Create an application gateway with HTTP to HTTPS redirection using Azure PowerShell

You can use the Azure PowerShell to create an application gateway with a certificate for SSL termination. A routing rule is used to redirect HTTP traffic to the HTTPS port in your application gateway. In this example, you also create a virtual machine scale set for the backend pool of the application gateway that contains two virtual machine instances.

In this article, you learn how to:

  • Create a self-signed certificate
  • Set up a network
  • Create an application gateway with the certificate
  • Add a listener and redirection rule
  • Create a virtual machine scale set with the default backend pool

If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.

Note

This article has been updated to use the new Azure PowerShell Az module. You can still use the AzureRM module, which will continue to receive bug fixes until at least December 2020. To learn more about the new Az module and AzureRM compatibility, see Introducing the new Azure PowerShell Az module. For Az module installation instructions, see Install Azure PowerShell.

This tutorial requires the Azure PowerShell module version 1.0.0 or later. Run Get-Module -ListAvailable Az to find the version. If you need to upgrade, see Install Azure PowerShell module. To run the commands in this tutorial, you also need to run Login-AzAccount to create a connection with Azure.

Create a self-signed certificate

For production use, you should import a valid certificate signed by a trusted provider. For this tutorial, you create a self-signed certificate using New-SelfSignedCertificate. You can use Export-PfxCertificate with the Thumbprint that was returned to export a pfx file from the certificate.

New-SelfSignedCertificate `
  -certstorelocation cert:\localmachine\my `
  -dnsname www.contoso.com

You should see something like this result:

PSParentPath: Microsoft.PowerShell.Security\Certificate::LocalMachine\my

Thumbprint                                Subject
----------                                -------
E1E81C23B3AD33F9B4D1717B20AB65DBB91AC630  CN=www.contoso.com

Use the thumbprint to create the pfx file:

$pwd = ConvertTo-SecureString -String "Azure123456!" -Force -AsPlainText
Export-PfxCertificate `
  -cert cert:\localMachine\my\E1E81C23B3AD33F9B4D1717B20AB65DBB91AC630 `
  -FilePath c:\appgwcert.pfx `
  -Password $pwd

Create a resource group

A resource group is a logical container into which Azure resources are deployed and managed. Create an Azure resource group named myResourceGroupAG using New-AzResourceGroup.

New-AzResourceGroup -Name myResourceGroupAG -Location eastus

Create network resources

Create the subnet configurations for myBackendSubnet and myAGSubnet using New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig. Create the virtual network named myVNet using New-AzVirtualNetwork with the subnet configurations. And finally, create the public IP address named myAGPublicIPAddress using New-AzPublicIpAddress. These resources are used to provide network connectivity to the application gateway and its associated resources.

$backendSubnetConfig = New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig `
  -Name myBackendSubnet `
  -AddressPrefix 10.0.1.0/24
$agSubnetConfig = New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig `
  -Name myAGSubnet `
  -AddressPrefix 10.0.2.0/24
$vnet = New-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Location eastus `
  -Name myVNet `
  -AddressPrefix 10.0.0.0/16 `
  -Subnet $backendSubnetConfig, $agSubnetConfig
$pip = New-AzPublicIpAddress `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Location eastus `
  -Name myAGPublicIPAddress `
  -AllocationMethod Dynamic

Create an application gateway

Create the IP configurations and frontend port

Associate myAGSubnet that you previously created to the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewayIPConfiguration. Assign myAGPublicIPAddress to the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendIPConfig. And then you can create the HTTPS port using New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendPort.

$vnet = Get-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myVNet
$subnet=$vnet.Subnets[0]
$gipconfig = New-AzApplicationGatewayIPConfiguration `
  -Name myAGIPConfig `
  -Subnet $subnet
$fipconfig = New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendIPConfig `
  -Name myAGFrontendIPConfig `
  -PublicIPAddress $pip
$frontendPort = New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendPort `
  -Name myFrontendPort `
  -Port 443

Create the backend pool and settings

Create the backend pool named appGatewayBackendPool for the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool. Configure the settings for the backend pool using New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendHttpSettings.

$defaultPool = New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -Name appGatewayBackendPool 
$poolSettings = New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendHttpSettings `
  -Name myPoolSettings `
  -Port 80 `
  -Protocol Http `
  -CookieBasedAffinity Enabled `
  -RequestTimeout 120

Create the default listener and rule

A listener is required to enable the application gateway to route traffic appropriately to the backend pool. In this example, you create a basic listener that listens for HTTPS traffic at the root URL.

Create a certificate object using New-AzApplicationGatewaySslCertificate and then create a listener named appGatewayHttpListener using New-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener with the frontend configuration, frontend port, and certificate that you previously created. A rule is required for the listener to know which backend pool to use for incoming traffic. Create a basic rule named rule1 using New-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule.

$pwd = ConvertTo-SecureString `
  -String "Azure123456!" `
  -Force `
  -AsPlainText
$cert = New-AzApplicationGatewaySslCertificate `
  -Name "appgwcert" `
  -CertificateFile "c:\appgwcert.pfx" `
  -Password $pwd
$defaultListener = New-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener `
  -Name appGatewayHttpListener `
  -Protocol Https `
  -FrontendIPConfiguration $fipconfig `
  -FrontendPort $frontendPort `
  -SslCertificate $cert
$frontendRule = New-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule `
  -Name rule1 `
  -RuleType Basic `
  -HttpListener $defaultListener `
  -BackendAddressPool $defaultPool `
  -BackendHttpSettings $poolSettings

Create the application gateway

Now that you created the necessary supporting resources, specify parameters for the application gateway named myAppGateway using New-AzApplicationGatewaySku, and then create it using New-AzApplicationGateway with the certificate.

$sku = New-AzApplicationGatewaySku `
  -Name Standard_Medium `
  -Tier Standard `
  -Capacity 2
$appgw = New-AzApplicationGateway `
  -Name myAppGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Location eastus `
  -BackendAddressPools $defaultPool `
  -BackendHttpSettingsCollection $poolSettings `
  -FrontendIpConfigurations $fipconfig `
  -GatewayIpConfigurations $gipconfig `
  -FrontendPorts $frontendPort `
  -HttpListeners $defaultListener `
  -RequestRoutingRules $frontendRule `
  -Sku $sku `
  -SslCertificates $cert

Add a listener and redirection rule

Add the HTTP port

Add the HTTP port to the application gateway using Add-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendPort.

$appgw = Get-AzApplicationGateway `
  -Name myAppGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG
Add-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendPort `
  -Name httpPort  `
  -Port 80 `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw

Add the HTTP listener

Add the HTTP listener named myListener to the application gateway using Add-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener.

$fipconfig = Get-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendIPConfig `
  -Name myAGFrontendIPConfig `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw
$fp = Get-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendPort `
  -Name httpPort `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw
Add-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener `
  -Name myListener `
  -Protocol Http `
  -FrontendPort $fp `
  -FrontendIPConfiguration $fipconfig `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw

Add the redirection configuration

Add the HTTP to HTTPS redirection configuration to the application gateway using Add-AzApplicationGatewayRedirectConfiguration.

$defaultListener = Get-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener `
  -Name appGatewayHttpListener `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw
Add-AzApplicationGatewayRedirectConfiguration -Name httpToHttps `
  -RedirectType Permanent `
  -TargetListener $defaultListener `
  -IncludePath $true `
  -IncludeQueryString $true `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw

Add the routing rule

Add the routing rule with the redirection configuration to the application gateway using Add-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule.

$myListener = Get-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener `
  -Name myListener `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw
$redirectConfig = Get-AzApplicationGatewayRedirectConfiguration `
  -Name httpToHttps `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw
Add-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule `
  -Name rule2 `
  -RuleType Basic `
  -HttpListener $myListener `
  -RedirectConfiguration $redirectConfig `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw
Set-AzApplicationGateway -ApplicationGateway $appgw

Create a virtual machine scale set

In this example, you create a virtual machine scale set to provide servers for the backend pool in the application gateway. You assign the scale set to the backend pool when you configure the IP settings.

$vnet = Get-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myVNet
$appgw = Get-AzApplicationGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myAppGateway
$backendPool = Get-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -Name appGatewayBackendPool `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw
$ipConfig = New-AzVmssIpConfig `
  -Name myVmssIPConfig `
  -SubnetId $vnet.Subnets[1].Id `
  -ApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPoolsId $backendPool.Id
$vmssConfig = New-AzVmssConfig `
  -Location eastus `
  -SkuCapacity 2 `
  -SkuName Standard_DS2 `
  -UpgradePolicyMode Automatic
Set-AzVmssStorageProfile $vmssConfig `
  -ImageReferencePublisher MicrosoftWindowsServer `
  -ImageReferenceOffer WindowsServer `
  -ImageReferenceSku 2016-Datacenter `
  -ImageReferenceVersion latest
  -OsDiskCreateOption FromImage
Set-AzVmssOsProfile $vmssConfig `
  -AdminUsername azureuser `
  -AdminPassword "Azure123456!" `
  -ComputerNamePrefix myvmss
Add-AzVmssNetworkInterfaceConfiguration `
  -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmssConfig `
  -Name myVmssNetConfig `
  -Primary $true `
  -IPConfiguration $ipConfig
New-AzVmss `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myvmss `
  -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmssConfig

Install IIS

$publicSettings = @{ "fileUris" = (,"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Azure/azure-docs-powershell-samples/master/application-gateway/iis/appgatewayurl.ps1"); 
  "commandToExecute" = "powershell -ExecutionPolicy Unrestricted -File appgatewayurl.ps1" }
$vmss = Get-AzVmss -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG -VMScaleSetName myvmss
Add-AzVmssExtension -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmss `
  -Name "customScript" `
  -Publisher "Microsoft.Compute" `
  -Type "CustomScriptExtension" `
  -TypeHandlerVersion 1.8 `
  -Setting $publicSettings
Update-AzVmss `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myvmss `
  -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmss

Test the application gateway

You can use Get-AzPublicIPAddress to get the public IP address of the application gateway. Copy the public IP address, and then paste it into the address bar of your browser. For example, http://52.170.203.149

Get-AzPublicIPAddress -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG -Name myAGPublicIPAddress

Secure warning

To accept the security warning if you used a self-signed certificate, select Details and then Go on to the webpage. Your secured IIS website is then displayed as in the following example:

Test base URL in application gateway

Next steps

In this tutorial, you learned how to:

  • Create a self-signed certificate
  • Set up a network
  • Create an application gateway with the certificate
  • Add a listener and redirection rule
  • Create a virtual machine scale set with the default backend pool