How to use managed identities for Azure resources on an Azure VM to acquire an access token

Managed identities for Azure resources is a feature of Azure Active Directory. Each of the Azure services that support managed identities for Azure resources are subject to their own timeline. Make sure you review the availability status of managed identities for your resource and known issues before you begin.

Managed identities for Azure resources provides Azure services with an automatically managed identity in Azure Active Directory. You can use this identity to authenticate to any service that supports Azure AD authentication, without having credentials in your code.

This article provides various code and script examples for token acquisition, as well as guidance on important topics such as handling token expiration and HTTP errors.

Prerequisites

  • If you're not familiar with the managed identities for Azure resources feature, see this overview. If you don't have an Azure account, sign up for a free account before you continue.

If you plan to use the Azure PowerShell examples in this article, be sure to install the latest version of Azure PowerShell.

Important

  • All sample code/script in this article assumes the client is running on a virtual machine with managed identities for Azure resources. Use the virtual machine "Connect" feature in the Azure portal, to remotely connect to your VM. For details on enabling managed identities for Azure resources on a VM, see Configure managed identities for Azure resources on a VM using the Azure portal, or one of the variant articles (using PowerShell, CLI, a template, or an Azure SDK).

Important

  • The security boundary of managed identities for Azure resources, is the resource it's being used on. All code/scripts running on a virtual machine can request and retrieve tokens for any managed identities available on it.

Overview

A client application can request managed identities for Azure resources app-only access token for accessing a given resource. The token is based on the managed identities for Azure resources service principal. As such, there is no need for the client to register itself to obtain an access token under its own service principal. The token is suitable for use as a bearer token in service-to-service calls requiring client credentials.

Get a token using HTTP Protocol details for managed identities for Azure resources token endpoint
Get a token using the Microsoft.Azure.Services.AppAuthentication library for .NET Example of using the Microsoft.Azure.Services.AppAuthentication library from a .NET client
Get a token using C# Example of using managed identities for Azure resources REST endpoint from a C# client
Get a token using Go Example of using managed identities for Azure resources REST endpoint from a Go client
Get a token using Azure PowerShell Example of using managed identities for Azure resources REST endpoint from a PowerShell client
Get a token using CURL Example of using managed identities for Azure resources REST endpoint from a Bash/CURL client
Handling token caching Guidance for handling expired access tokens
Error handling Guidance for handling HTTP errors returned from the managed identities for Azure resources token endpoint
Resource IDs for Azure services Where to get resource IDs for supported Azure services

Get a token using HTTP

The fundamental interface for acquiring an access token is based on REST, making it accessible to any client application running on the VM that can make HTTP REST calls. This is similar to the Azure AD programming model, except the client uses an endpoint on the virtual machine (vs an Azure AD endpoint).

Sample request using the Azure Instance Metadata Service (IMDS) endpoint (recommended):

GET 'http://169.254.169.254/metadata/identity/oauth2/token?api-version=2018-02-01&resource=https://management.azure.com/' HTTP/1.1 Metadata: true
Element Description
GET The HTTP verb, indicating you want to retrieve data from the endpoint. In this case, an OAuth access token.
http://169.254.169.254/metadata/identity/oauth2/token The managed identities for Azure resources endpoint for the Instance Metadata Service.
api-version A query string parameter, indicating the API version for the IMDS endpoint. Please use API version 2018-02-01 or greater.
resource A query string parameter, indicating the App ID URI of the target resource. It also appears in the aud (audience) claim of the issued token. This example requests a token to access Azure Resource Manager, which has an App ID URI of https://management.azure.com/.
Metadata An HTTP request header field, required by managed identities for Azure resources as a mitigation against Server Side Request Forgery (SSRF) attack. This value must be set to "true", in all lower case.
object_id (Optional) A query string parameter, indicating the object_id of the managed identity you would like the token for. Required, if your VM has multiple user-assigned managed identities.
client_id (Optional) A query string parameter, indicating the client_id of the managed identity you would like the token for. Required, if your VM has multiple user-assigned managed identities.

Sample request using the managed identities for Azure resources VM Extension Endpoint (planned for deprecation in January 2019):

GET http://localhost:50342/oauth2/token?resource=https%3A%2F%2Fmanagement.azure.com%2F HTTP/1.1
Metadata: true
Element Description
GET The HTTP verb, indicating you want to retrieve data from the endpoint. In this case, an OAuth access token.
http://localhost:50342/oauth2/token The managed identities for Azure resources endpoint, where 50342 is the default port and is configurable.
resource A query string parameter, indicating the App ID URI of the target resource. It also appears in the aud (audience) claim of the issued token. This example requests a token to access Azure Resource Manager, which has an App ID URI of https://management.azure.com/.
Metadata An HTTP request header field, required by managed identities for Azure resources as a mitigation against Server Side Request Forgery (SSRF) attack. This value must be set to "true", in all lower case.
object_id (Optional) A query string parameter, indicating the object_id of the managed identity you would like the token for. Required, if your VM has multiple user-assigned managed identities.
client_id (Optional) A query string parameter, indicating the client_id of the managed identity you would like the token for. Required, if your VM has multiple user-assigned managed identities.

Sample response:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
{
  "access_token": "eyJ0eXAi...",
  "refresh_token": "",
  "expires_in": "3599",
  "expires_on": "1506484173",
  "not_before": "1506480273",
  "resource": "https://management.azure.com/",
  "token_type": "Bearer"
}
Element Description
access_token The requested access token. When calling a secured REST API, the token is embedded in the Authorization request header field as a "bearer" token, allowing the API to authenticate the caller.
refresh_token Not used by managed identities for Azure resources.
expires_in The number of seconds the access token continues to be valid, before expiring, from time of issuance. Time of issuance can be found in the token's iat claim.
expires_on The timespan when the access token expires. The date is represented as the number of seconds from "1970-01-01T0:0:0Z UTC" (corresponds to the token's exp claim).
not_before The timespan when the access token takes effect, and can be accepted. The date is represented as the number of seconds from "1970-01-01T0:0:0Z UTC" (corresponds to the token's nbf claim).
resource The resource the access token was requested for, which matches the resource query string parameter of the request.
token_type The type of token, which is a "Bearer" access token, which means the resource can give access to the bearer of this token.

Get a token using the Microsoft.Azure.Services.AppAuthentication library for .NET

For .NET applications and functions, the simplest way to work with managed identities for Azure resources is through the Microsoft.Azure.Services.AppAuthentication package. This library will also allow you to test your code locally on your development machine, using your user account from Visual Studio, the Azure CLI, or Active Directory Integrated Authentication. For more on local development options with this library, see the [Microsoft.Azure.Services.AppAuthentication reference]. This section shows you how to get started with the library in your code.

  1. Add references to the Microsoft.Azure.Services.AppAuthentication and Microsoft.Azure.KeyVault NuGet packages to your application.

  2. Add the following code to your application:

    using Microsoft.Azure.Services.AppAuthentication;
    using Microsoft.Azure.KeyVault;
    // ...
    var azureServiceTokenProvider = new AzureServiceTokenProvider();
    string accessToken = await azureServiceTokenProvider.GetAccessTokenAsync("https://management.azure.com/");
    // OR
    var kv = new KeyVaultClient(new KeyVaultClient.AuthenticationCallback(azureServiceTokenProvider.KeyVaultTokenCallback));
    

To learn more about Microsoft.Azure.Services.AppAuthentication and the operations it exposes, see the Microsoft.Azure.Services.AppAuthentication reference and the App Service and KeyVault with managed identities for Azure resources .NET sample.

Get a token using C#

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.IO;
using System.Net;
using System.Web.Script.Serialization; 

// Build request to acquire managed identities for Azure resources token
HttpWebRequest request = (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create(http://169.254.169.254/metadata/identity/oauth2/token?api-version=2018-02-01&resource=https://management.azure.com/");
request.Headers["Metadata"] = "true";
request.Method = "GET";

try
{
    // Call /token endpoint
    HttpWebResponse response = (HttpWebResponse)request.GetResponse();

    // Pipe response Stream to a StreamReader, and extract access token
    StreamReader streamResponse = new StreamReader(response.GetResponseStream()); 
    string stringResponse = streamResponse.ReadToEnd();
    JavaScriptSerializer j = new JavaScriptSerializer();
    Dictionary<string, string> list = (Dictionary<string, string>) j.Deserialize(stringResponse, typeof(Dictionary<string, string>));
    string accessToken = list["access_token"];
}
catch (Exception e)
{
    string errorText = String.Format("{0} \n\n{1}", e.Message, e.InnerException != null ? e.InnerException.Message : "Acquire token failed");
}

Get a token using Go

package main

import (
  "fmt"
  "io/ioutil"
  "net/http"
  "net/url"
  "encoding/json"
)

type responseJson struct {
  AccessToken string `json:"access_token"`
  RefreshToken string `json:"refresh_token"`
  ExpiresIn string `json:"expires_in"`
  ExpiresOn string `json:"expires_on"`
  NotBefore string `json:"not_before"`
  Resource string `json:"resource"`
  TokenType string `json:"token_type"`
}

func main() {

    // Create HTTP request for a managed services for Azure resources token to access Azure Resource Manager
    var msi_endpoint *url.URL
    msi_endpoint, err := url.Parse("http://169.254.169.254/metadata/identity/oauth2/token?api-version=2018-02-01")
    if err != nil {
      fmt.Println("Error creating URL: ", err)
      return 
    }
    msi_parameters := url.Values{}
    msi_parameters.Add("resource", "https://management.azure.com/")
    msi_endpoint.RawQuery = msi_parameters.Encode()
    req, err := http.NewRequest("GET", msi_endpoint.String(), nil)
    if err != nil {
      fmt.Println("Error creating HTTP request: ", err)
      return 
    }
    req.Header.Add("Metadata", "true")

    // Call managed services for Azure resources token endpoint
    client := &http.Client{}
    resp, err := client.Do(req) 
    if err != nil{
      fmt.Println("Error calling token endpoint: ", err)
      return
    }

    // Pull out response body
    responseBytes,err := ioutil.ReadAll(resp.Body)
    defer resp.Body.Close()
    if err != nil {
      fmt.Println("Error reading response body : ", err)
      return
    }

    // Unmarshall response body into struct
    var r responseJson
    err = json.Unmarshal(responseBytes, &r)
    if err != nil {
      fmt.Println("Error unmarshalling the response:", err)
      return
    }

    // Print HTTP response and marshalled response body elements to console
    fmt.Println("Response status:", resp.Status)
    fmt.Println("access_token: ", r.AccessToken)
    fmt.Println("refresh_token: ", r.RefreshToken)
    fmt.Println("expires_in: ", r.ExpiresIn)
    fmt.Println("expires_on: ", r.ExpiresOn)
    fmt.Println("not_before: ", r.NotBefore)
    fmt.Println("resource: ", r.Resource)
    fmt.Println("token_type: ", r.TokenType)
}

Get a token using Azure PowerShell

The following example demonstrates how to use the managed identities for Azure resources REST endpoint from a PowerShell client to:

  1. Acquire an access token.
  2. Use the access token to call an Azure Resource Manager REST API and get information about the VM. Be sure to substitute your subscription ID, resource group name, and virtual machine name for <SUBSCRIPTION-ID>, <RESOURCE-GROUP>, and <VM-NAME>, respectively.
Invoke-WebRequest -Uri 'http://169.254.169.254/metadata/identity/oauth2/token?api-version=2018-02-01&resource=https%3A%2F%2Fmanagement.azure.com%2F' -Headers @{Metadata="true"}

Example on how to parse the access token from the response:

# Get an access token for managed identities for Azure resources
$response = Invoke-WebRequest -Uri http://169.254.169.254/metadata/identity/oauth2/token?api-version=2018-02-01&resource=https%3A%2F%2Fmanagement.azure.com%2F `
                              -Headers @{Metadata="true"}
$content =$response.Content | ConvertFrom-Json
$access_token = $content.access_token
echo "The managed identities for Azure resources access token is $access_token"

# Use the access token to get resource information for the VM
$vmInfoRest = (Invoke-WebRequest -Uri https://management.azure.com/subscriptions/<SUBSCRIPTION-ID>/resourceGroups/<RESOURCE-GROUP>/providers/Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/<VM-NAME>?api-version=2017-12-01 -Method GET -ContentType "application/json" -Headers @{ Authorization ="Bearer $access_token"}).content
echo "JSON returned from call to get VM info:"
echo $vmInfoRest

Get a token using CURL

curl 'http://169.254.169.254/metadata/identity/oauth2/token?api-version=2018-02-01&resource=https%3A%2F%2Fmanagement.azure.com%2F' -H Metadata:true -s

Example on how to parse the access token from the response:

response=$(curl 'http://169.254.169.254/metadata/identity/oauth2/token?api-version=2018-02-01&resource=https%3A%2F%2Fmanagement.azure.com%2F' -H Metadata:true -s)
access_token=$(echo $response | python -c 'import sys, json; print (json.load(sys.stdin)["access_token"])')
echo The managed identities for Azure resources access token is $access_token

Token caching

While the managed identities for Azure resources subsystem being used (IMDS/managed identities for Azure resources VM Extension) does cache tokens, we also recommend to implement token caching in your code. As a result, you should prepare for scenarios where the resource indicates that the token is expired.

On-the-wire calls to Azure AD result only when:

  • cache miss occurs due to no token in the managed identities for Azure resources subsystem cache
  • the cached token is expired

Error handling

The managed identities for Azure resources endpoint signals errors via the status code field of the HTTP response message header, as either 4xx or 5xx errors:

Status Code Error Reason How To Handle
404 Not found. IMDS endpoint is updating. Retry with Expontential Backoff. See guidance below.
429 Too many requests. IMDS Throttle limit reached. Retry with Exponential Backoff. See guidance below.
4xx Error in request. One or more of the request parameters was incorrect. Do not retry. Examine the error details for more information. 4xx errors are design-time errors.
5xx Transient error from service. The managed identities for Azure resources sub-system or Azure Active Directory returned a transient error. It is safe to retry after waiting for at least 1 second. If you retry too quickly or too often, IMDS and/or Azure AD may return a rate limit error (429).
timeout IMDS endpoint is updating. Retry with Expontential Backoff. See guidance below.

If an error occurs, the corresponding HTTP response body contains JSON with the error details:

Element Description
error Error identifier.
error_description Verbose description of error. Error descriptions can change at any time. Do not write code that branches based on values in the error description.

HTTP response reference

This section documents the possible error responses. A "200 OK" status is a successful response, and the access token is contained in the response body JSON, in the access_token element.

Status code Error Error Description Solution
400 Bad Request invalid_resource AADSTS50001: The application named <URI> was not found in the tenant named <TENANT-ID>. This can happen if the application has not been installed by the administrator of the tenant or consented to by any user in the tenant. You might have sent your authentication request to the wrong tenant.\ (Linux only)
400 Bad Request bad_request_102 Required metadata header not specified Either the Metadata request header field is missing from your request, or is formatted incorrectly. The value must be specified as true, in all lower case. See the "Sample request" in the preceding REST section for an example.
401 Unauthorized unknown_source Unknown Source <URI> Verify that your HTTP GET request URI is formatted correctly. The scheme:host/resource-path portion must be specified as http://localhost:50342/oauth2/token. See the "Sample request" in the preceding REST section for an example.
invalid_request The request is missing a required parameter, includes an invalid parameter value, includes a parameter more than once, or is otherwise malformed.
unauthorized_client The client is not authorized to request an access token using this method. Caused by a request that didn’t use local loopback to call the extension, or on a VM that doesn’t have managed identities for Azure resources configured correctly. See Configure managed identities for Azure resources on a VM using the Azure portal if you need assistance with VM configuration.
access_denied The resource owner or authorization server denied the request.
unsupported_response_type The authorization server does not support obtaining an access token using this method.
invalid_scope The requested scope is invalid, unknown, or malformed.
500 Internal server error unknown Failed to retrieve token from the Active directory. For details see logs in <file path> Verify that managed identities for Azure resources has been enabled on the VM. See Configure managed identities for Azure resources on a VM using the Azure portal if you need assistance with VM configuration.

Also verify that your HTTP GET request URI is formatted correctly, particularly the resource URI specified in the query string. See the "Sample request" in the preceding REST section for an example, or Azure services that support Azure AD authentication for a list of services and their respective resource IDs.

Retry guidance

It is recommended to retry if you receive a 404, 429, or 5xx error code (see Error handling above).

Throttling limits apply to the number of calls made to the IMDS endpoint. When the throttling threshold is exceeded, IMDS endpoint limits any further requests while the throttle is in effect. During this period, the IMDS endpoint will return the HTTP status code 429 ("Too many requests"), and the requests fail.

For retry, we recommend the following strategy:

Retry strategy Settings Values How it works
ExponentialBackoff Retry count
Min back-off
Max back-off
Delta back-off
First fast retry
5
0 sec
60 sec
2 sec
false
Attempt 1 - delay 0 sec
Attempt 2 - delay ~2 sec
Attempt 3 - delay ~6 sec
Attempt 4 - delay ~14 sec
Attempt 5 - delay ~30 sec

Resource IDs for Azure services

See Azure services that support Azure AD authentication for a list of resources that support Azure AD and have been tested with managed identities for Azure resources, and their respective resource IDs.

Next steps