Azure Active Directory Identity Protection Glossary

At risk (User)

A user with one or more active risk events.

Atypical sign-in location

A sign-in from a geographic location that is not typical for the specific user, similar users, or the tenant.

Azure AD Identity Protection

A security module of Azure Active Directory that provides a consolidated view into risk events and potential vulnerabilities affecting an organization’s identities.

Conditional access

A policy for securing access to resources. Conditional access rules are stored in the Azure Active Directory and are evaluated by Azure AD before granting access to the resource. Example rules include restricting access based on user location, device health or user authentication method.

Credentials

Information that includes identification and proof of identification that is used to gain access to local and network resources. Examples of credentials are user names and passwords, smart cards, and certificates.

Event

A record of an activity in Azure Active Directory.

False-positive (risk event)

A risk event status set manually by an Identity Protection user, indicating that the risk event was investigated and was incorrectly flagged as a risk event.

Identity

A person or entity that must be verified by means of authentication, based on criteria such as password or a certificate.

Identity risk event

AAD event that was flagged as anomalous by Identity Protection, and may indicate that an identity has been compromised.

Ignored (risk event)

A risk event status set manually by an Identity Protection user, indicating that the risk event is closed without taking a remediation action.

Impossible travel from atypical locations

A risk event triggered when two sign-ins for the same user are detected, where at least one of them is from an atypical sign-in location, and where the time between the sign-ins is shorter than the minimum time it would take to physically travel between these locations.

Investigation

The process of reviewing the activities, logs, and other relevant information related to a risk event to decide whether remediation or mitigation steps are necessary, understand if and how the identity was compromised, and understand how the compromised identity was used.

Leaked credentials

A risk event triggered when current user credentials (user name and password) are found posted publicly in the Dark web by our researchers.

Mitigation

An action to limit or eliminate the ability of an attacker to exploit a compromised identity or device without restoring the identity or device to a safe state. A mitigation does not resolve previous risk events associated with the identity or device.

Multi-factor authentication

An authentication method that requires two or more authentication methods, which may include something the user has, such a certificate; something the user knows, such as user names, passwords, or pass phrases; physical attributes, such as a thumbprint; and personal attributes, such as a personal signature.

Offline detection

The detection of anomalies and evaluation of the risk of an event such as sign-in attempt after the fact, for an event that has already happened.

Policy condition

A part of a security policy which defines the entities (groups, users, apps, device platforms, Device states, IP ranges, client types) included in the policy or excluded from it.

Policy rule

The part of a security policy which describes the circumstances that would trigger the policy, and the actions taken when the policy is triggered.

Prevention

An action to prevent damage to the organization through abuse of an identity or device suspected or know to be compromised. A prevention action does not secure the device or identity, and does not resolve previous risk events.

Privileged (user)

A user that at the time of a risk event, had permanent or temporary admin permissions to one or more resource in Azure Active Directory, such as a Global Administrator, Billing Administrator, Service Administrator, User administrator, and Password Administrator.

Real-time

See Real-time detection.

Real-time detection

The detection of anomalies and evaluation of the risk of an event such as sign-in attempt before the event is allowed to proceed.

Remediated (risk event)

A risk event status set automatically by Identity Protection, indicating that the risk event was remediated using the standard remediation action for this type of risk event. For example, when the user password is reset, many risk events that indicate that the previous password was compromised are automatically remediated.

Remediation

An action to secure an identity or a device that were previously suspected or known to be compromised. A remediation action restores the identity or device to a safe state, and resolves previous risk events associated with the identity or device.

Resolved (risk event)

A risk event status set manually by an Identity Protection user, indicating that the user took an appropriate remediation action outside Identity Protection, and that the risk event should be considered closed.

Risk event status

A property of a risk event, indicating whether the event is active, and if closed, the reason for closing it.

Risk event type

A category for the risk event, indicating the type of anomaly that caused the event to be considered risky.

Risk level (risk event)

An indication (High, Medium, or Low) of the severity of the risk event to help Identity Protection users prioritize the actions they take to reduce the risk to their organization.

Risk level (sign-in)

An indication (High, Medium, or Low) of the likelihood that for a specific sign-in, someone else is attempting to use the user’s identity.

Risk level (user compromise)

An indication (High, Medium, or Low) of the likelihood that an identity has been compromised.

Risk level (vulnerability)

An indication (High, Medium, or Low) of the severity of the vulnerability to help Identity Protection users prioritize the actions they take to reduce the risk to their organization.

Secure (identity)

Take remediation action such as a password change or machine reimaging to restore a potentially compromised identity to an uncompromised state.

Security policy

A collection of policy rules and condition. A policy can be applied to entities such as users, groups, apps, devices, device platforms, device states, IP ranges, and Auth2.0 client types. When a policy is enabled, it is evaluated whenever an entity included in the policy is issued a token for a resource.

Sign in (v)

To authenticate to an identity in Azure Active Directory.

Sign-in (n)

The process or action of authenticating an identity in Azure Active Directory, and the event that captures this operation.

Sign-in from anonymous IP address

A risk event triggered after a successful sign-in from IP address that has been identified as an anonymous proxy IP address.

Sign-in from infected device

A risk event triggered when a sign-in originates from an IP address which is known to be used by one or more compromised devices, which are actively attempting to communicate with a bot server.

Sign-in from IP address with suspicious activity

A risk event triggered after a successful sign-in from an IP address with a high number of failed login attempts across multiple user accounts over a short period of time.

Sign-in from unfamiliar location

A risk event triggered when a user successfully signs in from a new location (IP, Latitude/Longitude and ASN).

Sign-in risk

See Risk level (sign-in)

Sign-in risk policy

A conditional access policy that evaluates the risk to a specific sign-in and applies mitigations based on predefined conditions and rules.

User compromise risk

See Risk level (user compromise)

User risk

See Risk level (user compromise).

User risk policy

A conditional access policy that considers the sign-in and applies mitigations based on predefined conditions and rules.

Users flagged for risk

Users that have risk events which are either active or remediated

Vulnerability

A configuration or condition in Azure Active Directory which makes the directory susceptible to exploits or threats.

See also