Byte Struct

Definition

Represents an 8-bit unsigned integer.

public value class System::Byte : IComparable, IComparable<System::Byte>, IConvertible, IEquatable<System::Byte>, IFormattable
public value class System::Byte : IComparable, IComparable<System::Byte>, IConvertible, IEquatable<System::Byte>, ISpanFormattable
public value class System::Byte : IComparable<System::Byte>, IConvertible, IEquatable<System::Byte>, IParsable<System::Byte>, ISpanParsable<System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IAdditionOperators<System::Byte, System::Byte, System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IAdditiveIdentity<System::Byte, System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IBinaryInteger<System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IBinaryNumber<System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IBitwiseOperators<System::Byte, System::Byte, System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IComparisonOperators<System::Byte, System::Byte, bool>, System::Numerics::IDecrementOperators<System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IDivisionOperators<System::Byte, System::Byte, System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IEqualityOperators<System::Byte, System::Byte, bool>, System::Numerics::IIncrementOperators<System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IMinMaxValue<System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IModulusOperators<System::Byte, System::Byte, System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IMultiplicativeIdentity<System::Byte, System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IMultiplyOperators<System::Byte, System::Byte, System::Byte>, System::Numerics::INumber<System::Byte>, System::Numerics::INumberBase<System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IShiftOperators<System::Byte, int, System::Byte>, System::Numerics::ISubtractionOperators<System::Byte, System::Byte, System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IUnaryNegationOperators<System::Byte, System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IUnaryPlusOperators<System::Byte, System::Byte>, System::Numerics::IUnsignedNumber<System::Byte>
public value class System::Byte : IComparable, IConvertible, IFormattable
public value class System::Byte : IComparable, IComparable<System::Byte>, IEquatable<System::Byte>, IFormattable
public struct Byte : IComparable, IComparable<byte>, IConvertible, IEquatable<byte>, IFormattable
public readonly struct Byte : IComparable, IComparable<byte>, IConvertible, IEquatable<byte>, IFormattable
public readonly struct Byte : IComparable, IComparable<byte>, IConvertible, IEquatable<byte>, ISpanFormattable
public readonly struct Byte : IComparable<byte>, IConvertible, IEquatable<byte>, IParsable<byte>, ISpanParsable<byte>, System.Numerics.IAdditionOperators<byte,byte,byte>, System.Numerics.IAdditiveIdentity<byte,byte>, System.Numerics.IBinaryInteger<byte>, System.Numerics.IBinaryNumber<byte>, System.Numerics.IBitwiseOperators<byte,byte,byte>, System.Numerics.IComparisonOperators<byte,byte,bool>, System.Numerics.IDecrementOperators<byte>, System.Numerics.IDivisionOperators<byte,byte,byte>, System.Numerics.IEqualityOperators<byte,byte,bool>, System.Numerics.IIncrementOperators<byte>, System.Numerics.IMinMaxValue<byte>, System.Numerics.IModulusOperators<byte,byte,byte>, System.Numerics.IMultiplicativeIdentity<byte,byte>, System.Numerics.IMultiplyOperators<byte,byte,byte>, System.Numerics.INumber<byte>, System.Numerics.INumberBase<byte>, System.Numerics.IShiftOperators<byte,int,byte>, System.Numerics.ISubtractionOperators<byte,byte,byte>, System.Numerics.IUnaryNegationOperators<byte,byte>, System.Numerics.IUnaryPlusOperators<byte,byte>, System.Numerics.IUnsignedNumber<byte>
[System.Serializable]
public struct Byte : IComparable, IConvertible, IFormattable
[System.Serializable]
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
public struct Byte : IComparable, IComparable<byte>, IConvertible, IEquatable<byte>, IFormattable
public struct Byte : IComparable, IComparable<byte>, IEquatable<byte>, IFormattable
type byte = struct
    interface IConvertible
    interface IFormattable
type byte = struct
    interface IConvertible
    interface ISpanFormattable
    interface IFormattable
type byte = struct
    interface IConvertible
    interface IFormattable
    interface IParsable<byte>
    interface ISpanFormattable
    interface ISpanParsable<byte>
    interface IAdditionOperators<byte, byte, byte>
    interface IAdditiveIdentity<byte, byte>
    interface IBinaryInteger<byte>
    interface IBinaryNumber<byte>
    interface IBitwiseOperators<byte, byte, byte>
    interface IComparisonOperators<byte, byte, bool>
    interface IEqualityOperators<byte, byte, bool>
    interface IDecrementOperators<byte>
    interface IDivisionOperators<byte, byte, byte>
    interface IIncrementOperators<byte>
    interface IModulusOperators<byte, byte, byte>
    interface IMultiplicativeIdentity<byte, byte>
    interface IMultiplyOperators<byte, byte, byte>
    interface INumber<byte>
    interface INumberBase<byte>
    interface ISubtractionOperators<byte, byte, byte>
    interface IUnaryNegationOperators<byte, byte>
    interface IUnaryPlusOperators<byte, byte>
    interface IShiftOperators<byte, int, byte>
    interface IMinMaxValue<byte>
    interface IUnsignedNumber<byte>
[<System.Serializable>]
type byte = struct
    interface IFormattable
    interface IConvertible
[<System.Serializable>]
[<System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)>]
type byte = struct
    interface IFormattable
    interface IConvertible
type byte = struct
    interface IFormattable
Public Structure Byte
Implements IComparable, IComparable(Of Byte), IConvertible, IEquatable(Of Byte), IFormattable
Public Structure Byte
Implements IComparable, IComparable(Of Byte), IConvertible, IEquatable(Of Byte), ISpanFormattable
Public Structure Byte
Implements IAdditionOperators(Of Byte, Byte, Byte), IAdditiveIdentity(Of Byte, Byte), IBinaryInteger(Of Byte), IBinaryNumber(Of Byte), IBitwiseOperators(Of Byte, Byte, Byte), IComparable(Of Byte), IComparisonOperators(Of Byte, Byte, Boolean), IConvertible, IDecrementOperators(Of Byte), IDivisionOperators(Of Byte, Byte, Byte), IEqualityOperators(Of Byte, Byte, Boolean), IEquatable(Of Byte), IIncrementOperators(Of Byte), IMinMaxValue(Of Byte), IModulusOperators(Of Byte, Byte, Byte), IMultiplicativeIdentity(Of Byte, Byte), IMultiplyOperators(Of Byte, Byte, Byte), INumber(Of Byte), INumberBase(Of Byte), IParsable(Of Byte), IShiftOperators(Of Byte, Integer, Byte), ISpanParsable(Of Byte), ISubtractionOperators(Of Byte, Byte, Byte), IUnaryNegationOperators(Of Byte, Byte), IUnaryPlusOperators(Of Byte, Byte), IUnsignedNumber(Of Byte)
Public Structure Byte
Implements IComparable, IConvertible, IFormattable
Public Structure Byte
Implements IComparable, IComparable(Of Byte), IEquatable(Of Byte), IFormattable
Inheritance
Attributes
Implements

Remarks

Byte is an immutable value type that represents unsigned integers with values that range from 0 (which is represented by the Byte.MinValue constant) to 255 (which is represented by the Byte.MaxValue constant). .NET also includes a signed 8-bit integer value type, SByte, which represents values that range from -128 to 127.

Instantiating a Byte Value

You can instantiate a Byte value in several ways:

  • You can declare a Byte variable and assign it a literal integer value that is within the range of the Byte data type. The following example declares two Byte variables and assigns them values in this way.

    byte value1 = 64;
    byte value2 = 255;
    
    let value1 = 64uy
    let value2 = 255uy
    
    Dim value1 As Byte = 64
    Dim value2 As Byte = 255
    
  • You can assign a non-byte numeric value to a byte. This is a narrowing conversion, so it requires a cast operator in C# and F#, or a conversion method in Visual Basic if Option Strict is on. If the non-byte value is a Single, Double, or Decimal value that includes a fractional component, the handling of its fractional part depends on the compiler performing the conversion. The following example assigns several numeric values to Byte variables.

    int int1 = 128;
    try {
       byte value1 = (byte) int1;
       Console.WriteLine(value1);
    }
    catch (OverflowException) {
       Console.WriteLine("{0} is out of range of a byte.", int1);
    }
    
    double dbl2 = 3.997;
    try {
       byte value2 = (byte) dbl2;
       Console.WriteLine(value2);
    }
    catch (OverflowException) {
       Console.WriteLine("{0} is out of range of a byte.", dbl2);
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //       128
    //       3
    
    let int1 = 128
    try
        let value1 = byte int1
        printfn $"{value1}"
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"{int1} is out of range of a byte."
    
    let dbl2 = 3.997
    try
        let value2 = byte dbl2
        printfn $"{value2}"
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"{dbl2} is out of range of a byte."
    
    // The example displays the following output:
    //       128
    //       3
    
    Dim int1 As Integer = 128
    Try
       Dim value1 As Byte = CByte(int1)
       Console.WriteLine(value1)
    Catch e As OverflowException
       Console.WriteLine("{0} is out of range of a byte.", int1)
    End Try
    
    Dim dbl2 As Double = 3.997
    Try
       Dim value2 As Byte = CByte(dbl2)
       Console.WriteLine(value2)
    Catch e As OverflowException
       Console.WriteLine("{0} is out of range of a byte.", dbl2)
    End Try   
    ' The example displays the following output:
    '       128
    '       4
    
  • You can call a method of the Convert class to convert any supported type to a Byte value. This is possible because Byte supports the IConvertible interface. The following example illustrates the conversion of an array of Int32 values to Byte values.

    int[] numbers = { Int32.MinValue, -1, 0, 121, 340, Int32.MaxValue };
    byte result;
    foreach (int number in numbers)
    {
       try {
          result = Convert.ToByte(number);
          Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.",
                            number.GetType().Name, number,
                            result.GetType().Name, result);
       }
       catch (OverflowException) {
          Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Byte type.",
                            number.GetType().Name, number);
       }
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //       The Int32 value -2147483648 is outside the range of the Byte type.
    //       The Int32 value -1 is outside the range of the Byte type.
    //       Converted the Int32 value 0 to the Byte value 0.
    //       Converted the Int32 value 121 to the Byte value 121.
    //       The Int32 value 340 is outside the range of the Byte type.
    //       The Int32 value 2147483647 is outside the range of the Byte type.
    
    open System
    
    let numbers = [| Int32.MinValue; -1; 0; 121; 340; Int32.MaxValue |]
    
    for number in numbers do
        try
            let result = Convert.ToByte number
            printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    
        with :? OverflowException ->
            printfn $"The {number.GetType().Name} value {number} is outside the range of the Byte type."
    
    
    // The example displays the following output:
    //       The Int32 value -2147483648 is outside the range of the Byte type.
    //       The Int32 value -1 is outside the range of the Byte type.
    //       Converted the Int32 value 0 to the Byte value 0.
    //       Converted the Int32 value 121 to the Byte value 121.
    //       The Int32 value 340 is outside the range of the Byte type.
    //       The Int32 value 2147483647 is outside the range of the Byte type.
    
    Dim numbers() As Integer = { Int32.MinValue, -1, 0, 121, 340, Int32.MaxValue }
    Dim result As Byte
    For Each number As Integer In numbers
       Try
          result = Convert.ToByte(number)
          Console.WriteLIne("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                            number.GetType().Name, number, _
                            result.GetType().Name, result)
       Catch e As OverflowException
          Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Byte type.", _
                            number.GetType().Name, number)
       End Try
    Next
    ' The example displays the following output:
    '       The Int32 value -2147483648 is outside the range of the Byte type.
    '       The Int32 value -1 is outside the range of the Byte type.
    '       Converted the Int32 value 0 to the Byte value 0.
    '       Converted the Int32 value 121 to the Byte value 121.
    '       The Int32 value 340 is outside the range of the Byte type.
    '       The Int32 value 2147483647 is outside the range of the Byte type.
    
  • You can call the Parse or TryParse method to convert the string representation of a Byte value to a Byte. The string can contain either decimal or hexadecimal digits. The following example illustrates the parse operation by using both a decimal and a hexadecimal string.

    string string1 = "244";
    try {
       byte byte1 = Byte.Parse(string1);
       Console.WriteLine(byte1);
    }
    catch (OverflowException) {
       Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is out of range of a byte.", string1);
    }
    catch (FormatException) {
       Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is out of range of a byte.", string1);
    }
    
    string string2 = "F9";
    try {
       byte byte2 = Byte.Parse(string2,
                               System.Globalization.NumberStyles.HexNumber);
       Console.WriteLine(byte2);
    }
    catch (OverflowException) {
       Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is out of range of a byte.", string2);
    }
    catch (FormatException) {
       Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is out of range of a byte.", string2);
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //       244
    //       249
    
    let string1 = "244"
    try
        let byte1 = Byte.Parse string1
        printfn $"{byte1}" 
    with
    | :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"'{string1}' is out of range of a byte."
    | :? FormatException ->
        printfn $"'{string1}' is out of range of a byte."
    
    let string2 = "F9"
    try
        let byte2 = Byte.Parse(string2, System.Globalization.NumberStyles.HexNumber)
        printfn $"{byte2}"
    with
    | :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"'{string2}' is out of range of a byte."
    | :? FormatException ->
        printfn $"'{string2}' is out of range of a byte."
    
    // The example displays the following output:
    //       244
    //       249
    
    Dim string1 As String = "244"
    Try
       Dim byte1 As Byte = Byte.Parse(string1)
       Console.WriteLine(byte1)
    Catch e As OverflowException
       Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is out of range of a byte.", string1)
    Catch e As FormatException
       Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is out of range of a byte.", string1)
    End Try
    
    Dim string2 As String = "F9"
    Try
       Dim byte2 As Byte = Byte.Parse(string2,
                                 System.Globalization.NumberStyles.HexNumber)
       Console.WriteLine(byte2)
    Catch e As OverflowException
       Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is out of range of a byte.", string2)
    Catch e As FormatException
       Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is out of range of a byte.", string2)
    End Try
    ' The example displays the following output:
    '       244
    '       249
    

Performing Operations on Byte Values

The Byte type supports standard mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, subtraction, negation, and unary negation. Like the other integral types, the Byte type also supports the bitwise AND, OR, XOR, left shift, and right shift operators.

You can use the standard numeric operators to compare two Byte values, or you can call the CompareTo or Equals method.

You can also call the members of the Math class to perform a wide range of numeric operations, including getting the absolute value of a number, calculating the quotient and remainder from integral division, determining the maximum or minimum value of two integers, getting the sign of a number, and rounding a number.

Representing a Byte as a String

The Byte type provides full support for standard and custom numeric format strings. (For more information, see Formatting Types, Standard Numeric Format Strings, and Custom Numeric Format Strings.) However, most commonly, byte values are represented as one-digit to three-digit values without any additional formatting, or as two-digit hexadecimal values.

To format a Byte value as an integral string with no leading zeros, you can call the parameterless ToString() method. By using the "D" format specifier, you can also include a specified number of leading zeros in the string representation. By using the "X" format specifier, you can represent a Byte value as a hexadecimal string. The following example formats the elements in an array of Byte values in these three ways.

byte[] numbers = { 0, 16, 104, 213 };
foreach (byte number in numbers) {
   // Display value using default formatting.
   Console.Write("{0,-3}  -->   ", number.ToString());
   // Display value with 3 digits and leading zeros.
   Console.Write(number.ToString("D3") + "   ");
   // Display value with hexadecimal.
   Console.Write(number.ToString("X2") + "   ");
   // Display value with four hexadecimal digits.
   Console.WriteLine(number.ToString("X4"));
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       0    -->   000   00   0000
//       16   -->   016   10   0010
//       104  -->   104   68   0068
//       213  -->   213   D5   00D5
let numbers = [| 0; 16; 104; 213 |]
for number in numbers do
    // Display value using default formatting.
    number.ToString()
    |> printf "%-3s  -->   "

    // Display value with 3 digits and leading zeros.
    number.ToString "D3"
    |> printf "%s   "
    
    // Display value with hexadecimal.
    number.ToString "X2"
    |> printf "%s   "
    
    // Display value with four hexadecimal digits.
    number.ToString "X4"
    |> printfn "%s"

// The example displays the following output:
//       0    -->   000   00   0000
//       16   -->   016   10   0010
//       104  -->   104   68   0068
//       213  -->   213   D5   00D5
Dim numbers() As Byte = { 0, 16, 104, 213 }
For Each number As Byte In numbers
   ' Display value using default formatting.
   Console.Write("{0,-3}  -->   ", number.ToString())
   ' Display value with 3 digits and leading zeros.
   Console.Write(number.ToString("D3") + "   ")
   ' Display value with hexadecimal.
   Console.Write(number.ToString("X2") + "   ")
   ' Display value with four hexadecimal digits.
   Console.WriteLine(number.ToString("X4"))
Next   
' The example displays the following output:
'       0    -->   000   00   0000
'       16   -->   016   10   0010
'       104  -->   104   68   0068
'       213  -->   213   D5   00D5

You can also format a Byte value as a binary, octal, decimal, or hexadecimal string by calling the ToString(Byte, Int32) method and supplying the base as the method's second parameter. The following example calls this method to display the binary, octal, and hexadecimal representations of an array of byte values.

byte[] numbers ={ 0, 16, 104, 213 };
Console.WriteLine("{0}   {1,8}   {2,5}   {3,5}",
                  "Value", "Binary", "Octal", "Hex");
foreach (byte number in numbers) {
   Console.WriteLine("{0,5}   {1,8}   {2,5}   {3,5}",
                     number, Convert.ToString(number, 2),
                     Convert.ToString(number, 8),
                     Convert.ToString(number, 16));
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Value     Binary   Octal     Hex
//           0          0       0       0
//          16      10000      20      10
//         104    1101000     150      68
//         213   11010101     325      d5
let numbers = [| 0; 16; 104; 213 |]
printfn "%s   %8s   %5s   %5s" "Value" "Binary" "Octal" "Hex"
for number in numbers do
    printfn $"%5i{number}   %8s{Convert.ToString(number, 2)}   %5s{Convert.ToString(number, 8)}   %5s{Convert.ToString(number, 16)}"
                    
// The example displays the following output:
//       Value     Binary   Octal     Hex
//           0          0       0       0
//          16      10000      20      10
//         104    1101000     150      68
//         213   11010101     325      d5
Dim numbers() As Byte = { 0, 16, 104, 213 }
Console.WriteLine("{0}   {1,8}   {2,5}   {3,5}", _
                  "Value", "Binary", "Octal", "Hex")
For Each number As Byte In numbers
   Console.WriteLine("{0,5}   {1,8}   {2,5}   {3,5}", _
                     number, Convert.ToString(number, 2), _
                     Convert.ToString(number, 8), _
                     Convert.ToString(number, 16))
Next      
' The example displays the following output:
'       Value     Binary   Octal     Hex
'           0          0       0       0
'          16      10000      20      10
'         104    1101000     150      68
'         213   11010101     325      d5

Working with Non-Decimal Byte Values

In addition to working with individual bytes as decimal values, you may want to perform bitwise operations with byte values, or work with byte arrays or with the binary or hexadecimal representations of byte values. For example, overloads of the BitConverter.GetBytes method can convert each of the primitive data types to a byte array, and the BigInteger.ToByteArray method converts a BigInteger value to a byte array.

Byte values are represented in 8 bits by their magnitude only, without a sign bit. This is important to keep in mind when you perform bitwise operations on Byte values or when you work with individual bits. In order to perform a numeric, Boolean, or comparison operation on any two non-decimal values, both values must use the same representation.

When an operation is performed on two Byte values, the values share the same representation, so the result is accurate. This is illustrated in the following example, which masks the lowest-order bit of a Byte value to ensure that it is even.

using System;
using System.Globalization;

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      string[] values = { Convert.ToString(12, 16),
                          Convert.ToString(123, 16),
                          Convert.ToString(245, 16) };

      byte mask = 0xFE;
      foreach (string value in values) {
         Byte byteValue = Byte.Parse(value, NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier);
         Console.WriteLine("{0} And {1} = {2}", byteValue, mask,
                           byteValue & mask);
      }
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       12 And 254 = 12
//       123 And 254 = 122
//       245 And 254 = 244
open System
open System.Globalization

let values = 
    [ Convert.ToString(12, 16)
      Convert.ToString(123, 16)
      Convert.ToString(245, 16) ]

let mask = 0xFEuy
for value in values do
    let byteValue = Byte.Parse(value, NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier)
    printfn $"{byteValue} And {mask} = {byteValue &&& mask}"
                    

// The example displays the following output:
//       12 And 254 = 12
//       123 And 254 = 122
//       245 And 254 = 244
Imports System.Globalization

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim values() As String = { Convert.ToString(12, 16), _
                                 Convert.ToString(123, 16), _
                                 Convert.ToString(245, 16) }
      
      Dim mask As Byte = &hFE
      For Each value As String In values
         Dim byteValue As Byte = Byte.Parse(value, NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier)
         Console.WriteLine("{0} And {1} = {2}", byteValue, mask, _ 
                           byteValue And mask)
      Next         
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       12 And 254 = 12
'       123 And 254 = 122
'       245 And 254 = 244

On the other hand, when you work with both unsigned and signed bits, bitwise operations are complicated by the fact that the SByte values use sign-and-magnitude representation for positive values, and two's complement representation for negative values. In order to perform a meaningful bitwise operation, the values must be converted to two equivalent representations, and information about the sign bit must be preserved. The following example does this to mask out bits 2 and 4 of an array of 8-bit signed and unsigned values.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Globalization;

public struct ByteString
{
   public string Value;
   public int Sign;
}

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      ByteString[] values = CreateArray(-15, 123, 245);

      byte mask = 0x14;        // Mask all bits but 2 and 4.

      foreach (ByteString strValue in values) {
         byte byteValue = Byte.Parse(strValue.Value, NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier);
         Console.WriteLine("{0} ({1}) And {2} ({3}) = {4} ({5})",
                           strValue.Sign * byteValue,
                           Convert.ToString(byteValue, 2),
                           mask, Convert.ToString(mask, 2),
                           (strValue.Sign & Math.Sign(mask)) * (byteValue & mask),
                           Convert.ToString(byteValue & mask, 2));
      }
   }

   private static ByteString[] CreateArray(params int[] values)
   {
      List<ByteString> byteStrings = new List<ByteString>();

      foreach (object value in values) {
         ByteString temp = new ByteString();
         int sign = Math.Sign((int) value);
         temp.Sign = sign;

         // Change two's complement to magnitude-only representation.
         temp.Value = Convert.ToString(((int) value) * sign, 16);

         byteStrings.Add(temp);
      }
      return byteStrings.ToArray();
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       -15 (1111) And 20 (10100) = 4 (100)
//       123 (1111011) And 20 (10100) = 16 (10000)
//       245 (11110101) And 20 (10100) = 20 (10100)
open System
open System.Collections.Generic
open System.Globalization

[<Struct>]
type ByteString =
    { Sign: int
      Value: string }

let createArray values =
    [ for value in values do
        let sign = sign value
        { Sign = sign
         // Change two's complement to magnitude-only representation.
          Value = Convert.ToString(value * sign, 16)} ]


let values = createArray [ -15; 123; 245 ]

let mask = 0x14uy        // Mask all bits but 2 and 4.

for strValue in values do
    let byteValue = Byte.Parse(strValue.Value, NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier)
    printfn $"{strValue.Sign * int byteValue} ({Convert.ToString(byteValue, 2)}) And {mask} ({Convert.ToString(mask, 2)}) = {(strValue.Sign &&& (int mask |> sign)) * int (byteValue &&& mask)} ({Convert.ToString(byteValue &&& mask, 2)})"

// The example displays the following output:
//       -15 (1111) And 20 (10100) = 4 (100)
//       123 (1111011) And 20 (10100) = 16 (10000)
//       245 (11110101) And 20 (10100) = 20 (10100)
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.Globalization

Public Structure ByteString
   Public Value As String
   Public Sign As Integer
End Structure

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim values() As ByteString = CreateArray(-15, 123, 245)
      
      Dim mask As Byte = &h14        ' Mask all bits but 2 and 4.
      
      For Each strValue As ByteString In values
         Dim byteValue As Byte = Byte.Parse(strValue.Value, NumberStyles.AllowHexSpecifier)
         Console.WriteLine("{0} ({1}) And {2} ({3}) = {4} ({5})", _ 
                           strValue.Sign * byteValue, _ 
                           Convert.ToString(byteValue, 2), _
                           mask, Convert.ToString(mask, 2), _
                           (strValue.Sign And Math.Sign(mask)) * (byteValue And mask), _
                           Convert.ToString(byteValue And mask, 2))
      Next         
   End Sub
   
   Private Function CreateArray(ParamArray values() As Object) As ByteString()
      Dim byteStrings As New List(Of ByteString)
      For Each value As Object In values
         Dim temp As New ByteString()
         Dim sign As Integer = Math.Sign(value)
         temp.Sign = sign
         ' Change two's complement to magnitude-only representation.
         value = value * sign

         temp.Value = Convert.ToString(value, 16)
         byteStrings.Add(temp)
      Next
      Return byteStrings.ToArray()
   End Function   
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       -15 (1111) And 20 (10100) = 4 (100)
'       123 (1111011) And 20 (10100) = 16 (10000)
'       245 (11110101) And 20 (10100) = 20 (10100)

Fields

MaxValue

Represents the largest possible value of a Byte. This field is constant.

MinValue

Represents the smallest possible value of a Byte. This field is constant.

Methods

Clamp(Byte, Byte, Byte)

Clamps a value to an inclusive minimum and maximum value.

CompareTo(Byte)

Compares this instance to a specified 8-bit unsigned integer and returns an indication of their relative values.

CompareTo(Object)

Compares this instance to a specified object and returns an indication of their relative values.

CreateChecked<TOther>(TOther)

Creates an instance of the current type from a value, throwing an overflow exception for any values that fall outside the representable range of the current type.

CreateSaturating<TOther>(TOther)

Creates an instance of the current type from a value, saturating any values that fall outside the representable range of the current type.

CreateTruncating<TOther>(TOther)

Creates an instance of the current type from a value, truncating any values that fall outside the representable range of the current type.

DivRem(Byte, Byte)

Computes the quotient and remainder of two values.

Equals(Byte)

Returns a value indicating whether this instance and a specified Byte object represent the same value.

Equals(Object)

Returns a value indicating whether this instance is equal to a specified object.

GetHashCode()

Returns the hash code for this instance.

GetTypeCode()

Returns the TypeCode for value type Byte.

IsEvenInteger(Byte)

Determines if a value represents an even integral number.

IsOddInteger(Byte)

Determines if a value represents an odd integral number.

IsPow2(Byte)

Determines if a value is a power of two.

LeadingZeroCount(Byte)

Computes the number of leading zeros in a value.

Log2(Byte)

Computes the log2 of a value.

Max(Byte, Byte)

Compares two values to compute which is greater.

Min(Byte, Byte)

Compares two values to compute which is lesser.

Parse(ReadOnlySpan<Char>, IFormatProvider)

Parses a span of characters into a value.

Parse(ReadOnlySpan<Char>, NumberStyles, IFormatProvider)

Converts the span representation of a number in a specified style and culture-specific format to its Byte equivalent.

Parse(String)

Converts the string representation of a number to its Byte equivalent.

Parse(String, IFormatProvider)

Converts the string representation of a number in a specified culture-specific format to its Byte equivalent.

Parse(String, NumberStyles)

Converts the string representation of a number in a specified style to its Byte equivalent.

Parse(String, NumberStyles, IFormatProvider)

Converts the string representation of a number in a specified style and culture-specific format to its Byte equivalent.

PopCount(Byte)

Computes the number of bits that are set in a value.

RotateLeft(Byte, Int32)

Rotates a value left by a given amount.

RotateRight(Byte, Int32)

Rotates a value right by a given amount.

Sign(Byte)

Computes the sign of a value.

ToString()

Converts the value of the current Byte object to its equivalent string representation.

ToString(IFormatProvider)

Converts the numeric value of the current Byte object to its equivalent string representation using the specified culture-specific formatting information.

ToString(String)

Converts the value of the current Byte object to its equivalent string representation using the specified format.

ToString(String, IFormatProvider)

Converts the value of the current Byte object to its equivalent string representation using the specified format and culture-specific formatting information.

TrailingZeroCount(Byte)

Computes the number of trailing zeros in a value.

TryFormat(Span<Char>, Int32, ReadOnlySpan<Char>, IFormatProvider)

Tries to format the value of the current 8-bit unsigned integer instance into the provided span of characters.

TryParse(ReadOnlySpan<Char>, Byte)

Tries to convert the span representation of a number to its Byte equivalent, and returns a value that indicates whether the conversion succeeded.

TryParse(ReadOnlySpan<Char>, IFormatProvider, Byte)

Tries to parses a span of characters into a value.

TryParse(ReadOnlySpan<Char>, NumberStyles, IFormatProvider, Byte)

Converts the span representation of a number in a specified style and culture-specific format to its Byte equivalent. A return value indicates whether the conversion succeeded or failed.

TryParse(String, Byte)

Tries to convert the string representation of a number to its Byte equivalent, and returns a value that indicates whether the conversion succeeded.

TryParse(String, IFormatProvider, Byte)

Tries to parses a string into a value.

TryParse(String, NumberStyles, IFormatProvider, Byte)

Converts the string representation of a number in a specified style and culture-specific format to its Byte equivalent. A return value indicates whether the conversion succeeded or failed.

Explicit Interface Implementations

IBinaryInteger<Byte>.GetByteCount()

Gets the number of bytes that will be written as part of TryWriteLittleEndian(Span<Byte>, Int32).

IBinaryInteger<Byte>.GetShortestBitLength()

Gets the length, in bits, of the shortest two's complement representation of the current value.

IBinaryInteger<Byte>.TryWriteBigEndian(Span<Byte>, Int32)

Tries to write the current value, in big-endian format, to a given span.

IBinaryInteger<Byte>.TryWriteLittleEndian(Span<Byte>, Int32)

Tries to write the current value, in little-endian format, to a given span.

IComparable.CompareTo(Object)

Compares the current instance with another object of the same type and returns an integer that indicates whether the current instance precedes, follows, or occurs in the same position in the sort order as the other object.

IConvertible.GetTypeCode()

Returns the TypeCode for this instance.

IConvertible.ToBoolean(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToBoolean(IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToByte(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToByte(IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToChar(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToChar(IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToDateTime(IFormatProvider)

This conversion is not supported. Attempting to use this method throws an InvalidCastException.

IConvertible.ToDecimal(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToDecimal(IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToDouble(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToDouble(IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToInt16(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToInt16(IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToInt32(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToInt32(IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToInt64(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToInt64(IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToSByte(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToSByte(IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToSingle(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToSingle(IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToType(Type, IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToType(Type, IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToUInt16(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToUInt16(IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToUInt32(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToUInt32(IFormatProvider).

IConvertible.ToUInt64(IFormatProvider)

For a description of this member, see ToUInt64(IFormatProvider).

Applies to

Thread Safety

All members of this type are thread safe. Members that appear to modify instance state actually return a new instance initialized with the new value. As with any other type, reading and writing to a shared variable that contains an instance of this type must be protected by a lock to guarantee thread safety.

See also