macOS Catalina Notarization and the impact on .NET Core downloads and projects

Beginning with macOS Catalina (version 10.15), all software built after June 1, 2019, and distributed with Developer ID, must be notarized. This requirement applies to the .NET Core runtime, .NET Core SDK, and software created with .NET Core. This article describes the common scenarios you may face with .NET Core and macOS notarization.

Installing .NET Core

The installers for .NET Core (both runtime and SDK) versions 3.1, 3.0, and 2.1, have been notarized since February 18, 2020. Prior released versions aren't notarized. You can manually install a non-notarized version of .NET Core by first downloading the installer, and then using the sudo installer command. For more information, see Download and manually install for macOS.

Beginning with the following versions, the .NET Core installers are notarized:

  • .NET Core Runtime

    • 2.1.16
    • 3.0.3
    • 3.1.2
  • .NET Core SDK

    • 2.1.512
    • 3.0.103
    • 3.1.102

appHost is disabled by default

By default, non-notarized versions of the .NET Core SDK 3.0 and above produce a native Mach-O executable (known as the appHost) when your project compiles, publishes, or is run. This executable is a convenient way to run your app. Otherwise, your app must be started by running dotnet <filename.dll>. When the appHost is enabled, the dotnet run command is invoked in the context of the appHost. For more information, see Context of the appHost.

Starting with the notarized versions of the .NET Core SDK 3.0 and above, the appHost executable isn't generated by default. You can turn on appHost generation with the UseAppHost boolean setting in the project file. You can also toggle the appHost with the -p:UseAppHost parameter on the command line for the specific dotnet command you run:

  • Project file

  • Command-line parameter

    dotnet run -p:UseAppHost=true

An appHost is always created when you publish your app self-contained.

For more information about the UseAppHost setting, see MSBuild properties for Microsoft.NET.Sdk.

Context of the appHost

When the appHost is enabled in your project, and you use the dotnet run command to run your app, the app is invoked in the context of the appHost and not the default host (the default host is the dotnet command). If the appHost is disabled in your project, the dotnet run command runs your app in the context of the default host. Even if the appHost is disabled, publishing your app as self-contained generates an appHost executable, and users use that executable to run your app. Running your app with dotnet <filename.dll> invokes the app with the default host, the shared runtime.

When an app using the appHost is invoked, the certificate partition accessed by the app is different from the notarized default host. If your app must access the certificates installed through the default host, use the dotnet run command to run your app from its project file, or use the dotnet <filename.dll> command to start the app directly.

More information about this scenario is provided in the ASP.NET Core and macOS and certificates section.

ASP.NET Core and macOS and certificates

.NET Core provides the ability to manage certificates in the macOS Keychain with the System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates class. Access to the macOS Keychain uses the applications identity as the primary key when deciding which partition to consider. For example, unsigned applications store secrets in the unsigned partition, but signed applications store their secrets in partitions only they can access. The source of execution that invokes your app decides which partition to use.

.NET Core provides three sources of execution: appHost, default host (the dotnet command), and a custom host. Each execution model may have different identities, either signed or unsigned, and has access to different partitions within the Keychain. Certificates imported by one mode may not be accessible from another. For example, the notarized versions of .NET Core have a default host that is signed. Certificates are imported into a secure partition based on its identity. These certificates aren't accessible from a generated appHost, as the appHost is unsigned.

Another example, by default, ASP.NET Core imports a default SSL certificate through the default host. ASP.NET Core applications that use an appHost won't have access to this certificate and will receive an error when .NET Core detects the certificate isn't accessible. The error message provides instructions on how to fix this problem.

If certificate sharing is required, macOS provides configuration options with the security utility.

For more information on how to troubleshoot ASP.NET Core certificate issues, see Enforce HTTPS in ASP.NET Core.

Default entitlements

.NET Core's default host (the dotnet command) has a set of default entitlements. These entitlements are required for proper operation of .NET Core. It's possible that your application may need additional entitlements, in which case you'll need to generate and use an appHost and then add the necessary entitlements locally.

Default set of entitlements for .NET Core:


Notarize a .NET Core app

If you want your application to run on macOS Catalina (version 10.15) or higher, you'll want to notarize your app. The appHost you submit with your application for notarization should be used with at least the same default entitlements for .NET Core.

Next steps