Windows PowerShell equivalents for common networking commands (IPCONFIG, PING, NSLOOKUP)

Network troubleshooting is part any System Administrator’s life. Maybe you need to check the IP address of a machine or test if its networking connection is working. Maybe you need to see if DNS is properly configured or check the latency between two hosts.

If you have been in this field long enough, you probably have a few favorite commands that you learned years ago and use on a regular basis, like IPCONFIG or PING.

There are literally hundreds of networking-related PowerShell cmdlets in Windows these days. Just try out this command on your machine: Get-Command -Module Net* | Group Module

But more important than knowing every one of them, is to know the most useful cmdlets that have the potential to replace those old commands that you can’t live without.

And it’s when you combine the many networking cmdlets in ways that only PowerShell can do that you’ll find amazing new troubleshooting abilities…

 

IPCONFIG

Description: This command has many options, but the most common usage is just to show the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway for each network adapter in a machine.

PowerShell: Get-NetIPConfiguration or Get-NetIPAddress

Sample command lines:

  • Get-NetIPConfiguration
  • Get-NetIPAddress | Sort InterfaceIndex | FT InterfaceIndex, InterfaceAlias, AddressFamily, IPAddress, PrefixLength -Autosize
  • Get-NetIPAddress | ? AddressFamily -eq IPv4 | FT –AutoSize
  • Get-NetAdapter Wi-Fi | Get-NetIPAddress | FT -AutoSize

Sample output:

PS C:\> Get-NetIPConfiguration

InterfaceAlias : Wi-Fi
InterfaceIndex : 3
InterfaceDescription : Dell Wireless 1703 802.11b|g|n (2.4GHz)
NetProfile.Name : HomeWifi
IPv6Address : fded:b22c:44c4:1:88f2:9970:4082:4118
IPv4Address : 192.168.1.2
IPv6DefaultGateway :
IPv4DefaultGateway : 192.168.1.1
DNSServer : 192.168.1.1

InterfaceAlias : Bluetooth Network Connection
InterfaceIndex : 6
InterfaceDescription : Bluetooth Device (Personal Area Network)
NetAdapter.Status : Disconnected

InterfaceAlias : Ethernet
InterfaceIndex : 4
InterfaceDescription : Realtek PCIe GBE Family Controller
NetAdapter.Status : Disconnected

PS C:\> Get-NetIPAddress | Sort InterfaceIndex | FT InterfaceIndex, InterfaceAlias, AddressFamily, IPAddress, PrefixLength –Autosize

InterfaceIndex InterfaceAlias AddressFamily IPAddress PrefixLength
-------------- -------------- ------------- --------- -------
             1 Loopback Pseudo-Interface 1 IPv6 ::1 128
             1 Loopback Pseudo-Interface 1 IPv4 127.0.0.1 8
             3 Wi-Fi IPv6 fe80::88f2:9970:4082:4118%3 64
             3 Wi-Fi IPv6 fded:b22c:44c4:1:f188:1e45:58e3:9242 128
             3 Wi-Fi IPv6 fded:b22c:44c4:1:88f2:9970:4082:4118 64
             3 Wi-Fi IPv4 192.168.1.2 24
             4 Ethernet IPv6 fe80::ce6:97c9:ae58:b393%4 64
             4 Ethernet IPv4 169.254.179.147 16
             6 Bluetooth Network Connection IPv6 fe80::2884:6750:b46b:cec4%6 64
             6 Bluetooth Network Connection IPv4 169.254.206.196 16
             7 Local Area Connection* 3 IPv6 fe80::f11f:1051:2f3d:882%7 64
             7 Local Area Connection* 3 IPv4 169.254.8.130 16
             8 Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-Interface IPv6 2001:0:5ef5:79fd:1091:f90:e7e9:62f0 64
             8 Teredo Tunneling Pseudo-Interface IPv6 fe80::1091:f90:e7e9:62f0%8 64
             9 isatap.{024820F0-C990-475F-890B-B42EA24003F1} IPv6 fe80::5efe:192.168.1.2%9 128

PS C:\> Get-NetIPAddress | ? AddressFamily -eq IPv4 | FT –AutoSize

ifIndex IPAddress PrefixLength PrefixOrigin SuffixOrigin AddressState PolicyStore
------- --------- ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------ -----------
7 169.254.8.130 16 WellKnown Link Tentative ActiveStore
6 169.254.206.196 16 WellKnown Link Tentative ActiveStore
3 192.168.1.2 24 Dhcp Dhcp Preferred ActiveStore
1 127.0.0.1 8 WellKnown WellKnown Preferred ActiveStore
4 169.254.179.147 16 WellKnown Link Tentative ActiveStore

PS C:\> Get-NetAdapter Wi-Fi | Get-NetIPAddress | FT -AutoSize

ifIndex IPAddress PrefixLength PrefixOrigin SuffixOrigin AddressState PolicyStore
------- --------- ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------ -----------
3 fe80::88f2:9970:4082:4118%3 64 WellKnown Link Preferred ActiveStore
3 fded:b22c:44c4:1:f188:1e45:58e3:9242 128 RouterAdvertisement Random Preferred ActiveStore
3 fded:b22c:44c4:1:88f2:9970:4082:4118 64 RouterAdvertisement Link Preferred ActiveStore
3 192.168.1.2 24 Dhcp Dhcp Preferred ActiveStore

 

PING

Description: Checks connectivity to a specific host. Commonly used to check for liveliness, but also used to measure network latency.

PowerShell: Test-NetConnection

Sample command lines:

  • Test-NetConnection www.microsoft.com
  • Test-NetConnection -ComputerName www.microsoft.com -InformationLevel Detailed
  • Test-NetConnection -ComputerName www.microsoft.com | Select -ExpandProperty PingReplyDetails | FT Address, Status, RoundTripTime
  • 1..10 | % { Test-NetConnection -ComputerName www.microsoft.com -RemotePort 80 } | FT -AutoSize

Sample output

PS C:\> Test-NetConnection www.microsoft.com

ComputerName : www.microsoft.com
RemoteAddress : 104.66.197.237
InterfaceAlias : Wi-Fi
SourceAddress : 192.168.1.2
PingSucceeded : True
PingReplyDetails (RTT) : 22 ms

PS C:\> Test-NetConnection -ComputerName www.microsoft.com -InformationLevel Detailed

ComputerName : www.microsoft.com
RemoteAddress : 104.66.197.237
AllNameResolutionResults : 104.66.197.237
                           2600:1409:a:396::2768
                           2600:1409:a:39b::2768
InterfaceAlias : Wi-Fi
SourceAddress : 192.168.1.2
NetRoute (NextHop) : 192.168.1.1
PingSucceeded : True
PingReplyDetails (RTT) : 14 ms

PS C:\> Test-NetConnection -ComputerName www.microsoft.com | Select -ExpandProperty PingReplyDetails | FT Address, Status, RoundTripTime -Autosize

Address Status RoundtripTime
------- ------ -------------
104.66.197.237 Success 22

PS C:\> 1..10 | % { Test-NetConnection -ComputerName www.microsoft.com -RemotePort 80 } | FT -AutoSize

ComputerName RemotePort RemoteAddress PingSucceeded PingReplyDetails (RTT) TcpTestSucceeded
------------ ---------- ------------- ------------- ---------------------- ----------------
www.microsoft.com 80 104.66.197.237 True 17 ms True
www.microsoft.com 80 104.66.197.237 True 16 ms True
www.microsoft.com 80 104.66.197.237 True 15 ms True
www.microsoft.com 80 104.66.197.237 True 18 ms True
www.microsoft.com 80 104.66.197.237 True 20 ms True
www.microsoft.com 80 104.66.197.237 True 20 ms True
www.microsoft.com 80 104.66.197.237 True 20 ms True
www.microsoft.com 80 104.66.197.237 True 20 ms True
www.microsoft.com 80 104.66.197.237 True 15 ms True
www.microsoft.com 80 104.66.197.237 True 13 ms True

 

NSLOOKUP

Description: Name server lookup. Mostly used to find the IP address for a given DNS name (or vice-versa). Has many, many options.

PowerShell: Resolve-DnsName

Sample command lines:

  • Resolve-DnsName www.microsoft.com
  • Resolve-DnsName microsoft.com -type SOA
  • Resolve-DnsName microsoft.com -Server 8.8.8.8 –Type A

Sample output

PS C:\> Resolve-DnsName www.microsoft.com

Name Type TTL Section NameHost
---- ---- --- ------- --------
www.microsoft.com              CNAME 6 Answer toggle.www.ms.akadns.net
toggle.www.ms.akadns.net CNAME 6 Answer     www.microsoft.com-c.edgekey.net
www.microsoft.com-c.edgekey.ne CNAME 6 Answer     www.microsoft.com-c.edgekey.net.globalredir.akadns.net
t
www.microsoft.com-c.edgekey.ne CNAME 6 Answer e10088.dspb.akamaiedge.net
t.globalredir.akadns.net

Name : e10088.dspb.akamaiedge.net
QueryType : AAAA
TTL : 6
Section : Answer
IP6Address : 2600:1409:a:39b::2768

Name : e10088.dspb.akamaiedge.net
QueryType : AAAA
TTL : 6
Section : Answer
IP6Address : 2600:1409:a:396::2768

Name : e10088.dspb.akamaiedge.net
QueryType : A
TTL : 6
Section : Answer
IP4Address : 104.66.197.237

PS C:\> Resolve-DnsName microsoft.com -type SOA

Name Type TTL Section PrimaryServer NameAdministrator SerialNumber
---- ---- --- ------- ------------- ----------------- ------------
microsoft.com SOA 2976 Answer ns1.msft.net msnhst.microsoft.com 2015041801

PS C:\> Resolve-DnsName microsoft.com -Server 8.8.8.8 –Type A

Name Type TTL Section IPAddress
---- ---- --- ------- ---------
microsoft.com A 1244 Answer 134.170.188.221
microsoft.com A 1244 Answer 134.170.185.46

 

ROUTE

Description: Shows the IP routes in a given system (also used to add and delete routes)

PowerShell: Get-NetRoute (also New-NetRoute and Remove-NetRoute)

Sample command lines:

  • Get-NetRoute -Protocol Local -DestinationPrefix 192.168*
  • Get-NetAdapter Wi-Fi | Get-NetRoute

Sample output:

PS C:\WINDOWS\system32> Get-NetRoute -Protocol Local -DestinationPrefix 192.168*

ifIndex DestinationPrefix NextHop RouteMetric PolicyStore
------- ----------------- ------- ----------- -----------
2 192.168.1.255/32 0.0.0.0 256 ActiveStore
2 192.168.1.5/32 0.0.0.0 256 ActiveStore
2 192.168.1.0/24 0.0.0.0 256 ActiveStore

PS C:\WINDOWS\system32> Get-NetAdapter Wi-Fi | Get-NetRoute

ifIndex DestinationPrefix NextHop RouteMetric PolicyStore
------- ----------------- ------- ----------- -----------
2 255.255.255.255/32 0.0.0.0 256 ActiveStore
2 224.0.0.0/4 0.0.0.0 256 ActiveStore
2 192.168.1.255/32 0.0.0.0 256 ActiveStore
2 192.168.1.5/32 0.0.0.0 256 ActiveStore
2 192.168.1.0/24 0.0.0.0 256 ActiveStore
2 0.0.0.0/0 192.168.1.1 0 ActiveStore
2 ff00::/8 :: 256 ActiveStore
2 fe80::d1b9:9258:1fa:33e9/128 :: 256 ActiveStore
2 fe80::/64 :: 256 ActiveStore
2 fded:b22c:44c4:1:d1b9:9258:1fa:33e9/128 :: 256 ActiveStore
2 fded:b22c:44c4:1:c025:aa72:9331:442/128 :: 256 ActiveStore
2 fded:b22c:44c4:1::/64 :: 256 ActiveStore

 

TRACERT

Description: Trace route. Shows the IP route to a host, including all the hops between your computer and that host.

PowerShell: Test-NetConnection –TraceRoute

Sample command lines:

  • Test-NetConnection www.microsoft.com –TraceRoute
  • Test-NetConnection outlook.com -TraceRoute | Select -ExpandProperty TraceRoute | % { Resolve-DnsName $_ -type PTR -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue }

Sample output:

PS C:\> Test-NetConnection www.microsoft.com –TraceRoute

ComputerName : www.microsoft.com
RemoteAddress : 104.66.197.237
InterfaceAlias : Wi-Fi
SourceAddress : 192.168.1.2
PingSucceeded : True
PingReplyDetails (RTT) : 16 ms
TraceRoute : 192.168.1.1
                         10.0.0.1
                         TimedOut
                         68.86.113.181
                         69.139.164.2
                         68.85.240.94
                         68.86.93.165
                         68.86.83.126
                         104.66.197.237

PS C:\> Test-NetConnection outlook.com -TraceRoute | Select -ExpandProperty TraceRoute | % { Resolve-DnsName $_ -type PTR -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue }

Name Type TTL Section NameHost
---- ---- --- ------- --------
125.144.85.68.in-addr.arpa PTR 7200 Answer te-0-1-0-10-sur02.bellevue.wa.seattle.comcast.net
142.96.86.68.in-addr.arpa PTR 4164 Answer be-1-sur03.bellevue.wa.seattle.comcast.net
6.164.139.69.in-addr.arpa PTR 2469 Answer be-40-ar01.seattle.wa.seattle.comcast.net
165.93.86.68.in-addr.arpa PTR 4505 Answer be-33650-cr02.seattle.wa.ibone.comcast.net
178.56.167.173.in-addr.arpa PTR 7200 Answer as8075-1-c.seattle.wa.ibone.comcast.net
248.82.234.191.in-addr.arpa PTR 3600 Answer ae11-0.co2-96c-1a.ntwk.msn.net

 

NETSTAT

Description: Shows current TCP/IP network connections.

PowerShell: Get-NetTCPConnection

Sample command lines:

  • Get-NetTCPConnection | Group State, RemotePort | Sort Count | FT Count, Name –Autosize
  • Get-NetTCPConnection | ? State -eq Established | FT –Autosize
  • Get-NetTCPConnection | ? State -eq Established | ? RemoteAddress -notlike 127* | % { $_; Resolve-DnsName $_.RemoteAddress -type PTR -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue }

Sample output:

PS C:\> Get-NetTCPConnection | Group State, RemotePort | Sort Count | FT Count, Name -Autosize

Count Name
----- ----
    1 SynSent, 9100
    1 Established, 40028
    1 Established, 65001
    1 Established, 27015
    1 Established, 5223
    1 Established, 49227
    1 Established, 49157
    1 Established, 49156
    1 Established, 12350
    1 Established, 49200
    2 Established, 5354
    2 TimeWait, 5357
    2 Established, 80
    3 Established, 443
   36 Listen, 0

PS C:\> Get-NetTCPConnection | ? State -eq Established | FT -Autosize

LocalAddress LocalPort RemoteAddress RemotePort State AppliedSetting
------------ --------- ------------- ---------- ----- --------------
127.0.0.1 65001 127.0.0.1 49200 Established Internet
192.168.1.2 59619 91.190.218.57 12350 Established Internet
192.168.1.2 57993 213.199.179.175 40028 Established Internet
192.168.1.2 54334 17.158.28.49 443 Established Internet
192.168.1.2 54320 96.17.8.170 80 Established Internet
192.168.1.2 54319 23.3.105.144 80 Established Internet
192.168.1.2 54147 65.55.68.119 443 Established Internet
192.168.1.2 49257 17.143.162.214 5223 Established Internet
127.0.0.1 49227 127.0.0.1 27015 Established Internet
127.0.0.1 49200 127.0.0.1 65001 Established Internet
192.168.1.2 49197 157.56.98.92 443 Established Internet
127.0.0.1 49157 127.0.0.1 5354 Established Internet
127.0.0.1 49156 127.0.0.1 5354 Established Internet
127.0.0.1 27015 127.0.0.1 49227 Established Internet
127.0.0.1 5354 127.0.0.1 49157 Established Internet
127.0.0.1 5354 127.0.0.1 49156 Established Internet

PS C:\> Get-NetTCPConnection | ? State -eq Established | ? RemoteAddress -notlike 127* | % { $_; Resolve-DnsName $_.RemoteAddress -type PTR -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue }

LocalAddress LocalPort RemoteAddress RemotePort State AppliedSetting
------------ --------- ------------- ---------- ----- --------------
192.168.1.2 59619 91.190.218.57 12350 Established Internet
192.168.1.2 57993 213.199.179.175 40028 Established Internet
192.168.1.2 54334 17.158.28.49 443 Established Internet
192.168.1.2 54320 96.17.8.170 80 Established Internet

Name : 170.8.17.96.in-addr.arpa
QueryType : PTR
TTL : 86377
Section : Answer
NameHost : a96-17-8-170.deploy.akamaitechnologies.com

192.168.1.2 54319 23.3.105.144 80 Established Internet

Name : 144.105.3.23.in-addr.arpa
QueryType : PTR
TTL : 7
Section : Answer
NameHost : a23-3-105-144.deploy.static.akamaitechnologies.com

192.168.1.2 54147 65.55.68.119 443 Established Internet

Name : 119.68.55.65.in-addr.arpa
QueryType : PTR
TTL : 850
Section : Answer
NameHost : snt404-m.hotmail.com

192.168.1.2 49257 17.143.162.214 5223 Established Internet

192.168.1.2 49197 157.56.98.92 443 Established Internet

Name : 92.98.56.157.in-addr.arpa
QueryType : PTR
TTL : 3600
Section : Answer
NameHost : bn1wns1011516.wns.windows.com

Note: Including a PDF version of the output in case you can't see it too well on the web with the lines wrapping and all. See below.

Windows PowerShell equivalents for common networking commands.pdf