Integrate your app with an Azure virtual network
This article describes the Azure App Service VNet integration feature and how to set it up with apps in App Service. With Azure virtual networks (VNets), you can place many of your Azure resources in a non-internet-routable network. The App Service VNet integration feature enables your apps to access resources in or through a virtual network. Virtual network integration doesn't enable your apps to be accessed privately.
App Service has two variations:
- The dedicated compute pricing tiers, which include the Basic, Standard, Premium, Premium v2, and Premium v3.
- The App Service Environment, which deploys directly into your virtual network with dedicated supporting infrastructure and is using the Isolated and Isolated v2 pricing tiers.
The VNet integration feature is used in Azure App Service dedicated compute pricing tiers. If your app is in an App Service Environment, it's already in a virtual network and doesn't require use of the VNet integration feature to reach resources in the same virtual network. For more information on all the networking features, see App Service networking features.
Virtual network integration gives your app access to resources in your virtual network, but it doesn't grant inbound private access to your app from the virtual network. Private site access refers to making an app accessible only from a private network, such as from within an Azure virtual network. Virtual network integration is used only to make outbound calls from your app into your virtual network. The VNet integration feature behaves differently when it's used with virtual networks in the same region and with virtual networks in other regions. The VNet integration feature has two variations:
- Regional virtual network integration: When you connect to virtual networks in the same region, you must have a dedicated subnet in the virtual network you're integrating with.
- Gateway-required virtual network integration: When you connect directly to virtual networks in other regions or to a classic virtual network in the same region, you need an Azure Virtual Network gateway created in the target virtual network.
The VNet integration feature:
- Requires a Standard, Premium, Premium v2, Premium v3, or Elastic Premium App Service pricing tier.
- Supports TCP and UDP.
- Works with App Service apps and function apps.
There are some things that virtual network integration doesn't support, like:
- Mounting a drive.
- Windows Server Active Directory integration.
Gateway-required virtual network integration provides access to resources only in the target virtual network or in networks connected to the target virtual network with peering or VPNs. Gateway-required virtual network integration doesn't enable access to resources available across Azure ExpressRoute connections or work with service endpoints.
No matter which version is used, virtual network integration gives your app access to resources in your virtual network, but it doesn't grant inbound private access to your app from the virtual network. Private site access refers to making your app accessible only from a private network, such as from within an Azure virtual network. Virtual network integration is only for making outbound calls from your app into your virtual network.
Regional virtual network integration
Regional virtual network integration supports connecting to a virtual network in the same region and doesn't require a gateway. Using regional virtual network integration enables your app to access:
- Resources in the virtual network you're integrated with.
- Resources in virtual networks peered to the virtual network your app is integrated with including global peering connections.
- Resources across Azure ExpressRoute connections.
- Service endpoint-secured services.
- Private endpoint-enabled services.
When you use regional virtual network integration, you can use the following Azure networking features:
- Network security groups (NSGs): You can block outbound traffic with an NSG that's placed on your integration subnet. The inbound rules don't apply because you can't use virtual network integration to provide inbound access to your app.
- Route tables (UDRs): You can place a route table on the integration subnet to send outbound traffic where you want.
How regional virtual network integration works
Apps in App Service are hosted on worker roles. Regional virtual network integration works by mounting virtual interfaces to the worker roles with addresses in the delegated subnet. Because the from address is in your virtual network, it can access most things in or through your virtual network like a VM in your virtual network would. The networking implementation is different than running a VM in your virtual network. That's why some networking features aren't yet available for this feature.
When regional virtual network integration is enabled, your app makes outbound calls through your virtual network. The outbound addresses that are listed in the app properties portal are the addresses still used by your app. However, if your outbound call is to a virtual machine or private endpoint in the integration virtual network or peered virtual network, the outbound address will be an address from the integration subnet. The private IP assigned to an instance is exposed via the environment variable, WEBSITE_PRIVATE_IP.
When all traffic routing is enabled, all outbound traffic is sent into your virtual network. If all traffic routing isn't enabled, only private traffic (RFC1918) and service endpoints configured on the integration subnet will be sent into the virtual network and outbound traffic to the internet will go through the same channels as normal.
The feature supports only one virtual interface per worker. One virtual interface per worker means one regional virtual network integration per App Service plan. All the apps in the same App Service plan can use the same virtual network integration. If you need an app to connect to another virtual network, you need to create another App Service plan. The virtual interface used isn't a resource that customers have direct access to.
Because of the nature of how this technology operates, the traffic that's used with virtual network integration doesn't show up in Azure Network Watcher or NSG flow logs.
Virtual network integration depends on a dedicated subnet. When you create a subnet, the Azure subnet loses five IPs from the start. One address is used from the integration subnet for each plan instance. If you scale your app to four instances, then four addresses are used.
When you scale up or down in size, the required address space is doubled for a short period of time. This change affects the real, available supported instances for a given subnet size. The following table shows both the maximum available addresses per CIDR block and the effect this has on horizontal scale.
|CIDR block size||Maximum available addresses||Maximum horizontal scale (instances)*|
*Assumes that you'll need to scale up or down in either size or SKU at some point.
Because subnet size can't be changed after assignment, use a subnet that's large enough to accommodate whatever scale your app might reach. To avoid any issues with subnet capacity, use a
/26 with 64 addresses.
When you want your apps in your plan to reach a virtual network that's already connected to by apps in another plan, select a different subnet than the one being used by the preexisting virtual network integration.
There are two types of routing to consider when you configure regional virtual network integration. Application routing defines what traffic is routed from your application and into the virtual network. Network routing is the ability to control how traffic is routed from your virtual network and out.
When you configure application routing, you can either route all traffic or only private traffic (also known as RFC1918 traffic) into your virtual network. You configure this behavior through the Route All setting. If Route All is disabled, your app only routes private traffic into your virtual network. If you want to route all your outbound traffic into your virtual network, make sure that Route All is enabled.
- When Route All is enabled, all traffic is subject to the NSGs and UDRs that are applied to your integration subnet. When all traffic routing is enabled, outbound traffic is still sent from the addresses that are listed in your app properties, unless you provide routes that direct the traffic elsewhere.
- Windows containers don't support routing App Service Key Vault references or pulling custom container images over virtual network integration.
- Regional virtual network integration can't use port 25.
We recommend that you use the Route All configuration setting to enable routing of all traffic. Using the configuration setting allows you to audit the behavior with a built-in policy. The existing WEBSITE_VNET_ROUTE_ALL app setting can still be used, and you can enable all traffic routing with either setting.
You can use route tables to route outbound traffic from your app to wherever you want. Route tables affect your destination traffic. When Route All is disabled in application routing, only private traffic (RFC1918) is affected by your route tables. Common destinations can include firewall devices or gateways. Routes that are set on your integration subnet won't affect replies to inbound app requests.
When you want to route all outbound traffic on-premises, you can use a route table to send all outbound traffic to your Azure ExpressRoute gateway. If you do route traffic to a gateway, set routes in the external network to send any replies back.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routes also affect your app traffic. If you have BGP routes from something like an ExpressRoute gateway, your app outbound traffic is affected. Similar to user-defined routes, BGP routes affect traffic according to your routing scope setting.
Network security groups
An app that uses regional virtual network integration can use a network security group to block outbound traffic to resources in your virtual network or the internet. To block traffic to public addresses, enable Route All to the virtual network. When Route All isn't enabled, NSGs are only applied to RFC1918 traffic.
An NSG that's applied to your integration subnet is in effect regardless of any route tables applied to your integration subnet.
The inbound rules in an NSG don't apply to your app because virtual network integration affects only outbound traffic from your app. To control inbound traffic to your app, use the Access Restrictions feature.
Regional virtual network integration enables you to reach Azure services that are secured with service endpoints. To access a service endpoint-secured service, follow these steps:
- Configure regional virtual network integration with your web app to connect to a specific subnet for integration.
- Go to the destination service and configure service endpoints against the integration subnet.
If you want to make calls to private endpoints, make sure that your DNS lookups resolve to the private endpoint. You can enforce this behavior in one of the following ways:
- Integrate with Azure DNS private zones. When your virtual network doesn't have a custom DNS server, the integration is done automatically when the zones are linked to the virtual network.
- Manage the private endpoint in the DNS server used by your app. To manage the configuration, you must know the private endpoint IP address. Then point the endpoint you're trying to reach to that address by using an A record.
- Configure your own DNS server to forward to Azure DNS private zones.
Azure DNS private zones
After your app integrates with your virtual network, it uses the same DNS server that your virtual network is configured with. If no custom DNS is specified, it uses Azure default DNS and any private zones linked to the virtual network.
There are some limitations with using regional virtual network integration:
- The feature is available from all App Service scale units in Premium v2 and Premium v3. It's also available in Standard but only from newer App Service scale units. If you're on an older scale unit, you can only use the feature from a Premium v2 App Service plan. If you want to make sure you can use the feature in a Standard App Service plan, create your app in a Premium v3 App Service plan. Those plans are only supported on our newest scale units. You can scale down if you want after the plan is created.
- The feature can't be used by Isolated plan apps that are in an App Service Environment.
- You can't reach resources across peering connections with classic virtual networks.
- The feature requires an unused subnet that's an IPv4
/28block or larger in an Azure Resource Manager virtual network.
- The app and the virtual network must be in the same region.
- The integration virtual network can't have IPv6 address spaces defined.
- The integration subnet can't have service endpoint policies enabled.
- The integration subnet can be used by only one App Service plan.
- You can't delete a virtual network with an integrated app. Remove the integration before you delete the virtual network.
- You can have only one regional virtual network integration per App Service plan. Multiple apps in the same App Service plan can use the same virtual network.
- You can't change the subscription of an app or a plan while there's an app that's using regional virtual network integration.
Gateway-required virtual network integration
Gateway-required virtual network integration supports connecting to a virtual network in another region or to a classic virtual network. Gateway-required virtual network integration:
- Enables an app to connect to only one virtual network at a time.
- Enables up to five virtual networks to be integrated within an App Service plan.
- Allows the same virtual network to be used by multiple apps in an App Service plan without affecting the total number that can be used by an App Service plan. If you have six apps using the same virtual network in the same App Service plan, that counts as one virtual network being used.
- SLA on the gateway can impact the overall SLA.
- Enables your apps to use the DNS that the virtual network is configured with.
- Requires a virtual network route-based gateway configured with an SSTP point-to-site VPN before it can be connected to an app.
You can't use gateway-required virtual network integration:
- With a virtual network connected with ExpressRoute.
- From a Linux app.
- From a Windows container.
- To access service endpoint-secured resources.
- With a coexistence gateway that supports both ExpressRoute and point-to-site or site-to-site VPNs.
Set up a gateway in your Azure virtual network
To create a gateway:
Create the VPN gateway and subnet. Select a route-based VPN type.
Set the point-to-site addresses. If the gateway isn't in the basic SKU, then IKEV2 must be disabled in the point-to-site configuration and SSTP must be selected. The point-to-site address space must be in the RFC 1918 address blocks 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, and 192.168.0.0/16.
If you create the gateway for use with gateway-required virtual network integration, you don't need to upload a certificate. Creating the gateway can take 30 minutes. You won't be able to integrate your app with your virtual network until the gateway is created.
How gateway-required virtual network integration works
Gateway-required virtual network integration is built on top of point-to-site VPN technology. Point-to-site VPNs limit network access to the virtual machine that hosts the app. Apps are restricted to send traffic out to the internet only through hybrid connections or through virtual network integration. When your app is configured with the portal to use gateway-required virtual network integration, a complex negotiation is managed on your behalf to create and assign certificates on the gateway and the application side. The result is that the workers used to host your apps can directly connect to the virtual network gateway in the selected virtual network.
Access on-premises resources
Apps can access on-premises resources by integrating with virtual networks that have site-to-site connections. If you use gateway-required virtual network integration, update your on-premises VPN gateway routes with your point-to-site address blocks. When the site-to-site VPN is first set up, the scripts used to configure it should set up routes properly. If you add the point-to-site addresses after you create your site-to-site VPN, you need to update the routes manually. Details on how to do that vary per gateway and aren't described here. You can't have BGP configured with a site-to-site VPN connection.
No extra configuration is required for the regional virtual network integration feature to reach through your virtual network to on-premises resources. You simply need to connect your virtual network to on-premises resources by using ExpressRoute or a site-to-site VPN.
The gateway-required virtual network integration feature doesn't integrate an app with a virtual network that has an ExpressRoute gateway. Even if the ExpressRoute gateway is configured in coexistence mode, the virtual network integration doesn't work. If you need to access resources through an ExpressRoute connection, use the regional virtual network integration feature or an App Service Environment, which runs in your virtual network.
If you use peering with regional virtual network integration, you don't need to do any more configuration.
If you use gateway-required virtual network integration with peering, you need to configure a few more items. To configure peering to work with your app:
- Add a peering connection on the virtual network your app connects to. When you add the peering connection, enable Allow virtual network access and select Allow forwarded traffic and Allow gateway transit.
- Add a peering connection on the virtual network that's being peered to the virtual network you're connected to. When you add the peering connection on the destination virtual network, enable Allow virtual network access and select Allow forwarded traffic and Allow remote gateways.
- Go to App Service plan > Networking > VNet integration in the portal. Select the virtual network your app connects to. Under the routing section, add the address range of the virtual network that's peered with the virtual network your app is connected to.
Manage virtual network integration
Connecting and disconnecting with a virtual network is at an app level. Operations that can affect virtual network integration across multiple apps are at the App Service plan level. From the app > Networking > VNet integration portal, you can get details on your virtual network. You can see similar information at the App Service plan level in the App Service plan > Networking > VNet integration portal.
The only operation you can take in the app view of your virtual network integration instance is to disconnect your app from the virtual network it's currently connected to. To disconnect your app from a virtual network, select Disconnect. Your app is restarted when you disconnect from a virtual network. Disconnecting doesn't change your virtual network. The subnet or gateway isn't removed. If you then want to delete your virtual network, first disconnect your app from the virtual network and delete the resources in it, such as gateways.
The App Service plan virtual network integration UI shows you all the virtual network integrations used by the apps in your App Service plan. To see details on each virtual network, select the virtual network you're interested in. There are two actions you can perform here for gateway-required virtual network integration:
- Sync network: The sync network operation is used only for the gateway-required virtual network integration feature. Performing a sync network operation ensures that your certificates and network information are in sync. If you add or change the DNS of your virtual network, perform a sync network operation. This operation restarts any apps that use this virtual network. This operation won't work if you're using an app and a virtual network belonging to different subscriptions.
- Add routes: Adding routes drives outbound traffic into your virtual network.
The private IP assigned to the instance is exposed via the environment variable WEBSITE_PRIVATE_IP. Kudu console UI also shows the list of environment variables available to the web app. This IP is assigned from the address range of the integrated subnet. For regional virtual network integration, the value of WEBSITE_PRIVATE_IP is an IP from the address range of the delegated subnet. For gateway-required virtual network integration, the value is an IP from the address range of the point-to-site address pool configured on the virtual network gateway. This IP will be used by the web app to connect to the resources through the Azure virtual network.
The value of WEBSITE_PRIVATE_IP is bound to change. However, it will be an IP within the address range of the integration subnet or the point-to-site address range, so you'll need to allow access from the entire address range.
Gateway-required virtual network integration routing
The routes that are defined in your virtual network are used to direct traffic into your virtual network from your app. To send more outbound traffic into the virtual network, add those address blocks here. This capability only works with gateway-required virtual network integration. Route tables don't affect your app traffic when you use gateway-required virtual network integration the way that they do with regional virtual network integration.
Gateway-required virtual network integration certificates
When gateway-required virtual network integration is enabled, there's a required exchange of certificates to ensure the security of the connection. Along with the certificates are the DNS configuration, routes, and other similar things that describe the network.
If certificates or network information is changed, select Sync Network. When you select Sync Network, you cause a brief outage in connectivity between your app and your virtual network. Your app isn't restarted, but the loss of connectivity could cause your site to not function properly.
The regional virtual network integration feature has no extra charge for use beyond the App Service plan pricing tier charges.
Three charges are related to the use of the gateway-required virtual network integration feature:
- App Service plan pricing tier charges: Your apps need to be in a Standard, Premium, Premium v2, or Premium v3 App Service plan. For more information on those costs, see App Service pricing.
- Data transfer costs: There's a charge for data egress, even if the virtual network is in the same datacenter. Those charges are described in Data transfer pricing details.
- VPN gateway costs: There's a cost to the virtual network gateway that's required for the point-to-site VPN. For more information, see VPN gateway pricing.
Virtual network integration isn't supported for Docker Compose scenarios in App Service. Access restrictions are ignored if a private endpoint is present.
The feature is easy to set up, but that doesn't mean your experience will be problem free. If you encounter problems accessing your desired endpoint, there are some utilities you can use to test connectivity from the app console. There are two consoles that you can use. One is the Kudu console, and the other is the console in the Azure portal. To reach the Kudu console from your app, go to Tools > Kudu. You can also reach the Kudo console at [sitename].scm.azurewebsites.net. After the website loads, go to the Debug console tab. To get to the Azure portal-hosted console from your app, go to Tools > Console.
In native Windows apps, the tools ping, nslookup, and tracert won't work through the console because of security constraints (they work in custom Windows containers). To fill the void, two separate tools are added. To test DNS functionality, we added a tool named nameresolver.exe. The syntax is:
nameresolver.exe hostname [optional: DNS Server]
You can use nameresolver to check the hostnames that your app depends on. This way you can test if you have anything misconfigured with your DNS or perhaps don't have access to your DNS server. You can see the DNS server that your app uses in the console by looking at the environmental variables WEBSITE_DNS_SERVER and WEBSITE_DNS_ALT_SERVER.
The nameresolver.exe tool currently doesn't work in custom Windows containers.
You can use the next tool to test for TCP connectivity to a host and port combination. This tool is called tcpping and the syntax is:
tcpping.exe hostname [optional: port]
The tcpping utility tells you if you can reach a specific host and port. It can show success only if there's an application listening at the host and port combination, and there's network access from your app to the specified host and port.
Debug access to virtual network-hosted resources
A number of things can prevent your app from reaching a specific host and port. Most of the time it's one of these things:
- A firewall is in the way. If you have a firewall in the way, you hit the TCP timeout. The TCP timeout is 21 seconds in this case. Use the tcpping tool to test connectivity. TCP timeouts can be caused by many things beyond firewalls, but start there.
- DNS isn't accessible. The DNS timeout is 3 seconds per DNS server. If you have two DNS servers, the timeout is 6 seconds. Use nameresolver to see if DNS is working. You can't use nslookup, because that doesn't use the DNS your virtual network is configured with. If inaccessible, you could have a firewall or NSG blocking access to DNS or it could be down.
If those items don't answer your problems, look first for things like:
Regional virtual network integration
- Is your destination a non-RFC1918 address and you don't have Route All enabled?
- Is there an NSG blocking egress from your integration subnet?
- If you're going across Azure ExpressRoute or a VPN, is your on-premises gateway configured to route traffic back up to Azure? If you can reach endpoints in your virtual network but not on-premises, check your routes.
- Do you have enough permissions to set delegation on the integration subnet? During regional virtual network integration configuration, your integration subnet is delegated to Microsoft.Web/serverFarms. The VNet integration UI delegates the subnet to Microsoft.Web/serverFarms automatically. If your account doesn't have sufficient networking permissions to set delegation, you'll need someone who can set attributes on your integration subnet to delegate the subnet. To manually delegate the integration subnet, go to the Azure Virtual Network subnet UI and set the delegation for Microsoft.Web/serverFarms.
Gateway-required virtual network integration
- Is the point-to-site address range in the RFC 1918 ranges (10.0.0.0-10.255.255.255 / 172.16.0.0-172.31.255.255 / 192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255)?
- Does the gateway show as being up in the portal? If your gateway is down, then bring it back up.
- Do certificates show as being in sync, or do you suspect that the network configuration was changed? If your certificates are out of sync or you suspect that a change was made to your virtual network configuration that wasn't synced with your ASPs, select Sync Network.
- If you're going across a VPN, is the on-premises gateway configured to route traffic back up to Azure? If you can reach endpoints in your virtual network but not on-premises, check your routes.
- Are you trying to use a coexistence gateway that supports both point to site and ExpressRoute? Coexistence gateways aren't supported with virtual network integration.
Debugging networking issues is a challenge because you can't see what's blocking access to a specific host:port combination. Some causes include:
- You have a firewall up on your host that prevents access to the application port from your point-to-site IP range. Crossing subnets often requires public access.
- Your target host is down.
- Your application is down.
- You had the wrong IP or hostname.
- Your application is listening on a different port than what you expected. You can match your process ID with the listening port by using "netstat -aon" on the endpoint host.
- Your network security groups are configured in such a manner that they prevent access to your application host and port from your point-to-site IP range.
You don't know what address your app actually uses. It could be any address in the integration subnet or point-to-site address range, so you need to allow access from the entire address range.
More debug steps include:
Connect to a VM in your virtual network and attempt to reach your resource host:port from there. To test for TCP access, use the PowerShell command test-netconnection. The syntax is:
test-netconnection hostname [optional: -Port]
Bring up an application on a VM and test access to that host and port from the console from your app by using tcpping.
If your app can't reach a resource on-premises, check if you can reach the resource from your virtual network. Use the test-netconnection PowerShell command to check for TCP access. If your VM can't reach your on-premises resource, your VPN or ExpressRoute connection might not be configured properly.
If your virtual network-hosted VM can reach your on-premises system but your app can't, the cause is likely one of the following reasons:
- Your routes aren't configured with your subnet or point-to-site address ranges in your on-premises gateway.
- Your network security groups are blocking access for your point-to-site IP range.
- Your on-premises firewalls are blocking traffic from your point-to-site IP range.
- You're trying to reach a non-RFC 1918 address by using the regional virtual network integration feature.
Deleting the App Service plan or web app before disconnecting the VNet integration
If you deleted the web app or the App Service plan without disconnecting the VNet integration first, you will not be able to do any update/delete operations on the virtual network or subnet that was used for the integration with the deleted resource. A subnet delegation 'Microsoft.Web/serverFarms' will remain assigned to your subnet and will prevent the update/delete operations.
In order to do update/delete the subnet or virtual network again you need to re-create the VNet integration and then disconnect it:
- Re-create the App Service plan and web app (it is mandatory to use the exact same web app name as before).
- Navigate to the 'Networking' blade on the web app and configure the VNet integration.
- After the VNet integration is configured, select the 'Disconnect' button.
- Delete the App Service plan or web app.
- Update/Delete the subnet or virtual network.
If you still encounter issues with the VNet integration after following the steps above, please contact Microsoft Support.