Use hosting startup assemblies in ASP.NET Core

By Luke Latham and Pavel Krymets

An IHostingStartup (hosting startup) implementation adds enhancements to an app at startup from an external assembly. For example, an external library can use a hosting startup implementation to provide additional configuration providers or services to an app. IHostingStartup is available in ASP.NET Core 2.0 or later.

View or download sample code (how to download)

HostingStartup attribute

A HostingStartup attribute indicates the presence of a hosting startup assembly to activate at runtime.

The entry assembly or the assembly containing the Startup class is automatically scanned for the HostingStartup attribute. The list of assemblies to search for HostingStartup attributes is loaded at runtime from configuration in the WebHostDefaults.HostingStartupAssembliesKey. The list of assemblies to exclude from discovery is loaded from the WebHostDefaults.HostingStartupExcludeAssembliesKey. For more information, see Web Host: Hosting Startup Assemblies and Web Host: Hosting Startup Exclude Assemblies.

In the following example, the namespace of the hosting startup assembly is StartupEnhancement. The class containing the hosting startup code is StartupEnhancementHostingStartup:

[assembly: HostingStartup(typeof(StartupEnhancement.StartupEnhancementHostingStartup))]

The HostingStartup attribute is typically located in the hosting startup assembly's IHostingStartup implementation class file.

Discover loaded hosting startup assemblies

To discover loaded hosting startup assemblies, enable logging and check the app's logs. Errors that occur when loading assemblies are logged. Loaded hosting startup assemblies are logged at the Debug level, and all errors are logged.

Disable automatic loading of hosting startup assemblies

To disable automatic loading of hosting startup assemblies, use one of the following approaches:

  • To prevent all hosting startup assemblies from loading, set one of the following to true or 1:
  • To prevent specific hosting startup assemblies from loading, set one of the following to a semicolon-delimited string of hosting startup assemblies to exclude at startup:

To disable automatic loading of hosting startup assemblies, set one of the following to true or 1:

If both the host configuration setting and the environment variable are set, the host setting controls the behavior.

Disabling hosting startup assemblies using the host setting or environment variable disables the assembly globally and may disable several characteristics of an app.

Project

Create a hosting startup with either of the following project types:

Class library

A hosting startup enhancement can be provided in a class library. The library contains a HostingStartup attribute.

The sample code includes a Razor Pages app, HostingStartupApp, and a class library, HostingStartupLibrary. The class library:

  • Contains a hosting startup class, ServiceKeyInjection, which implements IHostingStartup. ServiceKeyInjection adds a pair of service strings to the app's configuration using the in-memory configuration provider (AddInMemoryCollection).
  • Includes a HostingStartup attribute that identifies the hosting startup's namespace and class.

The ServiceKeyInjection class's Configure method uses an IWebHostBuilder to add enhancements to an app. IHostingStartup.Configure in the hosting startup assembly is called by the runtime before Startup.Configure in user code, which allows user code to overwrite any configuration provided by the hosting startup assembly.

HostingStartupLibrary/ServiceKeyInjection.cs:

[assembly: HostingStartup(typeof(HostingStartupLibrary.ServiceKeyInjection))]

namespace HostingStartupLibrary
{
    public class ServiceKeyInjection : IHostingStartup
    {
        public void Configure(IWebHostBuilder builder)
        {
            builder.ConfigureAppConfiguration(config =>
            {
                var dict = new Dictionary<string, string>
                {
                    {"DevAccount_FromLibrary", "DEV_1111111-1111"},
                    {"ProdAccount_FromLibrary", "PROD_2222222-2222"}
                };

                config.AddInMemoryCollection(dict);
            });
        }
    }
}

The app's Index page reads and renders the configuration values for the two keys set by the class library's hosting startup assembly:

HostingStartupApp/Pages/Index.cshtml.cs:

public class IndexModel : PageModel
{
    public IndexModel(IConfiguration config)
    {
        ServiceKey_Development_Library = config["DevAccount_FromLibrary"];
        ServiceKey_Production_Library = config["ProdAccount_FromLibrary"];
        ServiceKey_Development_Package = config["DevAccount_FromPackage"];
        ServiceKey_Production_Package = config["ProdAccount_FromPackage"];
    }

    public string ServiceKey_Development_Library { get; private set; }
    public string ServiceKey_Production_Library { get; private set; }
    public string ServiceKey_Development_Package { get; private set; }
    public string ServiceKey_Production_Package { get; private set; }

    public void OnGet()
    {
    }
}

The sample code also includes a NuGet package project that provides a separate hosting startup, HostingStartupPackage. The package has the same characteristics of the class library described earlier. The package:

  • Contains a hosting startup class, ServiceKeyInjection, which implements IHostingStartup. ServiceKeyInjection adds a pair of service strings to the app's configuration.
  • Includes a HostingStartup attribute.

HostingStartupPackage/ServiceKeyInjection.cs:

[assembly: HostingStartup(typeof(HostingStartupPackage.ServiceKeyInjection))]

namespace HostingStartupPackage
{
    public class ServiceKeyInjection : IHostingStartup
    {
        public void Configure(IWebHostBuilder builder)
        {
            builder.ConfigureAppConfiguration(config =>
            {
                var dict = new Dictionary<string, string>
                {
                    {"DevAccount_FromPackage", "DEV_3333333-3333"},
                    {"ProdAccount_FromPackage", "PROD_4444444-4444"}
                };

                config.AddInMemoryCollection(dict);
            });
        }
    }
}

The app's Index page reads and renders the configuration values for the two keys set by the package's hosting startup assembly:

HostingStartupApp/Pages/Index.cshtml.cs:

public class IndexModel : PageModel
{
    public IndexModel(IConfiguration config)
    {
        ServiceKey_Development_Library = config["DevAccount_FromLibrary"];
        ServiceKey_Production_Library = config["ProdAccount_FromLibrary"];
        ServiceKey_Development_Package = config["DevAccount_FromPackage"];
        ServiceKey_Production_Package = config["ProdAccount_FromPackage"];
    }

    public string ServiceKey_Development_Library { get; private set; }
    public string ServiceKey_Production_Library { get; private set; }
    public string ServiceKey_Development_Package { get; private set; }
    public string ServiceKey_Production_Package { get; private set; }

    public void OnGet()
    {
    }
}

Console app without an entry point

This approach is only available for .NET Core apps, not .NET Framework.

A dynamic hosting startup enhancement that doesn't require a compile-time reference for activation can be provided in a console app without an entry point that contains a HostingStartup attribute. Publishing the console app produces a hosting startup assembly that can be consumed from the runtime store.

A console app without an entry point is used in this process because:

  • A dependencies file is required to consume the hosting startup in the hosting startup assembly. A dependencies file is a runnable app asset that's produced by publishing an app, not a library.
  • A library can't be added directly to the runtime package store, which requires a runnable project that targets the shared runtime.

In the creation of a dynamic hosting startup:

  • A hosting startup assembly is created from the console app without an entry point that:
    • Includes a class that contains the IHostingStartup implementation.
    • Includes a HostingStartup attribute to identify the IHostingStartup implementation class.
  • The console app is published to obtain the hosting startup's dependencies. A consequence of publishing the console app is that unused dependencies are trimmed from the dependencies file.
  • The dependencies file is modified to set the runtime location of the hosting startup assembly.
  • The hosting startup assembly and its dependencies file is placed into the runtime package store. To discover the hosting startup assembly and its dependencies file, they're listed in a pair of environment variables.

The console app references the Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting.Abstractions package:

<Project Sdk="Microsoft.NET.Sdk">

  <PropertyGroup>
    <TargetFramework>netcoreapp2.1</TargetFramework>
  </PropertyGroup>

  <ItemGroup>
    <PackageReference Include="Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting.Abstractions" 
                      Version="2.1.1" />
  </ItemGroup>

</Project>

A HostingStartup attribute identifies a class as an implementation of IHostingStartup for loading and execution when building the IWebHost. In the following example, the namespace is StartupEnhancement, and the class is StartupEnhancementHostingStartup:

[assembly: HostingStartup(typeof(StartupEnhancement.StartupEnhancementHostingStartup))]

A class implements IHostingStartup. The class's Configure method uses an IWebHostBuilder to add enhancements to an app. IHostingStartup.Configure in the hosting startup assembly is called by the runtime before Startup.Configure in user code, which allows user code to overwrite any configuration provided by the hosting startup assembly.

namespace StartupEnhancement
{
    public class StartupEnhancementHostingStartup : IHostingStartup
    {
        public void Configure(IWebHostBuilder builder)
        {
            // Use the IWebHostBuilder to add app enhancements.
        }
    }
}

When building an IHostingStartup project, the dependencies file (*.deps.json) sets the runtime location of the assembly to the bin folder:

"targets": {
  ".NETCoreApp,Version=v2.1": {
    "StartupEnhancement/1.0.0": {
      "dependencies": {
        "Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting.Abstractions": "2.1.1"
      },
      "runtime": {
        "StartupEnhancement.dll": {}
      }
    }
  }
}

Only part of the file is shown. The assembly name in the example is StartupEnhancement.

Specify the hosting startup assembly

For either a class library- or console app-supplied hosting startup, specify the hosting startup assembly's name in the ASPNETCORE_HOSTINGSTARTUPASSEMBLIES environment variable. The environment variable is a semicolon-delimited list of assemblies.

Only hosting startup assemblies are scanned for the HostingStartup attribute. For the sample app, HostingStartupApp, to discover the hosting startups described earlier, the environment variable is set to the following value:

HostingStartupLibrary;HostingStartupPackage;StartupDiagnostics

A hosting startup assembly can also be set using the Hosting Startup Assemblies host configuration setting.

When multiple hosting startup assembles are present, their Configure methods are executed in the order that the assemblies are listed.

Activation

Options for hosting startup activation are:

  • Runtime store – Activation doesn't require a compile-time reference for activation. The sample app places the hosting startup assembly and dependencies files into a folder, deployment, to facilitate deployment of the hosting startup in a multimachine environment. The deployment folder also includes a PowerShell script that creates or modifies environment variables on the deployment system to enable the hosting startup.
  • Compile-time reference required for activation

Runtime store

The hosting startup implementation is placed in the runtime store. A compile-time reference to the assembly isn't required by the enhanced app.

After the hosting startup is built, a runtime store is generated using the manifest project file and the dotnet store command.

dotnet store --manifest {MANIFEST FILE} --runtime {RUNTIME IDENTIFIER} --output {OUTPUT LOCATION} --skip-optimization

In the sample app (RuntimeStore project) the following command is used:

dotnet store --manifest store.manifest.csproj --runtime win7-x64 --output ./deployment/store --skip-optimization

For the runtime to discover the runtime store, the runtime store's location is added to the DOTNET_SHARED_STORE environment variable.

Modify and place the hosting startup's dependencies file

To activate the enhancement without a package reference to the enhancement, specify additional dependencies to the runtime with additionalDeps. additionalDeps allows you to:

  • Extend the app's library graph by providing a set of additional *.deps.json files to merge with the app's own *.deps.json file on startup.
  • Make the hosting startup assembly discoverable and loadable.

The recommended approach for generating the additional dependencies file is to:

  1. Execute dotnet publish on the runtime store manifest file referenced in the previous section.
  2. Remove the manifest reference from libraries and the runtime section of the resulting *deps.json file.

In the example project, the store.manifest/1.0.0 property is removed from the targets and libraries section:

{
  "runtimeTarget": {
    "name": ".NETCoreApp,Version=v2.1",
    "signature": "4ea77c7b75ad1895ae1ea65e6ba2399010514f99"
  },
  "compilationOptions": {},
  "targets": {
    ".NETCoreApp,Version=v2.1": {
      "store.manifest/1.0.0": {
        "dependencies": {
          "StartupDiagnostics": "1.0.0"
        },
        "runtime": {
          "store.manifest.dll": {}
        }
      },
      "StartupDiagnostics/1.0.0": {
        "runtime": {
          "lib/netcoreapp2.1/StartupDiagnostics.dll": {
            "assemblyVersion": "1.0.0.0",
            "fileVersion": "1.0.0.0"
          }
        }
      }
    }
  },
  "libraries": {
    "store.manifest/1.0.0": {
      "type": "project",
      "serviceable": false,
      "sha512": ""
    },
    "StartupDiagnostics/1.0.0": {
      "type": "package",
      "serviceable": true,
      "sha512": "sha512-oiQr60vBQW7+nBTmgKLSldj06WNLRTdhOZpAdEbCuapoZ+M2DJH2uQbRLvFT8EGAAv4TAKzNtcztpx5YOgBXQQ==",
      "path": "startupdiagnostics/1.0.0",
      "hashPath": "startupdiagnostics.1.0.0.nupkg.sha512"
    }
  }
}

Place the *.deps.json file into the following location:

{ADDITIONAL DEPENDENCIES PATH}/shared/{SHARED FRAMEWORK NAME}/{SHARED FRAMEWORK VERSION}/{ENHANCEMENT ASSEMBLY NAME}.deps.json
  • {ADDITIONAL DEPENDENCIES PATH} – Location added to the DOTNET_ADDITIONAL_DEPS environment variable.
  • {SHARED FRAMEWORK NAME} – Shared framework required for this additional dependencies file.
  • {SHARED FRAMEWORK VERSION} – Minimum shared framework version.
  • {ENHANCEMENT ASSEMBLY NAME} – The enhancement's assembly name.

In the sample app (RuntimeStore project), the additional dependencies file is placed into the following location:

additionalDeps/shared/Microsoft.AspNetCore.App/2.1.0/StartupDiagnostics.deps.json

For runtime to discover the runtime store location, the additional dependencies file location is added to the DOTNET_ADDITIONAL_DEPS environment variable.

In the sample app (RuntimeStore project), building the runtime store and generating the additional dependencies file is accomplished using a PowerShell script.

For examples of how to set environment variables for various operating systems, see Use multiple environments.

Deployment

To facilitate the deployment of a hosting startup in a multimachine environment, the sample app creates a deployment folder in published output that contains:

  • The hosting startup runtime store.
  • The hosting startup dependencies file.
  • A PowerShell script that creates or modifies the ASPNETCORE_HOSTINGSTARTUPASSEMBLIES, DOTNET_SHARED_STORE, and DOTNET_ADDITIONAL_DEPS to support the activation of the hosting startup. Run the script from an administrative PowerShell command prompt on the deployment system.

NuGet package

A hosting startup enhancement can be provided in a NuGet package. The package has a HostingStartup attribute. The hosting startup types provided by the package are made available to the app using either of the following approaches:

  • The enhanced app's project file makes a package reference for the hosting startup in the app's project file (a compile-time reference). With the compile-time reference in place, the hosting startup assembly and all of its dependencies are incorporated into the app's dependency file (*.deps.json). This approach applies to a hosting startup assembly package published to nuget.org.
  • The hosting startup's dependencies file is made available to the enhanced app as described in the Runtime store section (without a compile-time reference).

For more information on NuGet packages and the runtime store, see the following topics:

Project bin folder

A hosting startup enhancement can be provided by a bin-deployed assembly in the enhanced app. The hosting startup types provided by the assembly are made available to the app using either of the following approaches:

  • The enhanced app's project file makes an assembly reference to the hosting startup (a compile-time reference). With the compile-time reference in place, the hosting startup assembly and all of its dependencies are incorporated into the app's dependency file (*.deps.json). This approach applies when the deployment scenario calls for moving the compiled hosting startup library's assembly (DLL file) to the consuming project or to a location accessible by the consuming project and a compile-time reference is made to the hosting startup's assembly.
  • The hosting startup's dependencies file is made available to the enhanced app as described in the Runtime store section (without a compile-time reference).

Sample code

The sample code (how to download) demonstrates hosting startup implementation scenarios:

  • Two hosting startup assemblies (class libraries) set a pair of in-memory configuration key-value pairs each:
    • NuGet package (HostingStartupPackage)
    • Class library (HostingStartupLibrary)
  • A hosting startup is activated from a runtime store-deployed assembly (StartupDiagnostics). The assembly adds two middlewares to the app at startup that provide diagnostic information on:
    • Registered services
    • Address (scheme, host, path base, path, query string)
    • Connection (remote IP, remote port, local IP, local port, client certificate)
    • Request headers
    • Environment variables

To run the sample:

Activation from a NuGet package

  1. Compile the HostingStartupPackage package with the dotnet pack command.

  2. Add the package's assembly name of the HostingStartupPackage to the ASPNETCORE_HOSTINGSTARTUPASSEMBLIES environment variable.

  3. Compile and run the app. A package reference is present in the enhanced app (a compile-time reference). A <PropertyGroup> in the app's project file specifies the package project's output (../HostingStartupPackage/bin/Debug) as a package source. This allows the app to use the package without uploading the package to nuget.org. For more information, see the notes in the HostingStartupApp's project file.

    <PropertyGroup>
      <RestoreSources>$(RestoreSources);https://api.nuget.org/v3/index.json;../HostingStartupPackage/bin/Debug</RestoreSources>
    </PropertyGroup>
    
  4. Observe that the service configuration key values rendered by the Index page match the values set by the package's ServiceKeyInjection.Configure method.

If you make changes to the HostingStartupPackage project and recompile it, clear the local NuGet package caches to ensure that the HostingStartupApp receives the updated package and not a stale package from the local cache. To clear the local NuGet caches, execute the following dotnet nuget locals command:

dotnet nuget locals all --clear

Activation from a class library

  1. Compile the HostingStartupLibrary class library with the dotnet build command.

  2. Add the class library's assembly name of HostingStartupLibrary to the ASPNETCORE_HOSTINGSTARTUPASSEMBLIES environment variable.

  3. bin-deploy the class library's assembly to the app by copying the HostingStartupLibrary.dll file from the class library's compiled output to the app's bin/Debug folder.

  4. Compile and run the app. An <ItemGroup> in the app's project file references the class library's assembly (.\bin\Debug\netcoreapp2.1\HostingStartupLibrary.dll) (a compile-time reference). For more information, see the notes in the HostingStartupApp's project file.

    <ItemGroup>
      <Reference Include=".\bin\Debug\netcoreapp2.1\HostingStartupLibrary.dll">
        <HintPath>.\bin\Debug\netcoreapp2.1\HostingStartupLibrary.dll</HintPath>
        <SpecificVersion>False</SpecificVersion>
      </Reference>
    </ItemGroup>
    
  5. Observe that the service configuration key values rendered by the Index page match the values set by the class library's ServiceKeyInjection.Configure method.

Activation from a runtime store-deployed assembly

  1. The StartupDiagnostics project uses PowerShell to modify its StartupDiagnostics.deps.json file. PowerShell is installed by default on Windows starting with Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1. To obtain PowerShell on other platforms, see Installing Windows PowerShell.

  2. Build the StartupDiagnostics project. After the project is built, a build target in the project file automatically:

    • Triggers the PowerShell script to modify the StartupDiagnostics.deps.json file.
    • Moves the StartupDiagnostics.deps.json file to the user profile's additionalDeps folder.
  3. Execute the dotnet store command at a command prompt in the hosting startup's directory to store the assembly and its dependencies in the user profile's runtime store:

    dotnet store --manifest StartupDiagnostics.csproj --runtime <RID>
    

    For Windows, the command uses the win7-x64 runtime identifier (RID). When providing the hosting startup for a different runtime, substitute the correct RID.

  4. Set the environment variables:

    • Add the assembly name of StartupDiagnostics to the ASPNETCORE_HOSTINGSTARTUPASSEMBLIES environment variable.
    • On Windows, set the DOTNET_ADDITIONAL_DEPS environment variable to %UserProfile%\.dotnet\x64\additionalDeps\StartupDiagnostics\. On macOS/Linux, set the DOTNET_ADDITIONAL_DEPS environment variable to /Users/<USER>/.dotnet/x64/additionalDeps/StartupDiagnostics/, where <USER> is the user profile that contains the hosting startup.
  5. Run the sample app.

  6. Request the /services endpoint to see the app's registered services. Request the /diag endpoint to see the diagnostic information.