
  • Update the parameter placeholders before running the example.

Example

using namespace Microsoft.Azure.Commands.Sql.DataSync.Model
using namespace System.Collections.Generic

# hub database info
$subscriptionId = "<subscriptionId>"
$resourceGroupName = "<resourceGroupName>"
$serverName = "<serverName>"
$databaseName = "<databaseName>"

# sync database info
$syncDatabaseResourceGroupName = "<syncResourceGroupName>"
$syncDatabaseServerName = "<syncServerName>"
$syncDatabaseName = "<syncDatabaseName>"

# sync group info
$syncGroupName = "<syncGroupName>"
$conflictResolutionPolicy = "HubWin" # can be HubWin or MemberWin
$intervalInSeconds = 300 # sync interval in seconds (must be no less than 300)

# member database info
$syncMemberName = "<syncMemberName>"
$memberServerName = "<memberServerName>"
$memberDatabaseName = "<memberDatabaseName>"
$memberDatabaseType = "SqlServerDatabase" # can be AzureSqlDatabase or SqlServerDatabase
$syncDirection = "Bidirectional" # can be Bidirectional, Onewaymembertohub, Onewayhubtomember

# sync agent info
$syncAgentName = "<agentName>"
$syncAgentResourceGroupName = "<syncAgentResourceGroupName>"
$syncAgentServerName = "<syncAgentServerName>"

# temp file to save the sync schema
$tempFile = $env:TEMP+"\syncSchema.json"

# list of included columns and tables in quoted name
$includedColumnsAndTables =  "[SalesLT].[Address].[AddressID]",
                             "[SalesLT].[Address].[AddressLine2]",
                             "[SalesLT].[Address].[rowguid]",
                             "[SalesLT].[Address].[PostalCode]",
                             "[SalesLT].[ProductDescription]"
$metadataList = [System.Collections.ArrayList]::new($includedColumnsAndTables)

Connect-AzAccount
Select-AzSubscription -SubscriptionId $subscriptionId

# use if it's safe to show password in script, otherwise use PromptForCredential
# $user = "username"
# $password = ConvertTo-SecureString -String "password" -AsPlainText -Force
# $credential = New-Object -TypeName "System.Management.Automation.PSCredential" -ArgumentList $user, $password

$credential = $Host.ui.PromptForCredential("Need credential",
              "Please enter your user name and password for server "+$serverName+".database.windows.net",
              "",
              "")

# create a new sync agent
Write-Host "Creating new Sync Agent..."
New-AzSqlSyncAgent -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName  $serverName -SyncDatabaseName $syncDatabaseName -SyncAgentName $syncAgentName

# generate agent key
Write-Host "Generating Agent Key..."
$agentKey = New-AzSqlSyncAgentKey -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -SyncAgentName $syncAgentName
Write-Host "Use your agent key to configure the sync agent. Do this before proceeding."
$agentkey

# DO THE FOLLOWING BEFORE THE NEXT STEP
# Install the on-premises sync agent on your machine and register the sync agent using the agent key generated above to bring the sync agent online.
# Add the SQL Server database information including server name, database name, user name, password on the configuration tool within the sync agent.  

# create a new sync group
Write-Host "Creating Sync Group "$syncGroupName"..."
New-AzSqlSyncGroup -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName -Name $syncGroupName `
    -SyncDatabaseName $syncDatabaseName -SyncDatabaseServerName $syncDatabaseServerName -SyncDatabaseResourceGroupName $syncDatabaseResourceGroupName `
    -ConflictResolutionPolicy $conflictResolutionPolicy -DatabaseCredential $credential

# use if it's safe to show password in script, otherwise use PromptForCredential
#$user = "username"
#$password = ConvertTo-SecureString -String "password" -AsPlainText -Force
#$credential = New-Object -TypeName "System.Management.Automation.PSCredential" -ArgumentList $user, $password

$credential = $Host.ui.PromptForCredential("Need credential",
              "Please enter your user name and password for server "+$memberServerName,
              "",
              "")

# get information from sync agent and confirm your SQL Server instance was configured (note the database ID to use for the sqlServerDatabaseID in the next step)
$syncAgentInfo = Get-AzSqlSyncAgentLinkedDatabase -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -SyncAgentName $syncAgentName

# add a new sync member
Write-Host "Adding member"$syncMemberName" to the sync group..."

New-AzSqlSyncMember -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName `
    -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName -Name $syncMemberName -MemberDatabaseType $memberDatabaseType -SyncAgentResourceGroupName $syncAgentResourceGroupName `
    -SyncAgentServerName $syncAgentServerName -SyncAgentName $syncAgentName  -SyncDirection $syncDirection -SqlServerDatabaseID  $syncAgentInfo.DatabaseId

# refresh database schema from hub database, specify the -SyncMemberName parameter if you want to refresh schema from the member database
Write-Host "Refreshing database schema from hub database..."
$startTime = Get-Date
Update-AzSqlSyncSchema -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName

# waiting for successful refresh
$startTime = $startTime.ToUniversalTime()
$timer=0
$timeout=90

# check the log and see if refresh has gone through
Write-Host "Check for successful refresh..."
$isSucceeded = $false
while ($isSucceeded -eq $false) {
    Start-Sleep -s 10
    $timer=$timer+10
    $details = Get-AzSqlSyncSchema -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName
    if ($details.LastUpdateTime -gt $startTime) {
        Write-Host "Refresh was successful"
        $isSucceeded = $true
    }
    if ($timer -eq $timeout) {
        Write-Host "Refresh timed out"
        break;
    }
}

# get the database schema
Write-Host "Adding tables and columns to the sync schema..."
$databaseSchema = Get-AzSqlSyncSchema -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName -ServerName $ServerName `
    -DatabaseName $DatabaseName -SyncGroupName $SyncGroupName `

$databaseSchema | ConvertTo-Json -depth 5 -Compress | Out-File "C:\Users\OnPremiseServer\AppData\Local\Temp\syncSchema.json"

$newSchema = [AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaModel]::new()
$newSchema.Tables = [List[AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaTableModel]]::new();

# add columns and tables to the sync schema
foreach ($tableSchema in $databaseSchema.Tables) {
    $newTableSchema = [AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaTableModel]::new()
    $newTableSchema.QuotedName = $tableSchema.QuotedName
    $newTableSchema.Columns = [List[AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaColumnModel]]::new();
    $addAllColumns = $false
    if ($MetadataList.Contains($tableSchema.QuotedName)) {
        if ($tableSchema.HasError) {
            $fullTableName = $tableSchema.QuotedName
            Write-Host "Can't add table $fullTableName to the sync schema" -foregroundcolor "Red"
            Write-Host $tableSchema.ErrorId -foregroundcolor "Red"
            continue;
        }
        else {
            $addAllColumns = $true
        }
    }
    foreach($columnSchema in $tableSchema.Columns) {
        $fullColumnName = $tableSchema.QuotedName + "." + $columnSchema.QuotedName
        if ($addAllColumns -or $MetadataList.Contains($fullColumnName)) {
            if ((-not $addAllColumns) -and $tableSchema.HasError) {
                Write-Host "Can't add column $fullColumnName to the sync schema" -foregroundcolor "Red"
                Write-Host $tableSchema.ErrorId -foregroundcolor "Red"
            }
            elseif ((-not $addAllColumns) -and $columnSchema.HasError) {
                Write-Host "Can't add column $fullColumnName to the sync schema" -foregroundcolor "Red"
                Write-Host $columnSchema.ErrorId -foregroundcolor "Red"
            }
            else {
                Write-Host "Adding"$fullColumnName" to the sync schema"
                $newColumnSchema = [AzureSqlSyncGroupSchemaColumnModel]::new()
                $newColumnSchema.QuotedName = $columnSchema.QuotedName
                $newColumnSchema.DataSize = $columnSchema.DataSize
                $newColumnSchema.DataType = $columnSchema.DataType
                $newTableSchema.Columns.Add($newColumnSchema)
            }
        }
    }
    if ($newTableSchema.Columns.Count -gt 0) {
        $newSchema.Tables.Add($newTableSchema)
    }
}

# convert sync schema to JSON format
$schemaString = $newSchema | ConvertTo-Json -depth 5 -Compress

# workaround a powershell bug
$schemaString = $schemaString.Replace('"Tables"', '"tables"').Replace('"Columns"', '"columns"').Replace('"QuotedName"', '"quotedName"').Replace('"MasterSyncMemberName"','"masterSyncMemberName"')

# save the sync schema to a temp file
$schemaString | Out-File $tempFile

# update sync schema
Write-Host "Updating the sync schema..."
Update-AzSqlSyncGroup -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName `
    -DatabaseName $databaseName -Name $syncGroupName -Schema $tempFile

$syncLogStartTime = Get-Date

# trigger sync manually
Write-Host "Trigger sync manually..."
Start-AzSqlSyncGroupSync -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName

# check the sync log and wait until the first sync succeeded
Write-Host "Check the sync log..."
$isSucceeded = $false
for ($i = 0; ($i -lt 300) -and (-not $isSucceeded); $i = $i + 10) {
    Start-Sleep -s 10
    $syncLogEndTime = Get-Date
    $syncLogList = Get-AzSqlSyncGroupLog -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName `
        -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName -StartTime $syncLogStartTime.ToUniversalTime() -EndTime $syncLogEndTime.ToUniversalTime()

    if ($synclogList.Length -gt 0) {
        foreach ($syncLog in $syncLogList) {
            if ($syncLog.Details.Contains("Sync completed successfully")) {
                Write-Host $syncLog.TimeStamp : $syncLog.Details
                $isSucceeded = $true
            }
        }
    }
}

if ($isSucceeded) {
    # enable scheduled sync
    Write-Host "Enable the scheduled sync with 300 seconds interval..."
    Update-AzSqlSyncGroup  -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName `
        -Name $syncGroupName -IntervalInSeconds $intervalInSeconds
}
else {
    # output all log if sync doesn't succeed in 300 seconds
    $syncLogEndTime = Get-Date
    $syncLogList = Get-AzSqlSyncGroupLog  -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName -ServerName $serverName -DatabaseName $databaseName `
        -SyncGroupName $syncGroupName -StartTime $syncLogStartTime.ToUniversalTime() -EndTime $syncLogEndTime.ToUniversalTime()

    if ($synclogList.Length -gt 0) {
        foreach ($syncLog in $syncLogList) {
            Write-Host $syncLog.TimeStamp : $syncLog.Details
        }
    }
}

Clean up deployment

After you run the sample script, you can run the following command to remove the resource group and all resources associated with it.

Remove-AzResourceGroup -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroupName
Remove-AzResourceGroup -ResourceGroupName $syncDatabaseResourceGroupName

Script explanation

This script uses the following commands. Each command in the table links to command-specific documentation.

Command Notes
New-AzSqlSyncAgent Creates a new Sync Agent.
New-AzSqlSyncAgentKey Generates the agent key associated with the Sync Agent.
Get-AzSqlSyncAgentLinkedDatabase Get all the information for the Sync Agent.
New-AzSqlSyncMember Add a new member to the Sync Group.
Update-AzSqlSyncSchema Refreshes the database schema information.
Get-AzSqlSyncSchema Get the database schema information.
Update-AzSqlSyncGroup Updates the Sync Group.
Start-AzSqlSyncGroupSync Triggers a sync.
Get-AzSqlSyncGroupLog Checks the Sync Log.

Next steps

For more information about Azure PowerShell, see Azure PowerShell documentation.

Additional SQL Database PowerShell script samples can be found in Azure SQL Database PowerShell scripts.

For more information about SQL Data Sync, see:

For more information about Azure SQL Database, see: