Format response data in ASP.NET Core Web API

By Kirk Larkin and Rick Anderson

ASP.NET Core MVC supports formatting response data, using specified formats or in response to a client's request.

Format-specific Action Results

Some action result types are specific to a particular format, such as JsonResult and ContentResult. Actions can return results that always use a specified format, ignoring a client's request for a different format. For example, returning JsonResult returns JSON-formatted data and returning ContentResult returns plain-text-formatted string data.

An action isn't required to return any specific type. ASP.NET Core supports any object return value. Results from actions that return objects that aren't IActionResult types are serialized using the appropriate IOutputFormatter implementation. For more information, see Controller action return types in ASP.NET Core web API.

By default, the built-in helper method ControllerBase.Ok returns JSON-formatted data:

[HttpGet]
public IActionResult Get() =>
    Ok(_todoItemStore.GetList());

The sample code returns a list of todo items. Using the F12 browser developer tools or Postman with the previous code displays:

  • The response header containing content-type: application/json; charset=utf-8.
  • The request headers. For example, the Accept header. The Accept header is ignored by the preceding code.

To return plain text formatted data, use ContentResult and the Content helper:

[HttpGet("Version")]
public ContentResult GetVersion() =>
    Content("v1.0.0");

In the preceding code, the Content-Type returned is text/plain.

For actions with multiple return types, return IActionResult. For example, when returning different HTTP status codes based on the result of the operation.

Content negotiation

Content negotiation occurs when the client specifies an Accept header. The default format used by ASP.NET Core is JSON. Content negotiation is:

  • Implemented by ObjectResult.
  • Built into the status code-specific action results returned from the helper methods. The action results helper methods are based on ObjectResult.

When a model type is returned, the return type is ObjectResult.

The following action method uses the Ok and NotFound helper methods:

[HttpGet("{id:long}")]
public IActionResult GetById(long id)
{
    var todo = _todoItemStore.GetById(id);

    if (todo is null)
    {
        return NotFound();
    }

    return Ok(todo);
}

By default, ASP.NET Core supports the following media types:

  • application/json
  • text/json
  • text/plain

Tools such as Fiddler or Postman can set the Accept request header to specify the return format. When the Accept header contains a type the server supports, that type is returned. The next section shows how to add additional formatters.

Controller actions can return POCOs (Plain Old CLR Objects). When a POCO is returned, the runtime automatically creates an ObjectResult that wraps the object. The client gets the formatted serialized object. If the object being returned is null, a 204 No Content response is returned.

The following example returns an object type:

[HttpGet("{id:long}")]
public TodoItem? GetById(long id) =>
    _todoItemStore.GetById(id);

In the preceding code, a request for a valid todo item returns a 200 OK response. A request for an invalid todo item returns a 204 No Content response.

The Accept header

Content negotiation takes place when an Accept header appears in the request. When a request contains an accept header, ASP.NET Core:

  • Enumerates the media types in the accept header in preference order.
  • Tries to find a formatter that can produce a response in one of the formats specified.

If no formatter is found that can satisfy the client's request, ASP.NET Core:

If no formatter is configured for the requested format, the first formatter that can format the object is used. If no Accept header appears in the request:

  • The first formatter that can handle the object is used to serialize the response.
  • There isn't any negotiation taking place. The server is determining what format to return.

If the Accept header contains */*, the Header is ignored unless RespectBrowserAcceptHeader is set to true on MvcOptions.

Browsers and content negotiation

Unlike typical API clients, web browsers supply Accept headers. Web browsers specify many formats, including wildcards. By default, when the framework detects that the request is coming from a browser:

  • The Accept header is ignored.
  • The content is returned in JSON, unless otherwise configured.

This approach provides a more consistent experience across browsers when consuming APIs.

To configure an app to respect browser accept headers, set the RespectBrowserAcceptHeader property to true:

var builder = WebApplication.CreateBuilder(args);

builder.Services.AddControllers(options =>
{
    options.RespectBrowserAcceptHeader = true;
});

Configure formatters

Apps that need to support extra formats can add the appropriate NuGet packages and configure support. There are separate formatters for input and output. Input formatters are used by Model Binding. Output formatters are used to format responses. For information on creating a custom formatter, see Custom Formatters.

Add XML format support

To configure XML formatters implemented using XmlSerializer, call AddXmlSerializerFormatters:

var builder = WebApplication.CreateBuilder(args);

builder.Services.AddControllers()
    .AddXmlSerializerFormatters();

When using the preceding code, controller methods return the appropriate format based on the request's Accept header.

Configure System.Text.Json-based formatters

To configure features for the System.Text.Json-based formatters, use Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.JsonOptions.JsonSerializerOptions. The following highlighted code configures PascalCase formatting instead of the default camelCase formatting:

var builder = WebApplication.CreateBuilder(args);

builder.Services.AddControllers()
    .AddJsonOptions(options =>
    {
        options.JsonSerializerOptions.PropertyNamingPolicy = null;
    });

The following action method calls ControllerBase.Problem to create a ProblemDetails response:

[HttpGet("Error")]
public IActionResult GetError() =>
    Problem("Something went wrong.");

A ProblemDetails response is always camelCase, even when the app sets the format to PascalCase. ProblemDetails follows RFC 7807, which specifies lowercase.

To configure output serialization options for specific actions, use JsonResult. For example:

[HttpGet]
public IActionResult Get() =>
    new JsonResult(
        _todoItemStore.GetList(),
        new JsonSerializerOptions
        {
            PropertyNamingPolicy = null
        });

Add Newtonsoft.Json-based JSON format support

The default JSON formatters use System.Text.Json. To use the Newtonsoft.Json-based formatters, install the Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.NewtonsoftJson NuGet package and configure it in Program.cs:

var builder = WebApplication.CreateBuilder(args);

builder.Services.AddControllers()
    .AddNewtonsoftJson();

In the preceding code, the call to AddNewtonsoftJson configures the following Web API, MVC, and Razor Pages features to use Newtonsoft.Json:

Some features may not work well with System.Text.Json-based formatters and require a reference to the Newtonsoft.Json-based formatters. Continue using the Newtonsoft.Json-based formatters when the app:

  • Uses Newtonsoft.Json attributes. For example, [JsonProperty] or [JsonIgnore].
  • Customizes the serialization settings.
  • Relies on features that Newtonsoft.Json provides.

To configure features for the Newtonsoft.Json-based formatters, use SerializerSettings:

builder.Services.AddControllers()
    .AddNewtonsoftJson(options =>
    {
        options.SerializerSettings.ContractResolver = new DefaultContractResolver();
    });

To configure output serialization options for specific actions, use JsonResult. For example:

[HttpGet]
public IActionResult GetNewtonsoftJson() =>
    new JsonResult(
        _todoItemStore.GetList(),
        new JsonSerializerSettings
        {
            ContractResolver = new DefaultContractResolver()
        });

Specify a format

To restrict the response formats, apply the [Produces] filter. Like most Filters, [Produces] can be applied at the action, controller, or global scope:

[ApiController]
[Route("api/[controller]")]
[Produces("application/json")]
public class TodoItemsController : ControllerBase

The preceding [Produces] filter:

  • Forces all actions within the controller to return JSON-formatted responses.
  • Return JSON-formatted responses even if other formatters are configured and the client specifies a different format.

For more information, see Filters.

Special case formatters

Some special cases are implemented using built-in formatters. By default, string return types are formatted as text/plain (text/html if requested via the Accept header). This behavior can be deleted by removing the StringOutputFormatter. Formatters are removed in Program.cs. Actions that have a model object return type return 204 No Content when returning null. This behavior can be deleted by removing the HttpNoContentOutputFormatter. The following code removes the StringOutputFormatter and HttpNoContentOutputFormatter.

var builder = WebApplication.CreateBuilder(args);

builder.Services.AddControllers(options =>
{
    // using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.Formatters;
    options.OutputFormatters.RemoveType<StringOutputFormatter>();
    options.OutputFormatters.RemoveType<HttpNoContentOutputFormatter>();
});

Without the StringOutputFormatter, the built-in JSON formatter formats string return types. If the built-in JSON formatter is removed and an XML formatter is available, the XML formatter formats string return types. Otherwise, string return types return 406 Not Acceptable.

Without the HttpNoContentOutputFormatter, null objects are formatted using the configured formatter. For example:

  • The JSON formatter returns a response with a body of null.
  • The XML formatter returns an empty XML element with the attribute xsi:nil="true" set.

Response format URL mappings

Clients can request a particular format as part of the URL, for example:

  • In the query string or part of the path.
  • By using a format-specific file extension such as .xml or .json.

The mapping from request path should be specified in the route the API is using. For example:

[ApiController]
[Route("api/[controller]")]
[FormatFilter]
public class TodoItemsController : ControllerBase
{
    private readonly TodoItemStore _todoItemStore;

    public TodoItemsController(TodoItemStore todoItemStore) =>
        _todoItemStore = todoItemStore;

    [HttpGet("{id:long}.{format?}")]
    public TodoItem? GetById(long id) =>
        _todoItemStore.GetById(id);

The preceding route allows the requested format to be specified using an optional file extension. The [FormatFilter] attribute checks for the existence of the format value in the RouteData and maps the response format to the appropriate formatter when the response is created.

Route Formatter
/api/todoitems/5 The default output formatter
/api/todoitems/5.json The JSON formatter (if configured)
/api/todoitems/5.xml The XML formatter (if configured)

Additional resources

ASP.NET Core MVC has support for formatting response data. Response data can be formatted using specific formats or in response to client requested format.

View or download sample code (how to download)

Format-specific Action Results

Some action result types are specific to a particular format, such as JsonResult and ContentResult. Actions can return results that are formatted in a particular format, regardless of client preferences. For example, returning JsonResult returns JSON-formatted data. Returning ContentResult or a string returns plain-text-formatted string data.

An action isn't required to return any specific type. ASP.NET Core supports any object return value. Results from actions that return objects that aren't IActionResult types are serialized using the appropriate IOutputFormatter implementation. For more information, see Controller action return types in ASP.NET Core web API.

The built-in helper method Ok returns JSON-formatted data:

// GET: api/authors
[HttpGet]
public ActionResult Get()
{
    return Ok(_authors.List());
}

The sample download returns the list of authors. Using the F12 browser developer tools or Postman with the previous code:

  • The response header containing content-type: application/json; charset=utf-8 is displayed.
  • The request headers are displayed. For example, the Accept header. The Accept header is ignored by the preceding code.

To return plain text formatted data, use ContentResult and the Content helper:

// GET api/authors/about
[HttpGet("About")]
public ContentResult About()
{
    return Content("An API listing authors of docs.asp.net.");
}

In the preceding code, the Content-Type returned is text/plain. Returning a string delivers Content-Type of text/plain:

// GET api/authors/version
[HttpGet("version")]
public string Version()
{
    return "Version 1.0.0";
}

For actions with multiple return types, return IActionResult. For example, returning different HTTP status codes based on the result of operations performed.

Content negotiation

Content negotiation occurs when the client specifies an Accept header. The default format used by ASP.NET Core is JSON. Content negotiation is:

  • Implemented by ObjectResult.
  • Built into the status code-specific action results returned from the helper methods. The action results helper methods are based on ObjectResult.

When a model type is returned, the return type is ObjectResult.

The following action method uses the Ok and NotFound helper methods:

// GET: api/authors/search?namelike=th
[HttpGet("Search")]
public IActionResult Search(string namelike)
{
    var result = _authors.GetByNameSubstring(namelike);
    if (!result.Any())
    {
        return NotFound(namelike);
    }
    return Ok(result);
}

By default, ASP.NET Core supports application/json, text/json, and text/plain media types. Tools such as Fiddler or Postman can set the Accept request header to specify the return format. When the Accept header contains a type the server supports, that type is returned. The next section shows how to add additional formatters.

Controller actions can return POCOs (Plain Old CLR Objects). When a POCO is returned, the runtime automatically creates an ObjectResult that wraps the object. The client gets the formatted serialized object. If the object being returned is null, a 204 No Content response is returned.

Returning an object type:

// GET api/authors/RickAndMSFT
[HttpGet("{alias}")]
public Author Get(string alias)
{
    return _authors.GetByAlias(alias);
}

In the preceding code, a request for a valid author alias returns a 200 OK response with the author's data. A request for an invalid alias returns a 204 No Content response.

The Accept header

Content negotiation takes place when an Accept header appears in the request. When a request contains an accept header, ASP.NET Core:

  • Enumerates the media types in the accept header in preference order.
  • Tries to find a formatter that can produce a response in one of the formats specified.

If no formatter is found that can satisfy the client's request, ASP.NET Core:

If no formatter is configured for the requested format, the first formatter that can format the object is used. If no Accept header appears in the request:

  • The first formatter that can handle the object is used to serialize the response.
  • There isn't any negotiation taking place. The server is determining what format to return.

If the Accept header contains */*, the Header is ignored unless RespectBrowserAcceptHeader is set to true on MvcOptions.

Browsers and content negotiation

Unlike typical API clients, web browsers supply Accept headers. Web browsers specify many formats, including wildcards. By default, when the framework detects that the request is coming from a browser:

  • The Accept header is ignored.
  • The content is returned in JSON, unless otherwise configured.

This approach provides a more consistent experience across browsers when consuming APIs.

To configure an app to honor browser accept headers, set RespectBrowserAcceptHeader to true:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddControllers(options =>
    {
        options.RespectBrowserAcceptHeader = true; // false by default
    });
}

Configure formatters

Apps that need to support additional formats can add the appropriate NuGet packages and configure support. There are separate formatters for input and output. Input formatters are used by Model Binding. Output formatters are used to format responses. For information on creating a custom formatter, see Custom Formatters.

Add XML format support

XML formatters implemented using XmlSerializer are configured by calling AddXmlSerializerFormatters:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddControllers()
        .AddXmlSerializerFormatters();
}

The preceding code serializes results using XmlSerializer.

When using the preceding code, controller methods return the appropriate format based on the request's Accept header.

Configure System.Text.Json based formatters

Features for the System.Text.Json based formatters can be configured using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.JsonOptions.JsonSerializerOptions. The default formatting is camelCase. The following highlighted code sets PascalCase formatting:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddControllers()
        .AddJsonOptions(options =>
            options.JsonSerializerOptions.PropertyNamingPolicy = null);
}

The following action method calls ControllerBase.Problem to create a ProblemDetails response:

[HttpGet("error")]
public IActionResult GetError()
{
    return Problem("Something went wrong!");
}

With the preceding code:

  • https://localhost:5001/WeatherForecast/temperature returns PascalCase.
  • https://localhost:5001/WeatherForecast/error returns camelCase. The error response is always camelCase, even when the app sets the format to PascalCase. ProblemDetails follows RFC 7807, which specifies lower case

The following code sets PascalCase and adds a custom converter:

services.AddControllers().AddJsonOptions(options =>
{
    // Use the default property (Pascal) casing.
    options.JsonSerializerOptions.PropertyNamingPolicy = null;

    // Configure a custom converter.
    options.JsonSerializerOptions.Converters.Add(new MyCustomJsonConverter());
});

Output serialization options, on a per-action basis, can be configured using JsonResult. For example:

public IActionResult Get()
{
    return Json(model, new JsonSerializerOptions
    {
        WriteIndented = true,
    });
}

Add Newtonsoft.Json-based JSON format support

The default JSON formatters are based on System.Text.Json. Support for Newtonsoft.Json based formatters and features is available by installing the Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.NewtonsoftJson NuGet package and configuring it in Startup.ConfigureServices.

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddControllers()
        .AddNewtonsoftJson();
}

In the preceding code, the call to AddNewtonsoftJson configures the following Web API, MVC, and Razor Pages features to use Newtonsoft.Json:

Some features may not work well with System.Text.Json-based formatters and require a reference to the Newtonsoft.Json-based formatters. Continue using the Newtonsoft.Json-based formatters when the app:

  • Uses Newtonsoft.Json attributes. For example, [JsonProperty] or [JsonIgnore].
  • Customizes the serialization settings.
  • Relies on features that Newtonsoft.Json provides.

Features for the Newtonsoft.Json-based formatters can be configured using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.MvcNewtonsoftJsonOptions.SerializerSettings:

services.AddControllers().AddNewtonsoftJson(options =>
{
    // Use the default property (Pascal) casing
    options.SerializerSettings.ContractResolver = new DefaultContractResolver();

    // Configure a custom converter
    options.SerializerSettings.Converters.Add(new MyCustomJsonConverter());
});

Output serialization options, on a per-action basis, can be configured using JsonResult. For example:

public IActionResult Get()
{
    return Json(model, new JsonSerializerSettings
    {
        Formatting = Formatting.Indented,
    });
}

Specify a format

To restrict the response formats, apply the [Produces] filter. Like most Filters, [Produces] can be applied at the action, controller, or global scope:

[ApiController]
[Route("[controller]")]
[Produces("application/json")]
public class WeatherForecastController : ControllerBase
{

The preceding [Produces] filter:

  • Forces all actions within the controller to return JSON-formatted responses.
  • If other formatters are configured and the client specifies a different format, JSON is returned.

For more information, see Filters.

Special case formatters

Some special cases are implemented using built-in formatters. By default, string return types are formatted as text/plain (text/html if requested via the Accept header). This behavior can be deleted by removing the StringOutputFormatter. Formatters are removed in the ConfigureServices method. Actions that have a model object return type return 204 No Content when returning null. This behavior can be deleted by removing the HttpNoContentOutputFormatter. The following code removes the StringOutputFormatter and HttpNoContentOutputFormatter.

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddControllers(options =>
    {
        // requires using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.Formatters;
        options.OutputFormatters.RemoveType<StringOutputFormatter>();
        options.OutputFormatters.RemoveType<HttpNoContentOutputFormatter>();
    });
}

Without the StringOutputFormatter, the built-in JSON formatter formats string return types. If the built-in JSON formatter is removed and an XML formatter is available, the XML formatter formats string return types. Otherwise, string return types return 406 Not Acceptable.

Without the HttpNoContentOutputFormatter, null objects are formatted using the configured formatter. For example:

  • The JSON formatter returns a response with a body of null.
  • The XML formatter returns an empty XML element with the attribute xsi:nil="true" set.

Response format URL mappings

Clients can request a particular format as part of the URL, for example:

  • In the query string or part of the path.
  • By using a format-specific file extension such as .xml or .json.

The mapping from request path should be specified in the route the API is using. For example:

[Route("api/[controller]")]
[ApiController]
[FormatFilter]
public class ProductsController : ControllerBase
{
    [HttpGet("{id}.{format?}")]
    public Product Get(int id)
    {

The preceding route allows the requested format to be specified as an optional file extension. The [FormatFilter] attribute checks for the existence of the format value in the RouteData and maps the response format to the appropriate formatter when the response is created.

Route Formatter
/api/products/5 The default output formatter
/api/products/5.json The JSON formatter (if configured)
/api/products/5.xml The XML formatter (if configured)