Quickstart: Send telemetry to an Azure IoT hub and read it with a Java application

The quickstart shows how to send telemetry to an Azure IoT hub and read it with a Java application. IoT Hub is an Azure service that enables you to ingest high volumes of telemetry from your IoT devices into the cloud for storage or processing. In this quickstart, you send telemetry from a simulated device application, through IoT Hub, to a back-end application for processing.

The quickstart uses two pre-written Java applications, one to send the telemetry and one to read the telemetry from the hub. Before you run these two applications, you create an IoT hub and register a device with the hub.

Use Azure Cloud Shell

Azure hosts Azure Cloud Shell, an interactive shell environment that you can use through your browser. Cloud Shell lets you use either bash or PowerShell to work with Azure services. You can use the Cloud Shell pre-installed commands to run the code in this article without having to install anything on your local environment.

To launch Azure Cloud Shell:

Option Example/Link
Select Try It in the upper-right corner of a code block. Selecting Try It doesn't automatically copy the code to Cloud Shell. Example of Try It for Azure Cloud Shell
Go to https://shell.azure.com or select the Launch Cloud Shell button to open Cloud Shell in your browser. Launch Cloud Shell in a new window
Select the Cloud Shell button on the top-right menu bar in the Azure portal. Cloud Shell button in the Azure portal

To run the code in this article in Azure Cloud Shell:

  1. Launch Cloud Shell.

  2. Select the Copy button on a code block to copy the code.

  3. Paste the code into the Cloud Shell session with Ctrl+Shift+V on Windows and Linux, or Cmd+Shift+V on macOS.

  4. Press Enter to run the code.

If you don’t have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.

Prerequisites

The two sample applications you run in this quickstart are written using Java. You need Java SE 8 on your development machine.

You can download Java SE Development Kit 8 for multiple platforms from Java long-term support for Azure and Azure Stack. Make sure you select Java 8 under Long-term support to get to downloads for JDK 8.

You can verify the current version of Java on your development machine using the following command:

java -version

To build the samples, you need to install Maven 3. You can download Maven for multiple platforms from Apache Maven.

You can verify the current version of Maven on your development machine using the following command:

mvn --version

Run the following command to add the Microsoft Azure IoT Extension for Azure CLI to your Cloud Shell instance. The IOT Extension adds IoT Hub, IoT Edge, and IoT Device Provisioning Service (DPS) specific commands to Azure CLI.

az extension add --name azure-cli-iot-ext

Download the sample Java project from https://github.com/Azure-Samples/azure-iot-samples-java/archive/master.zip and extract the ZIP archive.

Create an IoT hub

This section describes how to create an IoT hub using the Azure portal.

  1. Sign in to the Azure portal.

  2. Choose Create a resource, and then enter IoT Hub in the Search the Marketplace field.

  3. Select IoT Hub from the search results, and then select Create.

  4. On the Basics tab, complete the fields as follows:

    • Subscription: Select the subscription to use for your hub.

    • Resource Group: Select a resource group or create a new one. To create a new one, select Create new and fill in the name you want to use. To use an existing resource group, select that resource group. For more information, see Manage Azure Resource Manager resource groups.

    • Region: Select the region in which you want your hub to be located. Select the location closest to you.

    • IoT Hub Name: Enter a name for your hub. This name must be globally unique. If the name you enter is available, a green check mark appears.

    Important

    Because the IoT hub will be publicly discoverable as a DNS endpoint, be sure to avoid entering any sensitive or personally identifiable information when you name it.

    Create a hub in the Azure portal

  5. Select Next: Size and scale to continue creating your hub.

    Set the size and scale for a new hub using the Azure portal

    This screen allows you to set the following values:

    • Pricing and scale tier: Your selected tier. You can choose from several tiers, depending on how many features you want and how many messages you send through your solution per day. The free tier is intended for testing and evaluation. It allows 500 devices to be connected to the hub and up to 8,000 messages per day. Each Azure subscription can create one IoT Hub in the free tier.

    • IoT Hub units: The number of messages allowed per unit per day depends on your hub's pricing tier. For example, if you want the hub to support ingress of 700,000 messages, you choose two S1 tier units. For details about the other tier options, see Choosing the right IoT Hub tier.

    • Advanced Settings > Device-to-cloud partitions: This property relates the device-to-cloud messages to the number of simultaneous readers of the messages. Most hubs need only four partitions.

  6. For this article, accept the default choices, and then select Review + create to review your choices. You see something similar to this screen.

    Review information for creating the new hub

  7. Select Create to create your new hub. Creating the hub takes a few minutes.

Register a device

A device must be registered with your IoT hub before it can connect. In this quickstart, you use the Azure Cloud Shell to register a simulated device.

  1. Run the following command in Azure Cloud Shell to create the device identity.

    YourIoTHubName: Replace this placeholder below with the name you chose for your IoT hub.

    MyJavaDevice: This is the name of the device you're registering. It's recommended to use MyJavaDevice as shown. If you choose a different name for your device, you'll also need to use that name throughout this article, and update the device name in the sample applications before you run them.

    az iot hub device-identity create --hub-name {YourIoTHubName} --device-id MyJavaDevice
    
  2. Run the following command in Azure Cloud Shell to get the device connection string for the device you just registered:

    YourIoTHubName: Replace this placeholder below with the name you chose for your IoT hub.

    az iot hub device-identity show-connection-string --hub-name {YourIoTHubName} --device-id MyJavaDevice --output table
    

    Make a note of the device connection string, which looks like:

    HostName={YourIoTHubName}.azure-devices.net;DeviceId=MyJavaDevice;SharedAccessKey={YourSharedAccessKey}

    You'll use this value later in the quickstart.

  3. You also need the Event Hubs-compatible endpoint, Event Hubs-compatible path, and service primary key from your IoT hub to enable the back-end application to connect to your IoT hub and retrieve the messages. The following commands retrieve these values for your IoT hub:

    YourIoTHubName: Replace this placeholder below with the name you chose for your IoT hub.

    az iot hub show --query properties.eventHubEndpoints.events.endpoint --name {YourIoTHubName}
    
    az iot hub show --query properties.eventHubEndpoints.events.path --name {YourIoTHubName}
    
    az iot hub policy show --name service --query primaryKey --hub-name {YourIoTHubName}
    

    Make a note of these three values, which you'll use later in the quickstart.

Send simulated telemetry

The simulated device application connects to a device-specific endpoint on your IoT hub and sends simulated temperature and humidity telemetry.

  1. In a local terminal window, navigate to the root folder of the sample Java project. Then navigate to the iot-hub\Quickstarts\simulated-device folder.

  2. Open the src/main/java/com/microsoft/docs/iothub/samples/SimulatedDevice.java file in a text editor of your choice.

    Replace the value of the connString variable with the device connection string you made a note of earlier. Then save your changes to SimulatedDevice.java.

  3. In the local terminal window, run the following commands to install the required libraries and build the simulated device application:

    mvn clean package
    
  4. In the local terminal window, run the following commands to run the simulated device application:

    java -jar target/simulated-device-1.0.0-with-deps.jar
    

    The following screenshot shows the output as the simulated device application sends telemetry to your IoT hub:

    Output from telemetry sent by the device to your IoT hub

Read the telemetry from your hub

The back-end application connects to the service-side Events endpoint on your IoT Hub. The application receives the device-to-cloud messages sent from your simulated device. An IoT Hub back-end application typically runs in the cloud to receive and process device-to-cloud messages.

  1. In another local terminal window, navigate to the root folder of the sample Java project. Then navigate to the iot-hub\Quickstarts\read-d2c-messages folder.

  2. Open the src/main/java/com/microsoft/docs/iothub/samples/ReadDeviceToCloudMessages.java file in a text editor of your choice. Update the following variables and save your changes to the file.

    Variable Value
    eventHubsCompatibleEndpoint Replace the value of the variable with the Event Hubs-compatible endpoint you made a note of earlier.
    eventHubsCompatiblePath Replace the value of the variable with the Event Hubs-compatible path you made a note of earlier.
    iotHubSasKey Replace the value of the variable with the service primary key you made a note of earlier.
  3. In the local terminal window, run the following commands to install the required libraries and build the back-end application:

    mvn clean package
    
  4. In the local terminal window, run the following commands to run the back-end application:

    java -jar target/read-d2c-messages-1.0.0-with-deps.jar
    

    The following screenshot shows the output as the back-end application receives telemetry sent by the simulated device to the hub:

    Output as back-end application receives telemetry sent to your IoT hub

Clean up resources

If you will be continuing to the next recommended article, you can keep the resources you've already created and reuse them.

Otherwise, you can delete the Azure resources created in this article to avoid charges.

Important

Deleting a resource group is irreversible. The resource group and all the resources contained in it are permanently deleted. Make sure that you do not accidentally delete the wrong resource group or resources. If you created the IoT Hub inside an existing resource group that contains resources you want to keep, only delete the IoT Hub resource itself instead of deleting the resource group.

To delete a resource group by name:

  1. Sign in to the Azure portal and select Resource groups.

  2. In the Filter by name textbox, type the name of the resource group containing your IoT Hub.

  3. To the right of your resource group in the result list, select ... then Delete resource group.

    Delete

  4. You will be asked to confirm the deletion of the resource group. Type the name of your resource group again to confirm, and then select Delete. After a few moments, the resource group and all of its contained resources are deleted.

Next steps

In this quickstart, you set up an IoT hub, registered a device, sent simulated telemetry to the hub using a Java application, and read the telemetry from the hub using a simple back-end application.

To learn how to control your simulated device from a back-end application, continue to the next quickstart.