SQL Data Warehouse capacity limits

The following tables contain the maximum values allowed for various components of Azure SQL Data Warehouse.

Workload management

Category Description Maximum
Data Warehouse Units (DWU) Max DWU for a single SQL Data Warehouse 6000
Data Warehouse Units (DWU) Max DWU for a single SQL server 6000 by default

By default, each SQL server (e.g. myserver.database.windows.net) has a DTU Quota of 45,000 which allows up to 6000 DWU. This quota is simply a safety limit. You can increase your quota by creating a support ticket and selecting Quota as the request type. To calculate your DTU needs, multiply the 7.5 by the total DWU needed. You can view your current DTU consumption from the SQL server blade in the portal. Both paused and un-paused databases count toward the DTU quota.
Database connection Concurrent open sessions 1024

We support a maximum of 1024 active connections, each of which can submit requests to a SQL Data Warehouse database at the same time. Note, that there are limits on the number of queries that can actually execute concurrently. When the concurrency limit is exceeded, the request goes into an internal queue where it waits to be processed.
Database connection Maximum memory for prepared statements 20 MB
Workload management Maximum concurrent queries 32

By default, SQL Data Warehouse can execute a maximum of 32 concurrent queries and queues remaining queries.

The concurrency level may decrease when users are assigned to a higher resource class or when SQL Data Warehouse is configured with low DWU. Some queries, like DMV queries, are always allowed to run.
Tempdb Max size of Tempdb 399 GB per DW100. Therefore at DWU1000 Tempdb is sized to 3.99 TB

Database objects

Category Description Maximum
Database Max size 240 TB compressed on disk

This space is independent of tempdb or log space, and therefore this space is dedicated to permanent tables. Clustered columnstore compression is estimated at 5X. This compression allows the database to grow to approximately 1 PB when all tables are clustered columnstore (the default table type).
Table Max size 60 TB compressed on disk
Table Tables per database 2 billion
Table Columns per table 1024 columns
Table Bytes per column Dependent on column data type. Limit is 8000 for char data types, 4000 for nvarchar, or 2 GB for MAX data types.
Table Bytes per row, defined size 8060 bytes

The number of bytes per row is calculated in the same manner as it is for SQL Server with page compression. Like SQL Server, SQL Data Warehouse supports row-overflow storage which enables variable length columns to be pushed off-row. When variable length rows are pushed off-row, only 24-byte root is stored in the main record. For more information, see the Row-Overflow Data Exceeding 8 KB MSDN article.
Table Partitions per table 15,000

For high performance, we recommend minimizing the number of partitions you need while still supporting your business requirements. As the number of partitions grows, the overhead for Data Definition Language (DDL) and Data Manipulation Language (DML) operations grows and causes slower performance.
Table Characters per partition boundary value. 4000
Index Non-clustered indexes per table. 999

Applies to rowstore tables only.
Index Clustered indexes per table. 1

Applies to both rowstore and columnstore tables.
Index Index key size. 900 bytes.

Applies to rowstore indexes only.

Indexes on varchar columns with a maximum size of more than 900 bytes can be created if the existing data in the columns does not exceed 900 bytes when the index is created. However, later INSERT or UPDATE actions on the columns that cause the total size to exceed 900 bytes will fail.
Index Key columns per index. 16

Applies to rowstore indexes only. Clustered columnstore indexes include all columns.
Statistics Size of the combined column values. 900 bytes.
Statistics Columns per statistics object. 32
Statistics Statistics created on columns per table. 30,000
Stored Procedures Maximum levels of nesting. 8
View Columns per view 1,024

Loads

Category Description Maximum
Polybase Loads MB per row 1

Polybase loads are limited to loading rows both smaller than 1MB and cannot load to VARCHR(MAX), NVARCHAR(MAX) or VARBINARY(MAX).

Queries

Category Description Maximum
Query Queued queries on user tables. 1000
Query Concurrent queries on system views. 100
Query Queued queries on system views 1000
Query Maximum parameters 2098
Batch Maximum size 65,536*4096
SELECT results Columns per row 4096

You can never have more than 4096 columns per row in the SELECT result. There is no guarantee that you can always have 4096. If the query plan requires a temporary table, the 1024 columns per table maximum might apply.
SELECT Nested subqueries 32

You can never have more than 32 nested subqueries in a SELECT statement. There is no guarantee that you can always have 32. For example, a JOIN can introduce a subquery into the query plan. The number of subqueries can also be limited by available memory.
SELECT Columns per JOIN 1024 columns

You can never have more than 1024 columns in the JOIN. There is no guarantee that you can always have 1024. If the JOIN plan requires a temporary table with more columns than the JOIN result, the 1024 limit applies to the temporary table.
SELECT Bytes per GROUP BY columns. 8060

The columns in the GROUP BY clause can have a maximum of 8060 bytes.
SELECT Bytes per ORDER BY columns 8060 bytes.

The columns in the ORDER BY clause can have a maximum of 8060 bytes.
Identifiers and constants per statement Number of referenced identifiers and constants. 65,535

SQL Data Warehouse limits the number of identifiers and constants that can be contained in a single expression of a query. This limit is 65,535. Exceeding this number results in SQL Server error 8632. For more information, see Internal error: An expression services limit has been reached.

Metadata

System view Maximum rows
sys.dm_pdw_component_health_alerts 10,000
sys.dm_pdw_dms_cores 100
sys.dm_pdw_dms_workers Total number of DMS workers for the most recent 1000 SQL requests.
sys.dm_pdw_errors 10,000
sys.dm_pdw_exec_requests 10,000
sys.dm_pdw_exec_sessions 10,000
sys.dm_pdw_request_steps Total number of steps for the most recent 1000 SQL requests that are stored in sys.dm_pdw_exec_requests.
sys.dm_pdw_os_event_logs 10,000
sys.dm_pdw_sql_requests The most recent 1000 SQL requests that are stored in sys.dm_pdw_exec_requests.

Next steps

For more reference information, see SQL Data Warehouse reference overview.