Working with Strings
Windows natively supports Unicode strings for UI elements, file names, and so forth. Unicode is the preferred character encoding, because it supports all character sets and languages. Windows represents Unicode characters using UTF-16 encoding, in which each character is encoded as a 16-bit value. UTF-16 characters are called wide characters, to distinguish them from 8-bit ANSI characters. The Visual C++ compiler supports the built-in data type wchar_t for wide characters. The header file WinNT.h also defines the following typedef.
typedef wchar_t WCHAR;
You will see both versions in MSDN example code. To declare a wide-character literal or a wide-character string literal, put L before the literal.
wchar_t a = L'a'; wchar_t *str = L"hello";
Here are some other string-related typedefs that you will see:
|PSTR or LPSTR||
|PCSTR or LPCSTR||
|PWSTR or LPWSTR||
|PCWSTR or LPCWSTR||
Unicode and ANSI Functions
When Microsoft introduced Unicode support to Windows, it eased the transition by providing two parallel sets of APIs, one for ANSI strings and the other for Unicode strings. For example, there are two functions to set the text of a window's title bar:
- SetWindowTextA takes an ANSI string.
- SetWindowTextW takes a Unicode string.
Internally, the ANSI version translates the string to Unicode. The Windows headers also define a macro that resolves to the Unicode version when the preprocessor symbol
UNICODE is defined or the ANSI version otherwise.
#ifdef UNICODE #define SetWindowText SetWindowTextW #else #define SetWindowText SetWindowTextA #endif
In MSDN, the function is documented under the name SetWindowText, even though that is really the macro name, not the actual function name.
New applications should always call the Unicode versions. Many world languages require Unicode. If you use ANSI strings, it will be impossible to localize your application. The ANSI versions are also less efficient, because the operating system must convert the ANSI strings to Unicode at run time. Depending on your preference, you can call the Unicode functions explicitly, such as SetWindowTextW, or use the macros. The example code on MSDN typically calls the macros, but the two forms are exactly equivalent. Most newer APIs in Windows have just a Unicode version, with no corresponding ANSI version.
Back when applications needed to support both Windows NT as well as Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows Me, it was useful to compile the same code for either ANSI or Unicode strings, depending on the target platform. To this end, the Windows SDK provides macros that map strings to Unicode or ANSI, depending on the platform.
For example, the following code:
resolves to one of the following:
SetWindowTextW(L"My Application"); // Unicode function with wide-character string. SetWindowTextA("My Application"); // ANSI function.
The TEXT and TCHAR macros are less useful today, because all applications should use Unicode. However, you might see them in older code and in some of the MSDN code examples.
The headers for the Microsoft C run-time libraries define a similar set of macros. For example, _tcslen resolves to strlen if
_UNICODE is undefined; otherwise it resolves to wcslen, which is the wide-character version of strlen.
#ifdef _UNICODE #define _tcslen wcslen #else #define _tcslen strlen #endif
Be careful: Some headers use the preprocessor symbol
UNICODE, others use
_UNICODE with an underscore prefix. Always define both symbols. Visual C++ sets them both by default when you create a new project.