Integrate Azure Stack Hub with monitoring solutions using syslog forwarding

This article shows you how to use syslog to integrate Azure Stack Hub infrastructure with external security solution(s) already deployed in your datacenter. For example, a security information event management (SIEM) system. The syslog channel exposes audits, alerts, and security logs from all the components of the Azure Stack Hub infrastructure. Use syslog forwarding to integrate with security monitoring solutions and to retrieve all audits, alerts, and security logs to store them for retention.

Starting with the 1809 update, Azure Stack Hub has an integrated syslog client that, once configured, emits syslog messages with the payload in Common Event Format (CEF).

The following diagram describes the integration of Azure Stack Hub with an external SIEM. There are two integration patterns that need to be considered: the first one (the one in blue) is the Azure Stack Hub infrastructure that encompasses the infrastructure virtual machines and the Hyper-V nodes. All the audits, security logs, and alerts from those components are centrally collected and exposed via syslog with CEF payload. This integration pattern is described in this document page. The second integration pattern is the one depicted in orange and covers the baseboard management controllers (BMCs), the hardware lifecycle host (HLH), the virtual machines and virtual appliances that run the hardware partner monitoring and management software, and the top of rack (TOR) switches. Since these components are hardware-partner specific, contact your hardware partner for documentation on how to integrate them with an external SIEM.

Syslog forwarding diagram

Configuring syslog forwarding

The syslog client in Azure Stack Hub supports the following configurations:

  1. Syslog over TCP, with mutual authentication (client and server) and TLS 1.2 encryption: In this configuration, both the syslog server and the syslog client can verify the identity of each other via certificates. The messages are sent over a TLS 1.2 encrypted channel.

  2. Syslog over TCP with server authentication and TLS 1.2 encryption: In this configuration, the syslog client can verify the identity of the syslog server via a certificate. The messages are sent over a TLS 1.2 encrypted channel.

  3. Syslog over TCP, with no encryption: In this configuration, the syslog client and syslog server identities aren't verified. The messages are sent in clear text over TCP.

  4. Syslog over UDP, with no encryption: In this configuration, the syslog client and syslog server identities aren't verified. The messages are sent in clear text over UDP.

Important

Microsoft strongly recommends to use TCP using authentication and encryption (configuration #1 or, at the very minimum, #2) for production environments to protect against man-in-the-middle attacks and eavesdropping of messages.

Cmdlets to configure syslog forwarding

Configuring syslog forwarding requires access to the privileged endpoint (PEP). Two PowerShell cmdlets have been added to the PEP to configure the syslog forwarding:

### cmdlet to pass the syslog server information to the client and to configure the transport protocol, the encryption and the authentication between the client and the server

Set-SyslogServer [-ServerName <String>] [-ServerPort <UInt16>] [-NoEncryption] [-SkipCertificateCheck] [-SkipCNCheck] [-UseUDP] [-Remove]

### cmdlet to configure the certificate for the syslog client to authenticate with the server

Set-SyslogClient [-pfxBinary <Byte[]>] [-CertPassword <SecureString>] [-RemoveCertificate] [-OutputSeverity]

Cmdlets parameters

Parameters for Set-SyslogServer cmdlet:

Parameter Description Type Required
ServerName FQDN or IP address of the syslog server. String yes
ServerPort Port number the syslog server is listening on. UInt16 yes
NoEncryption Force the client to send syslog messages in clear text. flag no
SkipCertificateCheck Skip validation of the certificate provided by the syslog server during initial TLS handshake. flag no
SkipCNCheck Skip validation of the Common Name value of the certificate provided by the syslog server during initial TLS handshake. flag no
UseUDP Use syslog with UDP as transport protocol. flag no
Remove Remove configuration of the server from the client and stop syslog forwarding. flag no

Parameters for Set-SyslogClient cmdlet:

Parameter Description Type
pfxBinary The contents of the pfx file, piped to a Byte[], containing the certificate to be used by the client as identity to authenticate against the syslog server. Byte[]
CertPassword Password to import the private key that's associated with the pfx file. SecureString
RemoveCertificate Remove certificate from the client. flag
OutputSeverity Level of output logging. Values are Default or Verbose. Default includes severity levels: warning, critical, or error. Verbose includes all severity levels: verbose, informational, warning, critical, or error. String

Configuring syslog forwarding with TCP, mutual authentication, and TLS 1.2 encryption

In this configuration, the syslog client in Azure Stack Hub forwards the messages to the syslog server over TCP, with TLS 1.2 encryption. During the initial handshake, the client verifies that the server provides a valid, trusted certificate. The client also provides a certificate to the server as proof of its identity. This configuration is the most secure as it provides a full validation of the identity of both the client and the server and it sends messages over an encrypted channel.

Important

Microsoft strongly recommends to use this configuration for production environments.

To configure syslog forwarding with TCP, mutual authentication, and TLS 1.2 encryption, run both these cmdlets on a PEP session:

# Configure the server
Set-SyslogServer -ServerName <FQDN or ip address of syslog server> -ServerPort <Port number on which the syslog server is listening on>

# Provide certificate to the client to authenticate against the server
Set-SyslogClient -pfxBinary <Byte[] of pfx file> -CertPassword <SecureString, password for accessing the pfx file>

The client certificate must have the same root as the one provided during the deployment of Azure Stack Hub. It also must contain a private key.

##Example on how to set your syslog client with the certificate for mutual authentication.
##This example script must be run from your hardware lifecycle host or privileged access workstation.

$ErcsNodeName = "<yourPEP>"
$password = ConvertTo-SecureString -String "<your cloudAdmin account password" -AsPlainText -Force
 
$cloudAdmin = "<your cloudAdmin account name>"
$CloudAdminCred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential ($cloudAdmin, $password)
 
$certPassword = $password
$certContent = Get-Content -Path C:\cert\<yourClientCertificate>.pfx -Encoding Byte
 
$params = @{ 
    ComputerName = $ErcsNodeName 
    Credential = $CloudAdminCred 
    ConfigurationName = "PrivilegedEndpoint" 
}

$session = New-PSSession @params
 
$params = @{ 
    Session = $session 
    ArgumentList = @($certContent, $certPassword) 
}
Write-Verbose "Invoking cmdlet to set syslog client certificate..." -Verbose 
Invoke-Command @params -ScriptBlock { 
    param($CertContent, $CertPassword) 
    Set-SyslogClient -PfxBinary $CertContent -CertPassword $CertPassword }

Configuring syslog forwarding with TCP, Server authentication, and TLS 1.2 encryption

In this configuration, the syslog client in Azure Stack Hub forwards the messages to the syslog server over TCP, with TLS 1.2 encryption. During the initial handshake, the client also verifies that the server provides a valid, trusted certificate. This configuration prevents the client from sending messages to untrusted destinations. TCP using authentication and encryption is the default configuration and represents the minimum level of security that Microsoft recommends for a production environment.

Set-SyslogServer -ServerName <FQDN or ip address of syslog server> -ServerPort <Port number on which the syslog server is listening on>

In case you want to test the integration of your syslog server with the Azure Stack Hub client by using a self-signed or untrusted certificate, you can use these flags to skip the server validation done by the client during the initial handshake.

 #Skip validation of the Common Name value in the server certificate. Use this flag if you provide an IP address for your syslog server
 Set-SyslogServer -ServerName <FQDN or ip address of syslog server> -ServerPort <Port number on which the syslog server is listening on>
 -SkipCNCheck

 #Skip entirely the server certificate validation
 Set-SyslogServer -ServerName <FQDN or ip address of syslog server> -ServerPort <Port number on which the syslog server is listening on>
 -SkipCertificateCheck

Important

Microsoft recommends against the use of -SkipCertificateCheck flag for production environments.

Configuring syslog forwarding with TCP and no encryption

In this configuration, the syslog client in Azure Stack Hub forwards the messages to the syslog server over TCP, with no encryption. The client doesn't verify the identity of the server nor does it provide its own identity to the server for verification.

Set-SyslogServer -ServerName <FQDN or ip address of syslog server> -ServerPort <Port number on which the syslog server is listening on> -NoEncryption

Important

Microsoft recommends against using this configuration for production environments.

Configuring syslog forwarding with UDP and no encryption

In this configuration, the syslog client in Azure Stack Hub forwards the messages to the syslog server over UDP, with no encryption. The client doesn't verify the identity of the server nor does it provide its own identity to the server for verification.

Set-SyslogServer -ServerName <FQDN or ip address of syslog server> -ServerPort <Port number on which the syslog server is listening on> -UseUDP

While UDP with no encryption is the easiest to configure, it doesn't provide any protection against man-in-the-middle attacks and eavesdropping of messages.

Important

Microsoft recommends against using this configuration for production environments.

Removing syslog forwarding configuration

To remove the syslog server configuration altogether and stop syslog forwarding:

Remove the syslog server configuration from the client

Set-SyslogServer -Remove

Remove the client certificate from the client

Set-SyslogClient -RemoveCertificate

Verifying the syslog setup

If you successfully connected the syslog client to your syslog server, you should soon start receiving events. If you don't see any event, verify the configuration of your syslog client by running the following cmdlets:

Verify the server configuration in the syslog client

Get-SyslogServer

Verify the certificate setup in the syslog client

Get-SyslogClient

Syslog message schema

The syslog forwarding of the Azure Stack Hub infrastructure sends messages formatted in Common Event Format (CEF). Each syslog message is structured based on this schema:

<Time> <Host> <CEF payload>

The CEF payload is based on the structure below, but the mapping for each field varies depending on the type of message (Windows Event, Alert created, Alert closed).

# Common Event Format schema
CEF: <Version>|<Device Vendor>|<Device Product>|<Device Version>|<Signature ID>|<Name>|<Severity>|<Extensions>
* Version: 0.0
* Device Vendor: Microsoft
* Device Product: Microsoft Azure Stack Hub
* Device Version: 1.0

CEF mapping for privileged endpoint events

Prefix fields
* Signature ID: Microsoft-AzureStack-PrivilegedEndpoint: <PEP Event ID>
* Name: <PEP Task Name>
* Severity: mapped from PEP Level (details see the PEP Severity table below)
* Who: account used to connect to the PEP
* WhichIP: IP address of the device used to connect to the PEP

Table of events for the privileged endpoint:

Event PEP event ID PEP task name Severity
PrivilegedEndpointAccessed 1000 PrivilegedEndpointAccessedEvent 5
SupportSessionTokenRequested 1001 SupportSessionTokenRequestedEvent 5
SupportSessionDevelopmentTokenRequested 1002 SupportSessionDevelopmentTokenRequestedEvent 5
SupportSessionUnlocked 1003 SupportSessionUnlockedEvent 10
SupportSessionFailedToUnlock 1004 SupportSessionFailedToUnlockEvent 10
PrivilegedEndpointClosed 1005 PrivilegedEndpointClosedEvent 5
NewCloudAdminUser 1006 NewCloudAdminUserEvent 10
RemoveCloudAdminUser 1007 RemoveCloudAdminUserEvent 10
SetCloudAdminUserPassword 1008 SetCloudAdminUserPasswordEvent 5
GetCloudAdminPasswordRecoveryToken 1009 GetCloudAdminPasswordRecoveryTokenEvent 10
ResetCloudAdminPassword 1010 ResetCloudAdminPasswordEvent 10
PrivilegedEndpointSessionTimedOut 1017 PrivilegedEndpointSessionTimedOutEvent 5

PEP Severity table:

Severity Level Numerical Value
0 Undefined Value: 0. Indicates logs at all levels
10 Critical Value: 1. Indicates logs for a critical alert
8 Error Value: 2. Indicates logs for an error
5 Warning Value: 3. Indicates logs for a warning
2 Information Value: 4. Indicates logs for an informational message
0 Verbose Value: 5. Indicates logs at all levels

CEF mapping for recovery endpoint events

Prefix fields
* Signature ID: Microsoft-AzureStack-PrivilegedEndpoint: <REP Event ID>
* Name: <REP Task Name>
* Severity: mapped from REP Level (details see the REP Severity table below)
* Who: account used to connect to the REP
* WhichIP: IP address of the device used to connect to the REP

Table of events for the recovery endpoint:

Event REP event ID REP task name Severity
RecoveryEndpointAccessed 1011 RecoveryEndpointAccessedEvent 5
RecoverySessionTokenRequested 1012 RecoverySessionTokenRequestedEvent 5
RecoverySessionDevelopmentTokenRequested 1013 RecoverySessionDevelopmentTokenRequestedEvent 5
RecoverySessionUnlocked 1014 RecoverySessionUnlockedEvent 10
RecoverySessionFailedToUnlock 1015 RecoverySessionFailedToUnlockEvent 10
RecoveryEndpointClosed 1016 RecoveryEndpointClosedEvent 5

REP Severity table:

Severity Level Numerical value
0 Undefined Value: 0. Indicates logs at all levels
10 Critical Value: 1. Indicates logs for a critical alert
8 Error Value: 2. Indicates logs for an error
5 Warning Value: 3. Indicates logs for a warning
2 Information Value: 4. Indicates logs for an informational message
0 Verbose Value: 5. Indicates logs at all levels

CEF mapping for Windows events

* Signature ID: ProviderName:EventID
* Name: TaskName
* Severity: Level (for details, see the severity table below)
* Extension: Custom Extension Name (for details, see the Custom Extension table below)

Severity table for Windows events:

CEF severity value Windows event level Numerical value
0 Undefined Value: 0. Indicates logs at all levels
10 Critical Value: 1. Indicates logs for a critical alert
8 Error Value: 2. Indicates logs for an error
5 Warning Value: 3. Indicates logs for a warning
2 Information Value: 4. Indicates logs for an informational message
0 Verbose Value: 5. Indicates logs at all levels

Custom extension table for Windows events in Azure Stack Hub:

Custom extension name Windows event example
MasChannel System
MasComputer test.azurestack.contoso.com
MasCorrelationActivityID C8F40D7C-3764-423B-A4FA-C994442238AF
MasCorrelationRelatedActivityID C8F40D7C-3764-423B-A4FA-C994442238AF
MasEventData svchost!!4132,G,0!!!!EseDiskFlushConsistency!!ESENT!!0x800000
MasEventDescription The Group Policy settings for the user were processed successfully. There were no changes detected since the last successful processing of Group Policy.
MasEventID 1501
MasEventRecordID 26637
MasExecutionProcessID 29380
MasExecutionThreadID 25480
MasKeywords 0x8000000000000000
MasKeywordName Audit Success
MasLevel 4
MasOpcode 1
MasOpcodeName info
MasProviderEventSourceName
MasProviderGuid AEA1B4FA-97D1-45F2-A64C-4D69FFFD92C9
MasProviderName Microsoft-Windows-GroupPolicy
MasSecurityUserId <Windows SID>
MasTask 0
MasTaskCategory Process Creation
MasUserData KB4093112!!5112!!Installed!!0x0!!WindowsUpdateAgent Xpath: /Event/UserData/*
MasVersion 0

CEF mapping for alerts created

* Signature ID: Microsoft Azure Stack Hub Alert Creation : FaultTypeId
* Name: FaultTypeId : AlertId
* Severity: Alert Severity (for details, see alerts severity table below)
* Extension: Custom Extension Name (for details, see the Custom Extension table below)

Alerts severity table:

Severity Level
0 Undefined
10 Critical
5 Warning

Custom Extension table for Alerts created in Azure Stack Hub:

Custom extension name Example
MasEventDescription DESCRIPTION: A user account <TestUser> was created for <TestDomain>. It's a potential security risk. -- REMEDIATION: Contact support. Customer Assistance is required to resolve this issue. Don't try to resolve this issue without their assistance. Before you open a support request, start the log file collection process using the guidance from https://aka.ms/azurestacklogfiles.

CEF mapping for alerts closed

* Signature ID: Microsoft Azure Stack Hub Alert Creation : FaultTypeId
* Name: FaultTypeId : AlertId
* Severity: Information

The example below shows a syslog message with CEF payload:

2018:05:17:-23:59:28 -07:00 TestHost CEF:0.0|Microsoft|Microsoft Azure Stack Hub|1.0|3|TITLE: User Account Created -- DESCRIPTION: A user account \<TestUser\> was created for \<TestDomain\>. It's a potential security risk. -- REMEDIATION: Please contact Support. Customer Assistance is required to resolve this issue. Do not try to resolve this issue without their assistance. Before you open a support request, start the log file collection process using the guidance from https://aka.ms/azurestacklogfiles|10

Syslog event types

The table lists all the event types, events, message schema or properties that are send via the syslog channel. Setup verbose switch should only be used if Windows informational events are required for SIEM integration.

Event Type Events or message schema Requires verbose setting Event Description (optional)
Azure Stack Hub Alerts For the alert message schema see CEF mapping for alerts closed.

A list of all alerts in shared in a separate document.
No System health alerts
Privileged Endpoint Events For the privileged endpoint message schema see CEF mapping for privileged endpoint events.

PrivilegedEndpointAccessed
SupportSessionTokenRequested
SupportSessionDevelopmentTokenRequested
SupportSessionUnlocked
SupportSessionFailedToUnlock
PrivilegedEndpointClosed
NewCloudAdminUser
RemoveCloudAdminUser
SetCloudAdminUserPassword
GetCloudAdminPasswordRecoveryToken
ResetCloudAdminPassword
PrivilegedEndpointSessionTimedOut
No
Recovery Endpoint Events For the recovery endpoint message schema see CEF mapping for recovery endpoint events.
RecoveryEndpointAccessed
RecoverySessionTokenRequested
RecoverySessionDevelopmentTokenRequested
RecoverySessionUnlocked
RecoverySessionFailedToUnlock
Recovand RecoveryEndpointClosed
No
Windows Security Events
For the Windows event message schema see CEF mapping for Windows events.
Yes (To get information events) Type:
- Information
- Warning
- Error
- Critical
ARM Events Message properties:

AzsSubscriptionId
AzsCorrelationId
AzsPrincipalOid
AzsPrincipalPuid
AzsTenantId
AzsOperationName
AzsOperationId
AzsEventSource
AzsDescription
AzsResourceProvider
AzsResourceUri
AzsEventName
AzsEventInstanceId
AzsChannels
AzsEventLevel
AzsStatus
AzsSubStatus
AzsClaims
AzsAuthorization
AzsHttpRequest
AzsProperties
AzsEventTimestamp
AzsAudience
AzsIssuer
AzsIssuedAt
AzsApplicationId
AzsUniqueTokenId
AzsArmServiceRequestId
AzsEventCategory

No
Each registered ARM resource can raise an event.
BCDR Events Message schema:

AuditingManualBackup {
}
AuditingConfig
{
Interval
Retention
IsSchedulerEnabled
BackupPath
}
AuditingPruneBackupStore {
IsInternalStore
}
No These events track infra backup admin operations done by customer manually, includes trigger backup, change backup configuration, and prune backup data.
Infra Fault Creation and Closing Events Message schema:

InfrastructureFaultOpen {
AzsFaultId,
AzsFaultTypeName,
AzsComponentType,
AzsComponentName,
AzsFaultHash,
AzsCreatedTimeUtc,
AzsSource
}

InfrastructureFaultClose {
AzsFaultId,
AzsFaultTypeName,
AzsComponentType,
AzsComponentName,
AzsFaultHash,
AzsLastUpdatedTimeUtc,
AzsSource
}
No Faults trigger workflows that attempt to remediate errors that can lead to alerts. If a fault has no remediation it does directly lead to an Alert.
Service Fault Creation and Closing Events Message schema:

ServiceFaultOpen {
AzsFaultId,
AzsFaultTypeName,
AzsSubscriptionId,
AzsResourceGroup,
AzsServiceName,
AzsResourceId
AzsFaultHash,
AzsCreatedTimeUtc,
AzsSource
}

ServiceFaultClose {
AzsFaultId,
AzsFaultTypeName,
AzsSubscriptionId,
AzsResourceGroup,
AzsServiceName,
AzsResourceId
AzsFaultHash,
AzsLastUpdatedTimeUtc,
AzsSource
}
No Faults trigger workflows that attempt to remediate errors that can lead to alerts.
If a fault has no remediation it does directly lead to an Alert.
PEP WAC events Message schema:

Prefix fields
* Signature ID: Microsoft-AzureStack-PrivilegedEndpoint:
* Name:
* Severity: mapped from PEP Level (details see the PEP Severity table below)
* Who: account used to connect to the PEP
* WhichIP: IP address of the device used to connect to the PEP

WACServiceStartFailedEvent
WACConnectedUserNotRetrievedEvent
WACEnableExceptionEvent
WACUserAddedEvent
WACAddUserToLocalGroupFailedEvent
WACIsUserInLocalGroupFailedEvent
WACServiceStartTimeoutEvent
WACServiceStartInvalidOperationEvent
WACGetSidFromUserFailedEvent
WACDisableFirewallFailedEvent
WACCreateLocalGroupIfNotExistFailedEvent
WACEnableFlagIsTrueEvent
WACEnableFlagIsFalseEvent
WACServiceStartedEvent
No

Next steps

Servicing policy