SharePoint Server 2010 Performance and Capacity Management
These recently published documents are really a must reading for everyone that wants to understand better SharePoint as a platform and specifically that plan to manage and deploy the 14 wave servers.
- SharePoint Server 2010 performance and capacity test results and recommendations
- SharePoint Server 2010 performance and capacity technical case studies
- Capacity management and sizing for SharePoint Server 2010
- SharePoint Server 2010 capacity management: software boundaries and limits
I would recommend "Designing Large List Maximizing List Performance" as an evolution of the previous whitepaper about this topic, and the Throttling and limits section.
The document shows you the huge scalability of the platform and how to benefit from it in your applications design.