AppDomain.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap AppDomain.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap AppDomain.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap AppDomain.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap Method

Definition

Creates a new instance of a specified type.

Overloads

CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String)

Creates a new instance of the specified type. Parameters specify the assembly where the type is defined, and the name of the type.

CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Object[]) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Object[]) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Object[]) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Object[])

Creates a new instance of the specified type. Parameters specify the assembly where the type is defined, the name of the type, and an array of activation attributes.

CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Boolean, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo, Object[]) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Boolean, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo, Object[]) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Boolean, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo, Object[])

Creates a new instance of the specified type defined in the specified assembly, specifying whether the case of the type name is ignored; the binding attributes and the binder that are used to select the type to be created; the arguments of the constructor; the culture; and the activation attributes.

CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Boolean, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo, Object[], Evidence) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Boolean, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo, Object[], Evidence) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Boolean, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo, Object[], Evidence)

Creates a new instance of the specified type. Parameters specify the name of the type, and how it is found and created.

CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String)

Creates a new instance of the specified type. Parameters specify the assembly where the type is defined, and the name of the type.

public:
 System::Object ^ CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(System::String ^ assemblyName, System::String ^ typeName);
public object CreateInstanceAndUnwrap (string assemblyName, string typeName);
member this.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap : string * string -> obj
Public Function CreateInstanceAndUnwrap (assemblyName As String, typeName As String) As Object

Parameters

assemblyName
String String String String

The display name of the assembly. See FullName.

typeName
String String String String

The fully qualified name of the requested type, including the namespace but not the assembly, as returned by the FullName property.

Returns

An instance of the object specified by typeName.

Exceptions

The caller does not have permission to call this constructor.

assemblyName is not a valid assembly.

-or-

Version 2.0 or later of the common language runtime is currently loaded and assemblyName was compiled with a later version.

An assembly or module was loaded twice with two different evidences.

Examples

The following code example shows the simplest way to execute code in another application domain. The example defines a class named Worker that inherits from MarshalByRefObject. The Worker class defines a method that displays the name of the application domain in which it is executing. The example creates instances of Worker in the default application domain and in a new application domain.

Note

The assembly that contains Worker must be loaded into both application domains, but it can load other assemblies that exist only in the new application domain.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Reflection;

public ref class Worker : MarshalByRefObject
{
public:
    void PrintDomain() 
    { 
        Console::WriteLine("Object is executing in AppDomain \"{0}\"",
            AppDomain::CurrentDomain->FriendlyName); 
    }
};
 
void main()
{
    // Create an ordinary instance in the current AppDomain
    Worker^ localWorker = gcnew Worker();
    localWorker->PrintDomain();
 
    // Create a new application domain, create an instance
    // of Worker in the application domain, and execute code
    // there.
    AppDomain^ ad = AppDomain::CreateDomain("New domain");
    Worker^ remoteWorker = (Worker^) ad->CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(
        Worker::typeid->Assembly->FullName,
        "Worker");
    remoteWorker->PrintDomain();
}

/* This code produces output similar to the following:

Object is executing in AppDomain "source.exe"
Object is executing in AppDomain "New domain"
 */
using System;
using System.Reflection;
 
public class Worker : MarshalByRefObject
{
    public void PrintDomain() 
    { 
        Console.WriteLine("Object is executing in AppDomain \"{0}\"",
            AppDomain.CurrentDomain.FriendlyName); 
    }
}
 
class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Create an ordinary instance in the current AppDomain
        Worker localWorker = new Worker();
        localWorker.PrintDomain();
 
        // Create a new application domain, create an instance
        // of Worker in the application domain, and execute code
        // there.
        AppDomain ad = AppDomain.CreateDomain("New domain");
        Worker remoteWorker = (Worker) ad.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(
            typeof(Worker).Assembly.FullName,
            "Worker");
        remoteWorker.PrintDomain();
    }
}

/* This code produces output similar to the following:

Object is executing in AppDomain "source.exe"
Object is executing in AppDomain "New domain"
 */
Imports System.Reflection

Public Class Worker
    Inherits MarshalByRefObject
    
    Public Sub PrintDomain() 
        Console.WriteLine("Object is executing in AppDomain ""{0}""", _
            AppDomain.CurrentDomain.FriendlyName)
    End Sub 
End Class 

Class Example
    
    Public Shared Sub Main() 
        ' Create an ordinary instance in the current AppDomain
        Dim localWorker As New Worker()
        localWorker.PrintDomain()
        
        ' Create a new application domain, create an instance
        ' of Worker in the application domain, and execute code
        ' there.
        Dim ad As AppDomain = AppDomain.CreateDomain("New domain")
        Dim remoteWorker As Worker = CType( _
            ad.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap( _
                GetType(Worker).Assembly.FullName, _
                "Worker"), _
            Worker)
        remoteWorker.PrintDomain()
    
    End Sub 
End Class 

' This code produces output similar to the following:
'
'Object is executing in AppDomain "source.exe"
'Object is executing in AppDomain "New domain"

Remarks

This is a convenience method that combines CreateInstance and ObjectHandle.Unwrap. This method calls the default constructor for typeName.

See AssemblyName for the format of assemblyName. See the Type.FullName property for the format of typeName.

Note

If you make an early-bound call to a method M of an object of type T1 that was returned by CreateInstanceAndUnwrap, and that method makes an early-bound call to a method of an object of type T2 in an assembly C other than the current assembly or the assembly containing T1, assembly C is loaded into the current application domain. This loading occurs even if the early-bound call to T1.M() was made in the body of a DynamicMethod, or in other dynamically generated code. If the current domain is the default domain, assembly C cannot be unloaded until the process ends. If the current domain later attempts to load assembly C, the load might fail.

Security

FileIOPermissionAccess
for the ability to read the file containing the assembly manifest, or if you are creating a type from a module other than the manifest file. Associated enumeration: Read

WebPermission
for the ability to access the location of the assembly if the assembly is not local.

See Also

CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Object[]) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Object[]) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Object[]) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Object[])

Creates a new instance of the specified type. Parameters specify the assembly where the type is defined, the name of the type, and an array of activation attributes.

public:
 System::Object ^ CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(System::String ^ assemblyName, System::String ^ typeName, cli::array <System::Object ^> ^ activationAttributes);
public object CreateInstanceAndUnwrap (string assemblyName, string typeName, object[] activationAttributes);
member this.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap : string * string * obj[] -> obj
Public Function CreateInstanceAndUnwrap (assemblyName As String, typeName As String, activationAttributes As Object()) As Object

Parameters

assemblyName
String String String String

The display name of the assembly. See FullName.

typeName
String String String String

The fully qualified name of the requested type, including the namespace but not the assembly, as returned by the FullName property.

activationAttributes
Object[]

An array of one or more attributes that can participate in activation. Typically, an array that contains a single UrlAttribute object that specifies the URL that is required to activate a remote object.

This parameter is related to client-activated objects.Client activation is a legacy technology that is retained for backward compatibility but is not recommended for new development. Distributed applications should instead use Windows Communication Foundation.

Returns

An instance of the object specified by typeName.

Exceptions

The caller does not have permission to call this constructor.

The caller cannot provide activation attributes for an object that does not inherit from MarshalByRefObject.

assemblyName is not a valid assembly.

-or-

Version 2.0 or later of the common language runtime is currently loaded and assemblyName was compiled with a later version.

An assembly or module was loaded twice with two different evidences.

Examples

using namespace System;
using namespace System::IO;
using namespace System::Threading;
using namespace System::Reflection;
using namespace System::Reflection::Emit;
using namespace System::Runtime::Remoting;

ref class ADDyno
{
public:
   static Type^ CreateADynamicAssembly( interior_ptr<AppDomain^> myNewDomain, String^ executableNameNoExe )
   {
      String^ executableName = String::Concat( executableNameNoExe, ".exe" );
      AssemblyName^ myAsmName = gcnew AssemblyName;
      myAsmName->Name = executableNameNoExe;
      myAsmName->CodeBase = Environment::CurrentDirectory;
      AssemblyBuilder^ myAsmBuilder = ( *myNewDomain)->DefineDynamicAssembly( myAsmName, AssemblyBuilderAccess::RunAndSave );
      Console::WriteLine( "-- Dynamic Assembly instantiated." );
      ModuleBuilder^ myModBuilder = myAsmBuilder->DefineDynamicModule( executableNameNoExe, executableName );
      TypeBuilder^ myTypeBuilder = myModBuilder->DefineType( executableNameNoExe, TypeAttributes::Public, MarshalByRefObject::typeid );
      array<Type^>^temp0 = nullptr;
      MethodBuilder^ myFCMethod = myTypeBuilder->DefineMethod( "CountLocalFiles", static_cast<MethodAttributes>(MethodAttributes::Public | MethodAttributes::Static), nullptr, temp0 );
      MethodInfo^ currentDirGetMI = Environment::typeid->GetProperty( "CurrentDirectory" )->GetGetMethod();
      array<Type^>^temp1 = {String::typeid};
      MethodInfo^ writeLine0objMI = Console::typeid->GetMethod( "WriteLine", temp1 );
      array<Type^>^temp2 = {String::typeid,Object::typeid,Object::typeid};
      MethodInfo^ writeLine2objMI = Console::typeid->GetMethod( "WriteLine", temp2 );
      array<Type^>^temp3 = {String::typeid};
      MethodInfo^ getFilesMI = Directory::typeid->GetMethod( "GetFiles", temp3 );
      myFCMethod->InitLocals = true;
      ILGenerator^ myFCIL = myFCMethod->GetILGenerator();
      Console::WriteLine( "-- Generating MSIL method body..." );
      LocalBuilder^ v0 = myFCIL->DeclareLocal( String::typeid );
      LocalBuilder^ v1 = myFCIL->DeclareLocal( int::typeid );
      LocalBuilder^ v2 = myFCIL->DeclareLocal( String::typeid );
      LocalBuilder^ v3 = myFCIL->DeclareLocal( array<String^>::typeid );
      Label evalForEachLabel = myFCIL->DefineLabel();
      Label topOfForEachLabel = myFCIL->DefineLabel();

      // Build the method body.
      myFCIL->EmitCall( OpCodes::Call, currentDirGetMI, nullptr );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Stloc_S, v0 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldc_I4_0 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Stloc_S, v1 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldstr, "---" );
      myFCIL->EmitCall( OpCodes::Call, writeLine0objMI, nullptr );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldloc_S, v0 );
      myFCIL->EmitCall( OpCodes::Call, getFilesMI, nullptr );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Stloc_S, v3 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Br_S, evalForEachLabel );

      // foreach loop starts here.
      myFCIL->MarkLabel( topOfForEachLabel );

      // Load array of strings and index, store value at index for output.
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldloc_S, v3 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldloc_S, v1 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldelem_Ref );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Stloc_S, v2 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldloc_S, v2 );
      myFCIL->EmitCall( OpCodes::Call, writeLine0objMI, nullptr );

      // Increment counter by one.
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldloc_S, v1 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldc_I4_1 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Add );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Stloc_S, v1 );

      // Determine if end of file list array has been reached.
      myFCIL->MarkLabel( evalForEachLabel );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldloc_S, v1 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldloc_S, v3 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldlen );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Conv_I4 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Blt_S, topOfForEachLabel );

      //foreach loop end here.
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldstr, "---" );
      myFCIL->EmitCall( OpCodes::Call, writeLine0objMI, nullptr );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldstr, "There are {0} files in {1}." );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldloc_S, v1 );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Box, int::typeid );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ldloc_S, v0 );
      myFCIL->EmitCall( OpCodes::Call, writeLine2objMI, nullptr );
      myFCIL->Emit( OpCodes::Ret );
      Type^ myType = myTypeBuilder->CreateType();
      myAsmBuilder->SetEntryPoint( myFCMethod );
      myAsmBuilder->Save( executableName );
      Console::WriteLine( "-- Method generated, type completed, and assembly saved to disk." );
      return myType;
   }
};

int main()
{
   String^ domainDir;
   String^ executableName = nullptr;
   Console::Write( "Enter a name for the file counting assembly: " );
   String^ executableNameNoExe = Console::ReadLine();
   executableName = String::Concat( executableNameNoExe, ".exe" );
   Console::WriteLine( "---" );
   domainDir = Environment::CurrentDirectory;
   AppDomain^ curDomain = Thread::GetDomain();

   // Create a new AppDomain, with the current directory as the base.
   Console::WriteLine( "Current Directory: {0}", Environment::CurrentDirectory );
   AppDomainSetup^ mySetupInfo = gcnew AppDomainSetup;
   mySetupInfo->ApplicationBase = domainDir;
   mySetupInfo->ApplicationName = executableNameNoExe;
   mySetupInfo->LoaderOptimization = LoaderOptimization::SingleDomain;
   AppDomain^ myDomain = AppDomain::CreateDomain( executableNameNoExe, nullptr, mySetupInfo );
   Console::WriteLine( "Creating a new AppDomain '{0}'...", executableNameNoExe );
   Console::WriteLine( "-- Base Directory = '{0}'", myDomain->BaseDirectory );
   Console::WriteLine( "-- Shadow Copy? = '{0}'", myDomain->ShadowCopyFiles );
   Console::WriteLine( "---" );
   Type^ myFCType = ADDyno::CreateADynamicAssembly(  &curDomain, executableNameNoExe );
   Console::WriteLine( "Loading '{0}' from '{1}'...", executableName, myDomain->BaseDirectory );
   BindingFlags bFlags = static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::Public | BindingFlags::CreateInstance | BindingFlags::Instance);
   Object^ myObjInstance = myDomain->CreateInstanceAndUnwrap( executableNameNoExe, executableNameNoExe, false, bFlags, nullptr, nullptr, nullptr, nullptr, nullptr );
   Console::WriteLine( "Executing method 'CountLocalFiles' in {0}...", myObjInstance );
   array<Object^>^temp4 = nullptr;
   myFCType->InvokeMember( "CountLocalFiles", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, myObjInstance, temp4 );
}

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Threading;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Reflection.Emit;
using System.Runtime.Remoting;

class ADDyno

{

   public static Type CreateADynamicAssembly(ref AppDomain myNewDomain,
					     string executableNameNoExe)
   {

	string executableName = executableNameNoExe + ".exe";

	AssemblyName myAsmName = new AssemblyName();
	myAsmName.Name = executableNameNoExe;
	myAsmName.CodeBase = Environment.CurrentDirectory;

	AssemblyBuilder myAsmBuilder = myNewDomain.DefineDynamicAssembly(myAsmName,
						AssemblyBuilderAccess.RunAndSave);
	Console.WriteLine("-- Dynamic Assembly instantiated.");

	ModuleBuilder myModBuilder = myAsmBuilder.DefineDynamicModule(executableNameNoExe,
								      executableName);

	TypeBuilder myTypeBuilder = myModBuilder.DefineType(executableNameNoExe,
						TypeAttributes.Public,
						typeof(MarshalByRefObject));

	MethodBuilder myFCMethod = myTypeBuilder.DefineMethod("CountLocalFiles",
						MethodAttributes.Public |
						MethodAttributes.Static,
						null,
						new Type[] {  });

	MethodInfo currentDirGetMI = typeof(Environment).GetProperty("CurrentDirectory").GetGetMethod();
	MethodInfo writeLine0objMI = typeof(Console).GetMethod("WriteLine",
				     new Type[] { typeof(string) });
	MethodInfo writeLine2objMI = typeof(Console).GetMethod("WriteLine",
				     new Type[] { typeof(string), typeof(object), typeof(object) });
	MethodInfo getFilesMI = typeof(Directory).GetMethod("GetFiles", 
				new Type[] { typeof(string) });

	myFCMethod.InitLocals = true;

	ILGenerator myFCIL = myFCMethod.GetILGenerator();

	Console.WriteLine("-- Generating MSIL method body...");
	LocalBuilder v0 = myFCIL.DeclareLocal(typeof(string));
	LocalBuilder v1 = myFCIL.DeclareLocal(typeof(int));
	LocalBuilder v2 = myFCIL.DeclareLocal(typeof(string));
	LocalBuilder v3 = myFCIL.DeclareLocal(typeof(string[]));

	Label evalForEachLabel = myFCIL.DefineLabel();
	Label topOfForEachLabel = myFCIL.DefineLabel();

	// Build the method body.

	myFCIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, currentDirGetMI, null);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, v0);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldc_I4_0);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, v1);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldstr, "---");
	myFCIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeLine0objMI, null);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v0);
	myFCIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, getFilesMI, null);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, v3);

	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Br_S, evalForEachLabel);

	// foreach loop starts here.
	myFCIL.MarkLabel(topOfForEachLabel);
	
        // Load array of strings and index, store value at index for output.
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v3);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v1);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldelem_Ref);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, v2);

	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v2);
	myFCIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeLine0objMI, null);

	// Increment counter by one.
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v1);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldc_I4_1);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Add);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, v1);

	// Determine if end of file list array has been reached.
	myFCIL.MarkLabel(evalForEachLabel);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v1);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v3);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldlen);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Conv_I4);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Blt_S, topOfForEachLabel);
	//foreach loop end here.

	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldstr, "---");
	myFCIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeLine0objMI, null);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldstr, "There are {0} files in {1}.");
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v1);
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Box, typeof(int));
	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v0);
	myFCIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeLine2objMI, null);

	myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ret);

	Type myType = myTypeBuilder.CreateType();

	myAsmBuilder.SetEntryPoint(myFCMethod);
	myAsmBuilder.Save(executableName);		
	Console.WriteLine("-- Method generated, type completed, and assembly saved to disk."); 

	return myType;

   }

   public static void Main() 
   {

	string domainDir, executableName = null;
	
	Console.Write("Enter a name for the file counting assembly: ");
	string executableNameNoExe = Console.ReadLine();
	executableName = executableNameNoExe + ".exe";
	Console.WriteLine("---");

	domainDir = Environment.CurrentDirectory;

	AppDomain curDomain = Thread.GetDomain();	


	// Create a new AppDomain, with the current directory as the base.

	Console.WriteLine("Current Directory: {0}", Environment.CurrentDirectory);
	AppDomainSetup mySetupInfo = new AppDomainSetup();
	mySetupInfo.ApplicationBase = domainDir;
	mySetupInfo.ApplicationName = executableNameNoExe;
	mySetupInfo.LoaderOptimization = LoaderOptimization.SingleDomain;

	AppDomain myDomain = AppDomain.CreateDomain(executableNameNoExe,
					null, mySetupInfo);

	Console.WriteLine("Creating a new AppDomain '{0}'...",
					executableNameNoExe);

	Console.WriteLine("-- Base Directory = '{0}'", myDomain.BaseDirectory); 
	Console.WriteLine("-- Shadow Copy? = '{0}'", myDomain.ShadowCopyFiles); 

	Console.WriteLine("---");
	Type myFCType = CreateADynamicAssembly(ref curDomain, 
					 executableNameNoExe);

	Console.WriteLine("Loading '{0}' from '{1}'...", executableName,
			  myDomain.BaseDirectory.ToString());


	BindingFlags bFlags = (BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.CreateInstance |
			       BindingFlags.Instance);

	Object myObjInstance = myDomain.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(executableNameNoExe,
				executableNameNoExe, false, bFlags, 
				null, null, null, null, null);

	Console.WriteLine("Executing method 'CountLocalFiles' in {0}...",
			   myObjInstance.ToString());

	myFCType.InvokeMember("CountLocalFiles", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null,
				myObjInstance, new object[] { });
			
		
   }

}

Imports System
Imports System.IO
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Reflection
Imports System.Reflection.Emit
Imports System.Runtime.Remoting



Class ADDyno
   
   
   
   Public Shared Function CreateADynamicAssembly(ByRef myNewDomain As AppDomain, executableNameNoExe As String) As Type
      
      Dim executableName As String = executableNameNoExe + ".exe"
      
      Dim myAsmName As New AssemblyName()
      myAsmName.Name = executableNameNoExe
      myAsmName.CodeBase = Environment.CurrentDirectory
      
      Dim myAsmBuilder As AssemblyBuilder = myNewDomain.DefineDynamicAssembly(myAsmName, AssemblyBuilderAccess.RunAndSave)
      Console.WriteLine("-- Dynamic Assembly instantiated.")
      
      Dim myModBuilder As ModuleBuilder = myAsmBuilder.DefineDynamicModule(executableNameNoExe, executableName)
      
      Dim myTypeBuilder As TypeBuilder = myModBuilder.DefineType(executableNameNoExe, TypeAttributes.Public, GetType(MarshalByRefObject))
      
      Dim myFCMethod As MethodBuilder = myTypeBuilder.DefineMethod("CountLocalFiles", MethodAttributes.Public Or MethodAttributes.Static, Nothing, New Type() {})
      
      Dim currentDirGetMI As MethodInfo = GetType(Environment).GetProperty("CurrentDirectory").GetGetMethod()
      Dim writeLine0objMI As MethodInfo = GetType(Console).GetMethod("WriteLine", New Type() {GetType(String)})
      Dim writeLine2objMI As MethodInfo = GetType(Console).GetMethod("WriteLine", New Type() {GetType(String), GetType(Object), GetType(Object)})
      Dim getFilesMI As MethodInfo = GetType(Directory).GetMethod("GetFiles", New Type() {GetType(String)})
      
      myFCMethod.InitLocals = True
      
      Dim myFCIL As ILGenerator = myFCMethod.GetILGenerator()
      
      Console.WriteLine("-- Generating MSIL method body...")
      Dim v0 As LocalBuilder = myFCIL.DeclareLocal(GetType(String))
      Dim v1 As LocalBuilder = myFCIL.DeclareLocal(GetType(Integer))
      Dim v2 As LocalBuilder = myFCIL.DeclareLocal(GetType(String))
      Dim v3 As LocalBuilder = myFCIL.DeclareLocal(GetType(String()))
      
      Dim evalForEachLabel As Label = myFCIL.DefineLabel()
      Dim topOfForEachLabel As Label = myFCIL.DefineLabel()
      
      ' Build the method body.
      myFCIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, currentDirGetMI, Nothing)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, v0)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldc_I4_0)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, v1)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldstr, "---")
      myFCIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeLine0objMI, Nothing)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v0)
      myFCIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, getFilesMI, Nothing)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, v3)
      
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Br_S, evalForEachLabel)
      
      ' foreach loop starts here.
      myFCIL.MarkLabel(topOfForEachLabel)
      
      ' Load array of strings and index, store value at index for output.
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v3)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v1)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldelem_Ref)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, v2)
      
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v2)
      myFCIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeLine0objMI, Nothing)
      
      ' Increment counter by one.
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v1)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldc_I4_1)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Add)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stloc_S, v1)
      
      ' Determine if end of file list array has been reached.
      myFCIL.MarkLabel(evalForEachLabel)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v1)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v3)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldlen)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Conv_I4)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Blt_S, topOfForEachLabel)
      'foreach loop end here.
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldstr, "---")
      myFCIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeLine0objMI, Nothing)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldstr, "There are {0} files in {1}.")
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v1)
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Box, GetType(Integer))
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldloc_S, v0)
      myFCIL.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeLine2objMI, Nothing)
      
      myFCIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ret)
      
      Dim myType As Type = myTypeBuilder.CreateType()
      
      myAsmBuilder.SetEntryPoint(myFCMethod)
      myAsmBuilder.Save(executableName)
      Console.WriteLine("-- Method generated, type completed, and assembly saved to disk.")
      
      Return myType
   End Function 'CreateADynamicAssembly
    
   
   Public Shared Sub Main()
      
      Dim executableName As String = Nothing
      Dim domainDir As String
      
      Console.Write("Enter a name for the file counting assembly: ")
      Dim executableNameNoExe As String = Console.ReadLine()
      executableName = executableNameNoExe + ".exe"
      Console.WriteLine("---")
      
      domainDir = Environment.CurrentDirectory
      
      Dim curDomain As AppDomain = Thread.GetDomain()
      
      
      ' Create a new AppDomain, with the current directory as the base.
      Console.WriteLine("Current Directory: {0}", Environment.CurrentDirectory)
      Dim mySetupInfo As New AppDomainSetup()
      mySetupInfo.ApplicationBase = domainDir
      mySetupInfo.ApplicationName = executableNameNoExe
      mySetupInfo.LoaderOptimization = LoaderOptimization.SingleDomain
      
      Dim myDomain As AppDomain = AppDomain.CreateDomain(executableNameNoExe, Nothing, mySetupInfo)
      
      Console.WriteLine("Creating a new AppDomain '{0}'...", executableNameNoExe)
      
      Console.WriteLine("-- Base Directory = '{0}'", myDomain.BaseDirectory)
      Console.WriteLine("-- Shadow Copy? = '{0}'", myDomain.ShadowCopyFiles)
      
      Console.WriteLine("---")
      Dim myFCType As Type = CreateADynamicAssembly(curDomain, executableNameNoExe)
      
      Console.WriteLine("Loading '{0}' from '{1}'...", executableName, myDomain.BaseDirectory.ToString())
      
      
      Dim bFlags As BindingFlags = BindingFlags.Public Or BindingFlags.CreateInstance Or BindingFlags.Instance
      
      Dim myObjInstance As [Object] = myDomain.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(executableNameNoExe, executableNameNoExe, False, bFlags, Nothing, Nothing, Nothing, Nothing, Nothing)
      
      Console.WriteLine("Executing method 'CountLocalFiles' in {0}...", myObjInstance.ToString())
      
      myFCType.InvokeMember("CountLocalFiles", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, myObjInstance, New Object() {})
   End Sub 'Main
End Class 'ADDyno 



Remarks

This is a convenience method that combines CreateInstance and ObjectHandle.Unwrap. This method calls the default constructor for typeName.

See AssemblyName for the format of assemblyName. See the Type.FullName property for the format of typeName.

Note

If you make an early-bound call to a method M of an object of type T1 that was returned by CreateInstanceAndUnwrap, and that method makes an early-bound call to a method of an object of type T2 in an assembly C other than the current assembly or the assembly containing T1, assembly C is loaded into the current application domain. This loading occurs even if the early-bound call to T1.M() was made in the body of a DynamicMethod, or in other dynamically generated code. If the current domain is the default domain, assembly C cannot be unloaded until the process ends. If the current domain later attempts to load assembly C, the load might fail.

Security

FileIOPermissionAccess
for the ability to read the file containing the assembly manifest. Associated enumeration: Read

WebPermission
for the ability to access the location of the assembly if the assembly is not local.

SecurityPermission
for the ability to call unmanaged code when creating an instance of a delegate. Associated enumeration: UnmanagedCode

ReflectionPermission
for the ability to invoke operations on all type members. Associated enumeration: MemberAccess

See Also

CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Boolean, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo, Object[]) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Boolean, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo, Object[]) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Boolean, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo, Object[])

Creates a new instance of the specified type defined in the specified assembly, specifying whether the case of the type name is ignored; the binding attributes and the binder that are used to select the type to be created; the arguments of the constructor; the culture; and the activation attributes.

public:
 System::Object ^ CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(System::String ^ assemblyName, System::String ^ typeName, bool ignoreCase, System::Reflection::BindingFlags bindingAttr, System::Reflection::Binder ^ binder, cli::array <System::Object ^> ^ args, System::Globalization::CultureInfo ^ culture, cli::array <System::Object ^> ^ activationAttributes);
public object CreateInstanceAndUnwrap (string assemblyName, string typeName, bool ignoreCase, System.Reflection.BindingFlags bindingAttr, System.Reflection.Binder binder, object[] args, System.Globalization.CultureInfo culture, object[] activationAttributes);
member this.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap : string * string * bool * System.Reflection.BindingFlags * System.Reflection.Binder * obj[] * System.Globalization.CultureInfo * obj[] -> obj

Parameters

assemblyName
String String String String

The display name of the assembly. See FullName.

typeName
String String String String

The fully qualified name of the requested type, including the namespace but not the assembly, as returned by the FullName property.

ignoreCase
Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean

A Boolean value specifying whether to perform a case-sensitive search or not.

bindingAttr
BindingFlags BindingFlags BindingFlags BindingFlags

A combination of zero or more bit flags that affect the search for the typeName constructor. If bindingAttr is zero, a case-sensitive search for public constructors is conducted.

binder
Binder Binder Binder Binder

An object that enables the binding, coercion of argument types, invocation of members, and retrieval of MemberInfo objects using reflection. If binder is null, the default binder is used.

args
Object[]

The arguments to pass to the constructor. This array of arguments must match in number, order, and type the parameters of the constructor to invoke. If the default constructor is preferred, args must be an empty array or null.

culture
CultureInfo CultureInfo CultureInfo CultureInfo

A culture-specific object used to govern the coercion of types. If culture is null, the CultureInfo for the current thread is used.

activationAttributes
Object[]

An array of one or more attributes that can participate in activation. Typically, an array that contains a single UrlAttribute object. that specifies the URL that is required to activate a remote object.

This parameter is related to client-activated objects. Client activation is a legacy technology that is retained for backward compatibility but is not recommended for new development. Distributed applications should instead use Windows Communication Foundation.

Returns

An instance of the object specified by typeName.

Exceptions

The caller does not have permission to call this constructor.

The caller cannot provide activation attributes for an object that does not inherit from MarshalByRefObject.

assemblyName is not a valid assembly.

-or-

assemblyName was compiled with a later version of the common language runtime than the version that is currently loaded.

An assembly or module was loaded twice with two different evidences.

Examples

The following sample demonstrates the use of the ignoreCase parameter.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Reflection;
static void InstantiateINT32( bool ignoreCase )
{
   try
   {
      AppDomain^ currentDomain = AppDomain::CurrentDomain;
      Object^ instance = currentDomain->CreateInstanceAndUnwrap( 
         "mscorlib, Version=2.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089", 
         "SYSTEM.INT32", 
         ignoreCase, 
         BindingFlags::Default, 
         nullptr, 
         nullptr, 
         nullptr, 
         nullptr, 
         nullptr );
      Console::WriteLine( instance->GetType() );
   }
   catch ( TypeLoadException^ e ) 
   {
      Console::WriteLine( e->Message );
   }

}

int main()
{
   InstantiateINT32( false ); // Failed!
   InstantiateINT32( true ); // OK!
}

using System;
using System.Reflection;

class Test {

   static void Main() {
      InstantiateINT32(false);     // Failed!
      InstantiateINT32(true);      // OK!
   }
   
   static void InstantiateINT32(bool ignoreCase) {
      try {
         AppDomain currentDomain = AppDomain.CurrentDomain;
         object instance = currentDomain.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(
            "mscorlib, Version=2.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089",
            "SYSTEM.INT32",
            ignoreCase,
            BindingFlags.Default,
            null,
            null,
            null,
            null,
            null
         );
         Console.WriteLine(instance.GetType());
      } catch (TypeLoadException e) {
         Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
      }
   }
}
Imports System
Imports System.Reflection

Module Test

   Sub Main()
      InstantiateINT32(False)	' Failed!
      InstantiateINT32(True)	' OK!
   End Sub 'Main

   Sub InstantiateINT32(ignoreCase As Boolean)
      Try
         Dim currentDomain As AppDomain = AppDomain.CurrentDomain
         Dim instance As Object = currentDomain.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap( _
            "mscorlib, Version=2.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089", _
            "SYSTEM.INT32", _
            ignoreCase, _
            BindingFlags.Default, _
            Nothing, _
            Nothing, _
            Nothing, _
            Nothing, _
            Nothing  _
         )
         Console.WriteLine(instance.GetType())
      Catch e As TypeLoadException
         Console.WriteLine(e.Message)
      End Try
   End Sub 'InstantiateINT32

End Module 'Test

Remarks

This is a convenience method that combines CreateInstance and ObjectHandle.Unwrap.

See AssemblyName for the format of assemblyName. See the Type.FullName property for the format of typeName.

Note

If you make an early-bound call to a method M of an object of type T1 that was returned by CreateInstanceAndUnwrap, and that method makes an early-bound call to a method of an object of type T2 in an assembly C other than the current assembly or the assembly containing T1, assembly C is loaded into the current application domain. This loading occurs even if the early-bound call to T1.M() was made in the body of a DynamicMethod, or in other dynamically generated code. If the current domain is the default domain, assembly C cannot be unloaded until the process ends. If the current domain later attempts to load assembly C, the load might fail.

Security

FileIOPermissionAccess
for the ability to read the file containing the assembly manifest. Associated enumeration: Read

WebPermission
for the ability to access the location of the assembly if the assembly is not local.

SecurityPermission
for the ability to call unmanaged code when creating an instance of a delegate. Associated enumeration: UnmanagedCode

ReflectionPermission
for the ability to invoke operations on all type members. Associated enumeration: MemberAccess

See Also

CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Boolean, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo, Object[], Evidence) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Boolean, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo, Object[], Evidence) CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(String, String, Boolean, BindingFlags, Binder, Object[], CultureInfo, Object[], Evidence)

Warning

This API is now obsolete.

Creates a new instance of the specified type. Parameters specify the name of the type, and how it is found and created.

public:
 System::Object ^ CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(System::String ^ assemblyName, System::String ^ typeName, bool ignoreCase, System::Reflection::BindingFlags bindingAttr, System::Reflection::Binder ^ binder, cli::array <System::Object ^> ^ args, System::Globalization::CultureInfo ^ culture, cli::array <System::Object ^> ^ activationAttributes, System::Security::Policy::Evidence ^ securityAttributes);
[System.Obsolete("Use an overload that does not take an Evidence parameter")]
[System.Obsolete("Methods which use evidence to sandbox are obsolete and will be removed in a future release of the .NET Framework. Please use an overload of CreateInstanceAndUnwrap which does not take an Evidence parameter. See http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=155570 for more information.")]
public object CreateInstanceAndUnwrap (string assemblyName, string typeName, bool ignoreCase, System.Reflection.BindingFlags bindingAttr, System.Reflection.Binder binder, object[] args, System.Globalization.CultureInfo culture, object[] activationAttributes, System.Security.Policy.Evidence securityAttributes);
member this.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap : string * string * bool * System.Reflection.BindingFlags * System.Reflection.Binder * obj[] * System.Globalization.CultureInfo * obj[] * System.Security.Policy.Evidence -> obj

Parameters

assemblyName
String String String String

The display name of the assembly. See FullName.

typeName
String String String String

The fully qualified name of the requested type, including the namespace but not the assembly, as returned by the FullName property.

ignoreCase
Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean

A Boolean value specifying whether to perform a case-sensitive search or not.

bindingAttr
BindingFlags BindingFlags BindingFlags BindingFlags

A combination of zero or more bit flags that affect the search for the typeName constructor. If bindingAttr is zero, a case-sensitive search for public constructors is conducted.

binder
Binder Binder Binder Binder

An object that enables the binding, coercion of argument types, invocation of members, and retrieval of MemberInfo objects using reflection. If binder is null, the default binder is used.

args
Object[]

The arguments to pass to the constructor. This array of arguments must match in number, order, and type the parameters of the constructor to invoke. If the default constructor is preferred, args must be an empty array or null.

culture
CultureInfo CultureInfo CultureInfo CultureInfo

A culture-specific object used to govern the coercion of types. If culture is null, the CultureInfo for the current thread is used.

activationAttributes
Object[]

An array of one or more attributes that can participate in activation. Typically, an array that contains a single UrlAttribute object that specifies the URL that is required to activate a remote object.

This parameter is related to client-activated objects. Client activation is a legacy technology that is retained for backward compatibility but is not recommended for new development. Distributed applications should instead use Windows Communication Foundation.

securityAttributes
Evidence Evidence Evidence Evidence

Information used to authorize creation of typeName.

Returns

An instance of the object specified by typeName.

Exceptions

The caller does not have permission to call this constructor.

The caller cannot provide activation attributes for an object that does not inherit from MarshalByRefObject.

assemblyName is not a valid assembly.

-or-

Version 2.0 or later of the common language runtime is currently loaded and assemblyName was compiled with a later version.

An assembly or module was loaded twice with two different evidences.

Examples

The following sample demonstrates the use of the ignoreCase parameter.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Reflection;
static void InstantiateINT32( bool ignoreCase )
{
   try
   {
      AppDomain^ currentDomain = AppDomain::CurrentDomain;
      Object^ instance = currentDomain->CreateInstanceAndUnwrap( 
         "mscorlib, Version=2.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089", 
         "SYSTEM.INT32", 
         ignoreCase, 
         BindingFlags::Default, 
         nullptr, 
         nullptr, 
         nullptr, 
         nullptr, 
         nullptr );
      Console::WriteLine( instance->GetType() );
   }
   catch ( TypeLoadException^ e ) 
   {
      Console::WriteLine( e->Message );
   }

}

int main()
{
   InstantiateINT32( false ); // Failed!
   InstantiateINT32( true ); // OK!
}

using System;
using System.Reflection;

class Test {

   static void Main() {
      InstantiateINT32(false);     // Failed!
      InstantiateINT32(true);      // OK!
   }
   
   static void InstantiateINT32(bool ignoreCase) {
      try {
         AppDomain currentDomain = AppDomain.CurrentDomain;
         object instance = currentDomain.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap(
            "mscorlib, Version=2.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089",
            "SYSTEM.INT32",
            ignoreCase,
            BindingFlags.Default,
            null,
            null,
            null,
            null,
            null
         );
         Console.WriteLine(instance.GetType());
      } catch (TypeLoadException e) {
         Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
      }
   }
}
Imports System
Imports System.Reflection

Module Test

   Sub Main()
      InstantiateINT32(False)	' Failed!
      InstantiateINT32(True)	' OK!
   End Sub 'Main

   Sub InstantiateINT32(ignoreCase As Boolean)
      Try
         Dim currentDomain As AppDomain = AppDomain.CurrentDomain
         Dim instance As Object = currentDomain.CreateInstanceAndUnwrap( _
            "mscorlib, Version=2.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089", _
            "SYSTEM.INT32", _
            ignoreCase, _
            BindingFlags.Default, _
            Nothing, _
            Nothing, _
            Nothing, _
            Nothing, _
            Nothing  _
         )
         Console.WriteLine(instance.GetType())
      Catch e As TypeLoadException
         Console.WriteLine(e.Message)
      End Try
   End Sub 'InstantiateINT32

End Module 'Test

Remarks

This is a convenience method that combines CreateInstance and ObjectHandle.Unwrap.

See AssemblyName for the format of assemblyName. See the Type.FullName property for the format of typeName.

Note

If you make an early-bound call to a method M of an object of type T1 that was returned by CreateInstanceAndUnwrap, and that method makes an early-bound call to a method of an object of type T2 in an assembly C other than the current assembly or the assembly containing T1, assembly C is loaded into the current application domain. This loading occurs even if the early-bound call to T1.M() was made in the body of a DynamicMethod, or in other dynamically generated code. If the current domain is the default domain, assembly C cannot be unloaded until the process ends. If the current domain later attempts to load assembly C, the load might fail.

Security

FileIOPermissionAccess
for the ability to read the file containing the assembly manifest. Associated enumeration: Read

WebPermission
for the ability to access the location of the assembly if the assembly is not local.

SecurityPermission
to load an assembly with evidence. Associated enumeration: ControlEvidence.

ReflectionPermission
for the ability to invoke operations on all type members. Associated enumeration: MemberAccess

See Also

Applies to