On a corporate O-365 account with OneDrive: Can OneDrive access be restricted only to certain IPs and IP ranges? How?
Yes, however those restrictions will apply to all users, including admins, and across SharePoint Online, so use with care: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sharepoint/control-access-based-on-network-location
If you want a more granular solution and have Azure AD Premium licenses, use Conditional Access.
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