Create an automatic scaling formula for scaling compute nodes in a Batch pool

Azure Batch can automatically scale pools based on parameters that you define. With automatic scaling, Batch dynamically adds nodes to a pool as task demands increase, and removes compute nodes as they decrease. You can save both time and money by automatically adjusting the number of compute nodes used by your Batch application.

You enable automatic scaling on a pool of compute nodes by associating with it an autoscale formula that you define. The Batch service uses the autoscale formula to determine the number of compute nodes that are needed to execute your workload. Compute nodes may be dedicated nodes or low-priority nodes. Batch responds to service metrics data that is collected periodically. Using this metrics data, Batch adjusts the number of compute nodes in the pool based on your formula and at a configurable interval.

You can enable automatic scaling either when a pool is created, or on an existing pool. You can also change an existing formula on a pool that is configured for autoscaling. Batch enables you to evaluate your formulas before assigning them to pools and to monitor the status of automatic scaling runs.

This article discusses the various entities that make up your autoscale formulas, including variables, operators, operations, and functions. We discuss how to obtain various compute resource and task metrics within Batch. You can use these metrics to adjust your pool's node count based on resource usage and task status. We then describe how to construct a formula and enable automatic scaling on a pool by using both the Batch REST and .NET APIs. Finally, we finish up with a few example formulas.


When you create a Batch account, you can specify the account configuration, which determines whether pools are allocated in a Batch service subscription (the default), or in your user subscription. If you created your Batch account with the default Batch Service configuration, then your account is limited to a maximum number of cores that can be used for processing. The Batch service scales compute nodes only up to that core limit. For this reason, the Batch service may not reach the target number of compute nodes specified by an autoscale formula. See Quotas and limits for the Azure Batch service for information on viewing and increasing your account quotas.

If you created your account with the User Subscription configuration, then your account shares in the core quota for the subscription. For more information, see Virtual Machines limits in Azure subscription and service limits, quotas, and constraints.

Automatic scaling formulas

An automatic scaling formula is a string value that you define that contains one or more statements. The autoscale formula is assigned to a pool's autoScaleFormula element (Batch REST) or CloudPool.AutoScaleFormula property (Batch .NET). The Batch service uses your formula to determine the target number of compute nodes in the pool for the next interval of processing. The formula string cannot exceed 8 KB, can include up to 100 statements that are separated by semicolons, and can include line breaks and comments.

You can think of automatic scaling formulas as a Batch autoscale "language." Formula statements are free-formed expressions that can include both service-defined variables (variables defined by the Batch service) and user-defined variables (variables that you define). They can perform various operations on these values by using built-in types, operators, and functions. For example, a statement might take the following form:

$myNewVariable = function($ServiceDefinedVariable, $myCustomVariable);

Formulas generally contain multiple statements that perform operations on values that are obtained in previous statements. For example, first we obtain a value for variable1, then pass it to a function to populate variable2:

$variable1 = function1($ServiceDefinedVariable);
$variable2 = function2($OtherServiceDefinedVariable, $variable1);

Include these statements in your autoscale formula to arrive at a target number of compute nodes. Dedicated nodes and low-priority nodes each have their own target settings, so that you can define a target for each type of node. An autoscale formula can include a target value for dedicated nodes, a target value for low-priority nodes, or both.

The target number of nodes may be higher, lower, or the same as the current number of nodes of that type in the pool. Batch evaluates a pool's autoscale formula at a specific interval (see automatic scaling intervals). Batch adjusts the target number of each type of node in the pool to the number that your autoscale formula specifies at the time of evaluation.

Sample autoscale formula

Here is an example of an autoscale formula that can be adjusted to work for most scenarios. The variables startingNumberOfVMs and maxNumberofVMs in the example formula can be adjusted to your needs. This formula scales dedicated nodes, but can be modified to apply to scale low-priority nodes as well.

startingNumberOfVMs = 1;
maxNumberofVMs = 25;
pendingTaskSamplePercent = $PendingTasks.GetSamplePercent(180 * TimeInterval_Second);
pendingTaskSamples = pendingTaskSamplePercent < 70 ? startingNumberOfVMs : avg($PendingTasks.GetSample(180 * TimeInterval_Second));
$TargetDedicatedNodes=min(maxNumberofVMs, pendingTaskSamples);

With this autoscale formula, the pool is initially created with a single VM. The $PendingTasks metric defines the number of tasks that are running or queued. The formula finds the average number of pending tasks in the last 180 seconds and sets the $TargetDedicatedNodes variable accordingly. The formula ensures that the target number of dedicated nodes never exceeds 25 VMs. As new tasks are submitted, the pool automatically grows. As tasks complete, VMs become free one by one and the autoscaling formula shrinks the pool.


You can use both service-defined and user-defined variables in your autoscale formulas. The service-defined variables are built in to the Batch service. Some service-defined variables are read-write, and some are read-only. User-defined variables are variables that you define. In the example formula shown in the previous section, $TargetDedicatedNodes and $PendingTasks are service-defined variables. Variables startingNumberOfVMs and maxNumberofVMs are user-defined variables.


Service-defined variables are always preceded by a dollar sign ($). For user-defined variables, the dollar sign is optional.

The following tables show both read-write and read-only variables that are defined by the Batch service.

You can get and set the values of these service-defined variables to manage the number of compute nodes in a pool:

Read-write service-defined variables Description
$TargetDedicatedNodes The target number of dedicated compute nodes for the pool. The number of dedicated nodes is specified as a target because a pool may not always achieve the desired number of nodes. For example, if the target number of dedicated nodes is modified by an autoscale evaluation before the pool has reached the initial target, then the pool may not reach the target.

A pool in an account created with the Batch Service configuration may not achieve its target if the target exceeds a Batch account node or core quota. A pool in an account created with the User Subscription configuration may not achieve its target if the target exceeds the shared core quota for the subscription.
$TargetLowPriorityNodes The target number of low-priority compute nodes for the pool. The number of low-priority nodes is specified as a target because a pool may not always achieve the desired number of nodes. For example, if the target number of low-priority nodes is modified by an autoscale evaluation before the pool has reached the initial target, then the pool may not reach the target. A pool may also not achieve its target if the target exceeds a Batch account node or core quota.

For more information on low-priority compute nodes, see Use low-priority VMs with Batch (Preview).
$NodeDeallocationOption The action that occurs when compute nodes are removed from a pool. Possible values are:
  • requeue--Terminates tasks immediately and puts them back on the job queue so that they are rescheduled.
  • terminate--Terminates tasks immediately and removes them from the job queue.
  • taskcompletion--Waits for currently running tasks to finish and then removes the node from the pool.
  • retaineddata--Waits for all the local task-retained data on the node to be cleaned up before removing the node from the pool.

You can get the value of these service-defined variables to make adjustments that are based on metrics from the Batch service:

Read-only service-defined variables Description
$CPUPercent The average percentage of CPU usage.
$WallClockSeconds The number of seconds consumed.
$MemoryBytes The average number of megabytes used.
$DiskBytes The average number of gigabytes used on the local disks.
$DiskReadBytes The number of bytes read.
$DiskWriteBytes The number of bytes written.
$DiskReadOps The count of read disk operations performed.
$DiskWriteOps The count of write disk operations performed.
$NetworkInBytes The number of inbound bytes.
$NetworkOutBytes The number of outbound bytes.
$SampleNodeCount The count of compute nodes.
$ActiveTasks The number of tasks that are ready to execute but are not yet executing. The $ActiveTasks count includes all tasks that are in the active state and whose dependencies have been satisfied. Any tasks that are in the active state but whose dependencies have not been satisfied are excluded from the $ActiveTasks count.
$RunningTasks The number of tasks in a running state.
$PendingTasks The sum of $ActiveTasks and $RunningTasks.
$SucceededTasks The number of tasks that finished successfully.
$FailedTasks The number of tasks that failed.
$CurrentDedicatedNodes The current number of dedicated compute nodes.
$CurrentLowPriorityNodes The current number of low-priority compute nodes, including any nodes that have been pre-empted.
$PreemptedNodeCount The number of nodes in the pool that are in a pre-empted state.


The read-only, service-defined variables that are shown in the previous table are objects that provide various methods to access data associated with each. For more information, see Obtain sample data later in this article.


These types are supported in a formula:

  • double
  • doubleVec
  • doubleVecList
  • string
  • timestamp--timestamp is a compound structure that contains the following members:

    • year
    • month (1-12)
    • day (1-31)
    • weekday (in the format of number; for example, 1 for Monday)
    • hour (in 24-hour number format; for example, 13 means 1 PM)
    • minute (00-59)
    • second (00-59)
  • timeinterval

    • TimeInterval_Zero
    • TimeInterval_100ns
    • TimeInterval_Microsecond
    • TimeInterval_Millisecond
    • TimeInterval_Second
    • TimeInterval_Minute
    • TimeInterval_Hour
    • TimeInterval_Day
    • TimeInterval_Week
    • TimeInterval_Year


These operations are allowed on the types that are listed in the previous section.

Operation Supported operators Result type
double operator double +, -, *, / double
double operator timeinterval * timeinterval
doubleVec operator double +, -, *, / doubleVec
doubleVec operator doubleVec +, -, *, / doubleVec
timeinterval operator double *, / timeinterval
timeinterval operator timeinterval +, - timeinterval
timeinterval operator timestamp + timestamp
timestamp operator timeinterval + timestamp
timestamp operator timestamp - timeinterval
operatordouble -, ! double
operatortimeinterval - timeinterval
double operator double <, <=, ==, >=, >, != double
string operator string <, <=, ==, >=, >, != double
timestamp operator timestamp <, <=, ==, >=, >, != double
timeinterval operator timeinterval <, <=, ==, >=, >, != double
double operator double &&, || double

When testing a double with a ternary operator (double ? statement1 : statement2), nonzero is true, and zero is false.


These predefined functions are available for you to use in defining an automatic scaling formula.

Function Return type Description
avg(doubleVecList) double Returns the average value for all values in the doubleVecList.
len(doubleVecList) double Returns the length of the vector that is created from the doubleVecList.
lg(double) double Returns the log base 2 of the double.
lg(doubleVecList) doubleVec Returns the component-wise log base 2 of the doubleVecList. A vec(double) must be explicitly passed for the parameter. Otherwise, the double lg(double) version is assumed.
ln(double) double Returns the natural log of the double.
ln(doubleVecList) doubleVec Returns the component-wise log base 2 of the doubleVecList. A vec(double) must be explicitly passed for the parameter. Otherwise, the double lg(double) version is assumed.
log(double) double Returns the log base 10 of the double.
log(doubleVecList) doubleVec Returns the component-wise log base 10 of the doubleVecList. A vec(double) must be explicitly passed for the single double parameter. Otherwise, the double log(double) version is assumed.
max(doubleVecList) double Returns the maximum value in the doubleVecList.
min(doubleVecList) double Returns the minimum value in the doubleVecList.
norm(doubleVecList) double Returns the two-norm of the vector that is created from the doubleVecList.
percentile(doubleVec v, double p) double Returns the percentile element of the vector v.
rand() double Returns a random value between 0.0 and 1.0.
range(doubleVecList) double Returns the difference between the min and max values in the doubleVecList.
std(doubleVecList) double Returns the sample standard deviation of the values in the doubleVecList.
stop() Stops evaluation of the autoscaling expression.
sum(doubleVecList) double Returns the sum of all the components of the doubleVecList.
time(string dateTime="") timestamp Returns the time stamp of the current time if no parameters are passed, or the time stamp of the dateTime string if it is passed. Supported dateTime formats are W3C-DTF and RFC 1123.
val(doubleVec v, double i) double Returns the value of the element that is at location i in vector v, with a starting index of zero.

Some of the functions that are described in the previous table can accept a list as an argument. The comma-separated list is any combination of double and doubleVec. For example:

doubleVecList := ( (double | doubleVec)+(, (double | doubleVec) )* )?

The doubleVecList value is converted to a single doubleVec before evaluation. For example, if v = [1,2,3], then calling avg(v) is equivalent to calling avg(1,2,3). Calling avg(v, 7) is equivalent to calling avg(1,2,3,7).

Obtain sample data

Autoscale formulas act on metrics data (samples) that is provided by the Batch service. A formula grows or shrinks pool size based on the values that it obtains from the service. The service-defined variables that were described previously are objects that provide various methods to access data that is associated with that object. For example, the following expression shows a request to get the last five minutes of CPU usage:

$CPUPercent.GetSample(TimeInterval_Minute * 5)
Method Description
GetSample() The GetSample() method returns a vector of data samples.

A sample is 30 seconds worth of metrics data. In other words, samples are obtained every 30 seconds. But as noted below, there is a delay between when a sample is collected and when it is available to a formula. As such, not all samples for a given time period may be available for evaluation by a formula.
  • doubleVec GetSample(double count)
    Specifies the number of samples to obtain from the most recent samples that were collected.

    GetSample(1) returns the last available sample. For metrics like $CPUPercent, however, this should not be used because it is impossible to know when the sample was collected. It might be recent, or, because of system issues, it might be much older. It is better in such cases to use a time interval as shown below.
  • doubleVec GetSample((timestamp or timeinterval) startTime [, double samplePercent])
    Specifies a time frame for gathering sample data. Optionally, it also specifies the percentage of samples that must be available in the requested time frame.

    $CPUPercent.GetSample(TimeInterval_Minute * 10) would return 20 samples if all samples for the last 10 minutes are present in the CPUPercent history. If the last minute of history was not available, however, only 18 samples would be returned. In this case:

    $CPUPercent.GetSample(TimeInterval_Minute * 10, 95) would fail because only 90 percent of the samples are available.

    $CPUPercent.GetSample(TimeInterval_Minute * 10, 80) would succeed.
  • doubleVec GetSample((timestamp or timeinterval) startTime, (timestamp or timeinterval) endTime [, double samplePercent])
    Specifies a time frame for gathering data, with both a start time and an end time.

    As mentioned above, there is a delay between when a sample is collected and when it is available to a formula. Consider this delay when you use the GetSample method. See GetSamplePercent below.
GetSamplePeriod() Returns the period of samples that were taken in a historical sample data set.
Count() Returns the total number of samples in the metric history.
HistoryBeginTime() Returns the time stamp of the oldest available data sample for the metric.
GetSamplePercent() Returns the percentage of samples that are available for a given time interval. For example:

doubleVec GetSamplePercent( (timestamp or timeinterval) startTime [, (timestamp or timeinterval) endTime] )

Because the GetSample method fails if the percentage of samples returned is less than the samplePercent specified, you can use the GetSamplePercent method to check first. Then you can perform an alternate action if insufficient samples are present, without halting the automatic scaling evaluation.

Samples, sample percentage, and the GetSample() method

The core operation of an autoscale formula is to obtain task and resource metric data and then adjust pool size based on that data. As such, it is important to have a clear understanding of how autoscale formulas interact with metrics data (samples).


The Batch service periodically takes samples of task and resource metrics and makes them available to your autoscale formulas. These samples are recorded every 30 seconds by the Batch service. However, there is typically a delay between when those samples were recorded and when they are made available to (and can be read by) your autoscale formulas. Additionally, due to various factors such as network or other infrastructure issues, samples may not be recorded for a particular interval.

Sample percentage

When samplePercent is passed to the GetSample() method or the GetSamplePercent() method is called, percent refers to a comparison between the total possible number of samples that are recorded by the Batch service and the number of samples that are available to your autoscale formula.

Let's look at a 10-minute timespan as an example. Because samples are recorded every 30 seconds within a 10-minute timespan, the maximum total number of samples that are recorded by Batch would be 20 samples (2 per minute). However, due to the inherent latency of the reporting mechanism and other issues within Azure, there may be only 15 samples that are available to your autoscale formula for reading. So, for example, for that 10-minute period, only 75% of the total number of samples recorded may be available to your formula.

GetSample() and sample ranges

Your autoscale formulas are going to be growing and shrinking your pools — adding nodes or removing nodes. Because nodes cost you money, you want to ensure that your formulas use an intelligent method of analysis that is based on sufficient data. Therefore, we recommend that you use a trending-type analysis in your formulas. This type grows and shrinks your pools based on a range of collected samples.

To do so, use GetSample(interval look-back start, interval look-back end) to return a vector of samples:

$runningTasksSample = $RunningTasks.GetSample(1 * TimeInterval_Minute, 6 * TimeInterval_Minute);

When the above line is evaluated by Batch, it returns a range of samples as a vector of values. For example:


Once you've collected the vector of samples, you can then use functions like min(), max(), and avg() to derive meaningful values from the collected range.

For additional security, you can force a formula evaluation to fail if less than a certain sample percentage is available for a particular time period. When you force a formula evaluation to fail, you instruct Batch to cease further evaluation of the formula if the specified percentage of samples is not available. In this case, no change is made to the pool size. To specify a required percentage of samples for the evaluation to succeed, specify it as the third parameter to GetSample(). Here, a requirement of 75 percent of samples is specified:

$runningTasksSample = $RunningTasks.GetSample(60 * TimeInterval_Second, 120 * TimeInterval_Second, 75);

Because there may be a delay in sample availability, it is important to always specify a time range with a look-back start time that is older than one minute. It takes approximately one minute for samples to propagate through the system, so samples in the range (0 * TimeInterval_Second, 60 * TimeInterval_Second) may not be available. Again, you can use the percentage parameter of GetSample() to force a particular sample percentage requirement.


We strongly recommend that you avoid relying only on GetSample(1) in your autoscale formulas. This is because GetSample(1) essentially says to the Batch service, "Give me the last sample you have, no matter how long ago you retrieved it." Since it is only a single sample, and it may be an older sample, it may not be representative of the larger picture of recent task or resource state. If you do use GetSample(1), make sure that it's part of a larger statement and not the only data point that your formula relies on.


You can use both resource and task metrics when you're defining a formula. You adjust the target number of dedicated nodes in the pool based on the metrics data that you obtain and evaluate. See the Variables section above for more information on each metric.

Metric Description

Resource metrics are based on the CPU, the bandwidth, the memory usage of compute nodes, and the number of nodes.

These service-defined variables are useful for making adjustments based on node count:

  • $TargetDedicatedNodes
  • $TargetLowPriorityNodes
  • $CurrentDedicatedNodes
  • $CurrentLowPriorityNodes
  • $preemptedNodeCount
  • $SampleNodeCount

These service-defined variables are useful for making adjustments based on node resource usage:

  • $CPUPercent
  • $WallClockSeconds
  • $MemoryBytes
  • $DiskBytes
  • $DiskReadBytes
  • $DiskWriteBytes
  • $DiskReadOps
  • $DiskWriteOps
  • $NetworkInBytes
  • $NetworkOutBytes


Task metrics are based on the status of tasks, such as Active, Pending, and Completed. The following service-defined variables are useful for making pool-size adjustments based on task metrics:

  • $ActiveTasks
  • $RunningTasks
  • $PendingTasks
  • $SucceededTasks
  • $FailedTasks

Write an autoscale formula

You build an autoscale formula by forming statements that use the above components, then combine those statements into a complete formula. In this section, we create an example autoscale formula that can perform some real-world scaling decisions.

First, let's define the requirements for our new autoscale formula. The formula should:

  1. Increase the target number of dedicated compute nodes in a pool if CPU usage is high.
  2. Decrease the target number of dedicated compute nodes in a pool when CPU usage is low.
  3. Always restrict the maximum number of dedicated nodes to 400.

To increase the number of nodes during high CPU usage, define the statement that populates a user-defined variable ($totalDedicatedNodes) with a value that is 110 percent of the current target number of dedicated nodes, but only if the minimum average CPU usage during the last 10 minutes was above 70 percent. Otherwise, use the value for the current number of dedicated nodes.

$totalDedicatedNodes =
    (min($CPUPercent.GetSample(TimeInterval_Minute * 10)) > 0.7) ?
    ($CurrentDedicatedNodes * 1.1) : $CurrentDedicatedNodes;

To decrease the number of dedicated nodes during low CPU usage, the next statement in our formula sets the same $totalDedicatedNodes variable to 90 percent of the current target number of dedicated nodes if the average CPU usage in the past 60 minutes was under 20 percent. Otherwise, use the current value of $totalDedicatedNodes that we populated in the statement above.

$totalDedicatedNodes =
    (avg($CPUPercent.GetSample(TimeInterval_Minute * 60)) < 0.2) ?
    ($CurrentDedicatedNodes * 0.9) : $totalDedicatedNodes;

Now limit the target number of dedicated compute nodes to a maximum of 400:

$TargetDedicatedNodes = min(400, $totalDedicatedNodes)

Here's the complete formula:

$totalDedicatedNodes =
    (min($CPUPercent.GetSample(TimeInterval_Minute * 10)) > 0.7) ?
    ($CurrentDedicatedNodes * 1.1) : $CurrentDedicatedNodes;
$totalDedicatedNodes =
    (avg($CPUPercent.GetSample(TimeInterval_Minute * 60)) < 0.2) ?
    ($CurrentDedicatedNodes * 0.9) : $totalDedicatedNodes;
$TargetDedicatedNodes = min(400, $totalDedicatedNodes)

Create an autoscale-enabled pool with .NET

To create a pool with autoscaling enabled in .NET, follow these steps:

  1. Create the pool with BatchClient.PoolOperations.CreatePool.
  2. Set the CloudPool.AutoScaleEnabled property to true.
  3. Set the CloudPool.AutoScaleFormula property with your autoscale formula.
  4. (Optional) Set the CloudPool.AutoScaleEvaluationInterval property (default is 15 minutes).
  5. Commit the pool with CloudPool.Commit or CommitAsync.

The following code snippet creates an autoscale-enabled pool in .NET. The pool's autoscale formula sets the target number of dedicated nodes to 5 on Mondays, and 1 on every other day of the week. The automatic scaling interval is set to 30 minutes. In this and the other C# snippets in this article, myBatchClient is a properly initialized instance of the BatchClient class.

CloudPool pool = myBatchClient.PoolOperations.CreatePool(
                    poolId: "mypool",
                    virtualMachineSize: "small", // single-core, 1.75 GB memory, 225 GB disk
                    cloudServiceConfiguration: new CloudServiceConfiguration(osFamily: "5"));    
pool.AutoScaleEnabled = true;
pool.AutoScaleFormula = "$TargetDedicatedNodes = (time().weekday == 1 ? 5:1);";
pool.AutoScaleEvaluationInterval = TimeSpan.FromMinutes(30);
await pool.CommitAsync();


When you create an autoscale-enabled pool, do not specify the targetDedicatedComputeNodes parameter or the targetLowPriorityComputeNodes parameter on the call to CreatePool. Instead, specify the AutoScaleEnabled and AutoScaleFormula properties on the pool. The values for these properties determine the target number of each type of node. Also, to manually resize an autoscale-enabled pool (for example, with BatchClient.PoolOperations.ResizePoolAsync), first disable automatic scaling on the pool, then resize it.

In addition to Batch .NET, you can use any of the other Batch SDKs, Batch REST, Batch PowerShell cmdlets, and the Batch CLI to configure autoscaling.

Automatic scaling interval

By default, the Batch service adjusts a pool's size according to its autoscale formula every 15 minutes. This interval is configurable by using the following pool properties:

The minimum interval is five minutes, and the maximum is 168 hours. If an interval outside this range is specified, the Batch service returns a Bad Request (400) error.


Autoscaling is not currently intended to respond to changes in less than a minute, but rather is intended to adjust the size of your pool gradually as you run a workload.

Enable autoscaling on an existing pool

Each Batch SDK provides a way to enable autoscaling. For example:

When you enable autoscaling on an existing pool, keep in mind the following points:

  • If automatic scaling is currently disabled on the pool when you issue the request to enable autoscaling, you must specify a valid autoscale formula when you issue the request. You can optionally specify an autoscale evaluation interval. If you do not specify an interval, the default value of 15 minutes is used.
  • If autoscale is currently enabled on the pool, you can specify an autoscale formula, an evaluation interval, or both. You must specify at least one of these properties.

    • If you specify a new autoscale evaluation interval, then the existing evaluation schedule is stopped and a new schedule is started. The new schedule's start time is the time at which the request to enable autoscaling was issued.
    • If you omit either the autoscale formula or evaluation interval, the Batch service continues to use the current value of that setting.


If you specified values for the targetDedicatedComputeNodes or targetLowPriorityComputeNodes parameters of the CreatePool method when you created the pool in .NET, or for the comparable parameters in another language, then those values are ignored when the automatic scaling formula is evaluated.

This C# code snippet uses the Batch .NET library to enable autoscaling on an existing pool:

// Define the autoscaling formula. This formula sets the target number of nodes
// to 5 on Mondays, and 1 on every other day of the week
string myAutoScaleFormula = "$TargetDedicatedNodes = (time().weekday == 1 ? 5:1);";

// Set the autoscale formula on the existing pool
await myBatchClient.PoolOperations.EnableAutoScaleAsync(
    autoscaleFormula: myAutoScaleFormula);

Update an autoscale formula

To update the formula on an existing autoscale-enabled pool, call the operation to enable autoscaling again with the new formula. For example, if autoscaling is already enabled on myexistingpool when the following .NET code is executed, its autoscale formula is replaced with the contents of myNewFormula.

await myBatchClient.PoolOperations.EnableAutoScaleAsync(
    autoscaleFormula: myNewFormula);

Update the autoscale interval

To update the autoscale evaluation interval of an existing autoscale-enabled pool, call the operation to enable autoscaling again with the new interval. For example, to set the autoscale evaluation interval to 60 minutes for a pool that's already autoscale-enabled in .NET:

await myBatchClient.PoolOperations.EnableAutoScaleAsync(
    autoscaleEvaluationInterval: TimeSpan.FromMinutes(60));

Evaluate an autoscale formula

You can evaluate a formula before applying it to a pool. In this way, you can test the formula to see how its statements evaluate before you put the formula into production.

To evaluate an autoscale formula, you must first enable autoscaling on the pool with a valid formula. To test a formula on a pool that doesn't yet have autoscaling enabled, use the one-line formula $TargetDedicatedNodes = 0 when you first enable autoscaling. Then, use one of the following to evaluate the formula you want to test:

In this Batch .NET code snippet, we evaluate an autoscale formula. If the pool does not have autoscaling enabled, we enable it first.

// First obtain a reference to an existing pool
CloudPool pool = await batchClient.PoolOperations.GetPoolAsync("myExistingPool");

// If autoscaling isn't already enabled on the pool, enable it.
// You can't evaluate an autoscale formula on non-autoscale-enabled pool.
if (pool.AutoScaleEnabled == false)
    // We need a valid autoscale formula to enable autoscaling on the
    // pool. This formula is valid, but won't resize the pool:
    await pool.EnableAutoScaleAsync(
        autoscaleFormula: "$TargetDedicatedNodes = {pool.CurrentDedicatedNodes};",
        autoscaleEvaluationInterval: TimeSpan.FromMinutes(5));

    // Batch limits EnableAutoScaleAsync calls to once every 30 seconds.
    // Because we want to apply our new autoscale formula below if it
    // evaluates successfully, and we *just* enabled autoscaling on
    // this pool, we pause here to ensure we pass that threshold.

    // Refresh the properties of the pool so that we've got the
    // latest value for AutoScaleEnabled
    await pool.RefreshAsync();

// We must ensure that autoscaling is enabled on the pool prior to
// evaluating a formula
if (pool.AutoScaleEnabled == true)
    // The formula to evaluate - adjusts target number of nodes based on
    // day of week and time of day
    string myFormula = @"
        $curTime = time();
        $workHours = $curTime.hour >= 8 && $curTime.hour < 18;
        $isWeekday = $curTime.weekday >= 1 && $curTime.weekday <= 5;
        $isWorkingWeekdayHour = $workHours && $isWeekday;
        $TargetDedicatedNodes = $isWorkingWeekdayHour ? 20:10;

    // Perform the autoscale formula evaluation. Note that this code does not
    // actually apply the formula to the pool.
    AutoScaleRun eval =
        await batchClient.PoolOperations.EvaluateAutoScaleAsync(pool.Id, myFormula);

    if (eval.Error == null)
        // Evaluation success - print the results of the AutoScaleRun.
        // This will display the values of each variable as evaluated by the
        // autoscale formula.
        Console.WriteLine("AutoScaleRun.Results: " +
            eval.Results.Replace("$", "\n    $"));

        // Apply the formula to the pool since it evaluated successfully
        await batchClient.PoolOperations.EnableAutoScaleAsync(pool.Id, myFormula);
        // Evaluation failed, output the message associated with the error
        Console.WriteLine("AutoScaleRun.Error.Message: " +

Successful evaluation of the formula shown in this code snippet produces results similar to:


Get information about autoscale runs

To ensure that your formula is performing as expected, we recommend that you periodically check the results of the autoscaling runs that Batch performs on your pool. To do so, get (or refresh) a reference to the pool, and examine the properties of its last autoscale run.

In Batch .NET, the CloudPool.AutoScaleRun property has several properties that provide information about the latest automatic scaling run performed on the pool:

In the REST API, the Get information about a pool request returns information about the pool, which includes the latest automatic scaling run information in the autoScaleRun property.

The following C# code snippet uses the Batch .NET library to print information about the last autoscaling run on pool myPool:

await Cloud pool = myBatchClient.PoolOperations.GetPoolAsync("myPool");
Console.WriteLine("Last execution: " + pool.AutoScaleRun.Timestamp);
Console.WriteLine("Result:" + pool.AutoScaleRun.Results.Replace("$", "\n  $"));
Console.WriteLine("Error: " + pool.AutoScaleRun.Error);

Sample output of the preceding snippet:

Last execution: 10/14/2016 18:36:43

Example autoscale formulas

Let's look at a few formulas that show different ways to adjust the amount of compute resources in a pool.

Example 1: Time-based adjustment

Suppose you want to adjust the pool size based on the day of the week and time of day. This example shows how to increase or decrease the number of nodes in the pool accordingly.

The formula first obtains the current time. If it's a weekday (1-5) and within working hours (8 AM to 6 PM), the target pool size is set to 20 nodes. Otherwise, it's set to 10 nodes.

$curTime = time();
$workHours = $curTime.hour >= 8 && $curTime.hour < 18;
$isWeekday = $curTime.weekday >= 1 && $curTime.weekday <= 5;
$isWorkingWeekdayHour = $workHours && $isWeekday;
$TargetDedicatedNodes = $isWorkingWeekdayHour ? 20:10;

Example 2: Task-based adjustment

In this example, the pool size is adjusted based on the number of tasks in the queue. Both comments and line breaks are acceptable in formula strings.

// Get pending tasks for the past 15 minutes.
$samples = $ActiveTasks.GetSamplePercent(TimeInterval_Minute * 15);
// If we have fewer than 70 percent data points, we use the last sample point,
// otherwise we use the maximum of last sample point and the history average.
$tasks = $samples < 70 ? max(0,$ActiveTasks.GetSample(1)) : max( $ActiveTasks.GetSample(1), avg($ActiveTasks.GetSample(TimeInterval_Minute * 15)));
// If number of pending tasks is not 0, set targetVM to pending tasks, otherwise
// half of current dedicated.
$targetVMs = $tasks > 0? $tasks:max(0, $TargetDedicatedNodes/2);
// The pool size is capped at 20, if target VM value is more than that, set it
// to 20. This value should be adjusted according to your use case.
$TargetDedicatedNodes = max(0, min($targetVMs, 20));
// Set node deallocation mode - keep nodes active only until tasks finish
$NodeDeallocationOption = taskcompletion;

Example 3: Accounting for parallel tasks

This example adjusts the pool size based on the number of tasks. This formula also takes into account the MaxTasksPerComputeNode value that has been set for the pool. This approach is useful in situations where parallel task execution has been enabled on your pool.

// Determine whether 70 percent of the samples have been recorded in the past
// 15 minutes; if not, use last sample
$samples = $ActiveTasks.GetSamplePercent(TimeInterval_Minute * 15);
$tasks = $samples < 70 ? max(0,$ActiveTasks.GetSample(1)) : max( $ActiveTasks.GetSample(1),avg($ActiveTasks.GetSample(TimeInterval_Minute * 15)));
// Set the number of nodes to add to one-fourth the number of active tasks (the
// MaxTasksPerComputeNode property on this pool is set to 4, adjust this number
// for your use case)
$cores = $TargetDedicatedNodes * 4;
$extraVMs = (($tasks - $cores) + 3) / 4;
$targetVMs = ($TargetDedicatedNodes + $extraVMs);
// Attempt to grow the number of compute nodes to match the number of active
// tasks, with a maximum of 3
$TargetDedicatedNodes = max(0,min($targetVMs,3));
// Keep the nodes active until the tasks finish
$NodeDeallocationOption = taskcompletion;

Example 4: Setting an initial pool size

This example shows a C# code snippet with an autoscale formula that sets the pool size to a specified number of nodes for an initial time period. Then it adjusts the pool size based on the number of running and active tasks after the initial time period has elapsed.

The formula in the following code snippet:

  • Sets the initial pool size to four nodes.
  • Does not adjust the pool size within the first 10 minutes of the pool's lifecycle.
  • After 10 minutes, obtains the max value of the number of running and active tasks within the past 60 minutes.
    • If both values are 0 (indicating that no tasks were running or active in the last 60 minutes), the pool size is set to 0.
    • If either value is greater than zero, no change is made.
string now = DateTime.UtcNow.ToString("r");
string formula = string.Format(@"
    $TargetDedicatedNodes = {1};
    lifespan         = time() - time(""{0}"");
    span             = TimeInterval_Minute * 60;
    startup          = TimeInterval_Minute * 10;
    ratio            = 50;

    $TargetDedicatedNodes = (lifespan > startup ? (max($RunningTasks.GetSample(span, ratio), $ActiveTasks.GetSample(span, ratio)) == 0 ? 0 : $TargetDedicatedNodes) : {1});
    ", now, 4);

Next steps

  • Maximize Azure Batch compute resource usage with concurrent node tasks contains details about how you can execute multiple tasks simultaneously on the compute nodes in your pool. In addition to autoscaling, this feature may help to lower job duration for some workloads, saving you money.
  • For another efficiency booster, ensure that your Batch application queries the Batch service in the most optimal way. See Query the Azure Batch service efficiently to learn how to limit the amount of data that crosses the wire when you query the status of potentially thousands of compute nodes or tasks.