Math.SinCos(Double) Method

Definition

Returns the sine and cosine of the specified angle.

public:
 static ValueTuple<double, double> SinCos(double x);
public static (double,double) SinCos (double x);
static member SinCos : double -> ValueTuple<double, double>
Public Shared Function SinCos (x As Double) As ValueTuple(Of Double, Double)

Parameters

x
Double

An angle, measured in radians.

Returns

ValueTuple<Double,Double>

The sine and cosine of x. If x is equal to NaN, NegativeInfinity, or PositiveInfinity, this method returns NaN.

Examples

The following example uses SinCos to evaluate certain trigonometric identities for selected angles.

// Example for the trigonometric Math.Sin( double )
// and Math.Cos( double ) methods.
using System;

class SinCos
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        Console.WriteLine(
            "This example of trigonometric " +
            "Math.Sin( double ), Math.Cos( double ), and Math.SinCos( double )\n" +
            "generates the following output.\n" );
        Console.WriteLine(
            "Convert selected values for X to radians \n" +
            "and evaluate these trigonometric identities:" );
        Console.WriteLine( "   sin^2(X) + cos^2(X) == 1\n" +
                           "   sin(2 * X) == 2 * sin(X) * cos(X)" );
        Console.WriteLine( "   cos(2 * X) == cos^2(X) - sin^2(X)" );
        Console.WriteLine( "   cos(2 * X) == cos^2(X) - sin^2(X)" );

        UseSineCosine(15.0);
        UseSineCosine(30.0);
        UseSineCosine(45.0);

        Console.WriteLine(
            "\nConvert selected values for X and Y to radians \n" +
            "and evaluate these trigonometric identities:" );
        Console.WriteLine( "   sin(X + Y) == sin(X) * cos(Y) + cos(X) * sin(Y)" );
        Console.WriteLine( "   cos(X + Y) == cos(X) * cos(Y) - sin(X) * sin(Y)" );

        UseTwoAngles(15.0, 30.0);
        UseTwoAngles(30.0, 45.0);

        Console.WriteLine(
            "\nWhen you have calls to sin(X) and cos(X) they \n" +
            "can be replaced with a single call to sincos(x):" );

        UseCombinedSineCosine(15.0);
        UseCombinedSineCosine(30.0);
        UseCombinedSineCosine(45.0);
    }

    // Evaluate trigonometric identities with a given angle.
    static void UseCombinedSineCosine(double degrees)
    {
        double angle = Math.PI * degrees / 180.0;
        (double sinAngle, double cosAngle) = Math.SinCos(angle);

        // Evaluate sin^2(X) + cos^2(X) == 1.
        Console.WriteLine(
            "\n                           Math.SinCos({0} deg) == ({1:E16}, {2:E16})",
            degrees, sinAngle, cosAngle);
        Console.WriteLine(
            "(double sin, double cos) = Math.SinCos({0} deg)",
            degrees );
        Console.WriteLine(
            "sin^2 + cos^2 == {0:E16}",
            sinAngle * sinAngle + cosAngle * cosAngle );
    }

    // Evaluate trigonometric identities with a given angle.
    static void UseSineCosine(double degrees)
    {
        double angle    = Math.PI * degrees / 180.0;
        double sinAngle = Math.Sin(angle);
        double cosAngle = Math.Cos(angle);

        // Evaluate sin^2(X) + cos^2(X) == 1.
        Console.WriteLine(
            "\n                           Math.Sin({0} deg) == {1:E16}\n" +
            "                           Math.Cos({0} deg) == {2:E16}",
            degrees, Math.Sin(angle), Math.Cos(angle) );
        Console.WriteLine(
            "(Math.Sin({0} deg))^2 + (Math.Cos({0} deg))^2 == {1:E16}",
            degrees, sinAngle * sinAngle + cosAngle * cosAngle );

        // Evaluate sin(2 * X) == 2 * sin(X) * cos(X).
        Console.WriteLine(
            "                           Math.Sin({0} deg) == {1:E16}",
            2.0 * degrees, Math.Sin(2.0 * angle) );
        Console.WriteLine(
            "    2 * Math.Sin({0} deg) * Math.Cos({0} deg) == {1:E16}",
            degrees, 2.0 * sinAngle * cosAngle );

        // Evaluate cos(2 * X) == cos^2(X) - sin^2(X).
        Console.WriteLine(
            "                           Math.Cos({0} deg) == {1:E16}",
            2.0 * degrees, Math.Cos(2.0 * angle) );
        Console.WriteLine(
            "(Math.Cos({0} deg))^2 - (Math.Sin({0} deg))^2 == {1:E16}",
            degrees, cosAngle * cosAngle - sinAngle * sinAngle );
    }

    // Evaluate trigonometric identities that are functions of two angles.
    static void UseTwoAngles(double degreesX, double degreesY)
    {
        double  angleX  = Math.PI * degreesX / 180.0;
        double  angleY  = Math.PI * degreesY / 180.0;

        // Evaluate sin(X + Y) == sin(X) * cos(Y) + cos(X) * sin(Y).
        Console.WriteLine(
            "\n        Math.Sin({0} deg) * Math.Cos({1} deg) +\n" +
            "        Math.Cos({0} deg) * Math.Sin({1} deg) == {2:E16}",
            degreesX, degreesY, Math.Sin(angleX) * Math.Cos(angleY) +
            Math.Cos(angleX) * Math.Sin(angleY));
        Console.WriteLine(
            "                           Math.Sin({0} deg) == {1:E16}",
            degreesX + degreesY, Math.Sin(angleX + angleY));

        // Evaluate cos(X + Y) == cos(X) * cos(Y) - sin(X) * sin(Y).
        Console.WriteLine(
            "        Math.Cos({0} deg) * Math.Cos({1} deg) -\n" +
            "        Math.Sin({0} deg) * Math.Sin({1} deg) == {2:E16}",
            degreesX, degreesY, Math.Cos(angleX) * Math.Cos(angleY) -
            Math.Sin(angleX) * Math.Sin(angleY));
        Console.WriteLine(
            "                           Math.Cos({0} deg) == {1:E16}",
            degreesX + degreesY, Math.Cos(angleX + angleY));
    }
}

/*
This example of trigonometric Math.Sin( double ) and Math.Cos( double )
generates the following output.

Convert selected values for X to radians
and evaluate these trigonometric identities:
   sin^2(X) + cos^2(X) == 1
   sin(2 * X) == 2 * sin(X) * cos(X)
   cos(2 * X) == cos^2(X) - sin^2(X)

                           Math.Sin(15 deg) == 2.5881904510252074E-001
                           Math.Cos(15 deg) == 9.6592582628906831E-001
(Math.Sin(15 deg))^2 + (Math.Cos(15 deg))^2 == 1.0000000000000000E+000
                           Math.Sin(30 deg) == 4.9999999999999994E-001
    2 * Math.Sin(15 deg) * Math.Cos(15 deg) == 4.9999999999999994E-001
                           Math.Cos(30 deg) == 8.6602540378443871E-001
(Math.Cos(15 deg))^2 - (Math.Sin(15 deg))^2 == 8.6602540378443871E-001

                           Math.Sin(30 deg) == 4.9999999999999994E-001
                           Math.Cos(30 deg) == 8.6602540378443871E-001
(Math.Sin(30 deg))^2 + (Math.Cos(30 deg))^2 == 1.0000000000000000E+000
                           Math.Sin(60 deg) == 8.6602540378443860E-001
    2 * Math.Sin(30 deg) * Math.Cos(30 deg) == 8.6602540378443860E-001
                           Math.Cos(60 deg) == 5.0000000000000011E-001
(Math.Cos(30 deg))^2 - (Math.Sin(30 deg))^2 == 5.0000000000000022E-001

                           Math.Sin(45 deg) == 7.0710678118654746E-001
                           Math.Cos(45 deg) == 7.0710678118654757E-001
(Math.Sin(45 deg))^2 + (Math.Cos(45 deg))^2 == 1.0000000000000000E+000
                           Math.Sin(90 deg) == 1.0000000000000000E+000
    2 * Math.Sin(45 deg) * Math.Cos(45 deg) == 1.0000000000000000E+000
                           Math.Cos(90 deg) == 6.1230317691118863E-017
(Math.Cos(45 deg))^2 - (Math.Sin(45 deg))^2 == 2.2204460492503131E-016

Convert selected values for X and Y to radians
and evaluate these trigonometric identities:
   sin(X + Y) == sin(X) * cos(Y) + cos(X) * sin(Y)
   cos(X + Y) == cos(X) * cos(Y) - sin(X) * sin(Y)

        Math.Sin(15 deg) * Math.Cos(30 deg) +
        Math.Cos(15 deg) * Math.Sin(30 deg) == 7.0710678118654746E-001
                           Math.Sin(45 deg) == 7.0710678118654746E-001
        Math.Cos(15 deg) * Math.Cos(30 deg) -
        Math.Sin(15 deg) * Math.Sin(30 deg) == 7.0710678118654757E-001
                           Math.Cos(45 deg) == 7.0710678118654757E-001

        Math.Sin(30 deg) * Math.Cos(45 deg) +
        Math.Cos(30 deg) * Math.Sin(45 deg) == 9.6592582628906831E-001
                           Math.Sin(75 deg) == 9.6592582628906820E-001
        Math.Cos(30 deg) * Math.Cos(45 deg) -
        Math.Sin(30 deg) * Math.Sin(45 deg) == 2.5881904510252085E-001
                           Math.Cos(75 deg) == 2.5881904510252096E-001
*/

Remarks

The angle, x, must be in radians. Multiply by Math.PI/180 to convert degrees to radians.

This method calls into the underlying C runtime, and the exact result or valid input range may differ between different operating systems or architectures.

Applies to