My first PowerShell runbook
This tutorial walks you through the creation of a PowerShell runbook in Azure Automation. We start with a simple runbook that we test and publish while we explain how to track the status of the runbook job. Then we modify the runbook to actually manage Azure resources, in this case starting an Azure virtual machine. Lastly, we make the runbook more robust by adding runbook parameters.
To complete this tutorial, you need the following:
- Azure subscription. If you don't have one yet, you can activate your MSDN subscriber benefits or sign up for a free account.
- Automation account to hold the runbook and authenticate to Azure resources. This account must have permission to start and stop the virtual machine.
- An Azure virtual machine. We stop and start this machine so it should not be a production VM.
Step 1 - Create new runbook
We'll start by creating a simple runbook that outputs the text Hello World.
- In the Azure portal, open your Automation account.
The Automation account page gives you a quick view of the resources in this account. You should already have some assets. Most of those are the modules that are automatically included in a new Automation account. You should also have the Credential asset that's mentioned in the prerequisites.
- Click the Runbooks tile to open the list of runbooks.
- Create a new runbook by clicking the Add a runbook button and then Create a new runbook.
- Give the runbook the name MyFirstRunbook-PowerShell.
- In this case, we're going to create a PowerShell runbook so select Powershell for Runbook type.
- Click Create to create the runbook and open the textual editor.
Step 2 - Add code to the runbook
You can either type code directly into the runbook, or you can select cmdlets, runbooks, and assets from the Library control and have them added to the runbook with any related parameters. For this walkthrough, we type directly in the runbook.
- Our runbook is currently empty, type Write-Output "Hello World." in the body of the script.
- Save the runbook by clicking Save.
Step 3 - Test the runbook
Before we publish the runbook to make it available in production, we want to test it to make sure that it works properly. When you test a runbook, you run its Draft version and view its output interactively.
- Click Test pane to open the Test pane.
- Click Start to start the test. This should be the only enabled option.
- A runbook job is created and its status displayed.
The job status starts as Queued indicating that it is waiting for a runbook worker in the cloud to come available. It will then move to Starting when a worker claims the job, and then Running when the runbook actually starts running.
- When the runbook job completes, its output is displayed. In our case, we should see Hello World.
- Close the Test pane to return to the canvas.
Step 4 - Publish and start the runbook
The runbook that we created is still in Draft mode. We need to publish it before we can run it in production. When you publish a runbook, you overwrite the existing Published version with the Draft version. In our case, we don't have a Published version yet because we just created the runbook.
- Click Publish to publish the runbook and then Yes when prompted.
- If you scroll left to view the runbook in the Runbooks pane now, it will show an Authoring Status of Published.
- Scroll back to the right to view the pane for MyFirstRunbook-PowerShell.
The options across the top allow us to start the runbook, view the runbook, schedule it to start at some time in the future, or create a webhook so it can be started through an HTTP call.
- We want to start the runbook, so click Start and then click Ok when the Start Runbook blade opens.
- A job pane is opened for the runbook job that we created. We can close this pane, but in this case we leave it open so we can watch the job's progress.
- The job status is shown in Job Summary and matches the statuses that we saw when we tested the runbook.
- Once the runbook status shows Completed, click Output. The Output pane is opened, and we can see our Hello World.
- Close the Output pane.
- Click All Logs to open the Streams pane for the runbook job. We should only see Hello World in the output stream, but this can show other streams for a runbook job such as Verbose and Error if the runbook writes to them.
- Close the Streams pane and the Job pane to return to the MyFirstRunbook-PowerShell pane.
- Click Jobs to open the Jobs pane for this runbook. This lists all of the jobs created by this runbook. We should only see one job listed since we only ran the job once.
- You can click this job to open the same Job pane that we viewed when we started the runbook. This allows you to go back in time and view the details of any job that was created for a particular runbook.
Step 5 - Add authentication to manage Azure resources
We've tested and published our runbook, but so far it doesn't do anything useful. We want to have it manage Azure resources. It won't be able to do that though unless we have it authenticate using the credentials that are referred to in the prerequisites. We do that with the Add-AzureRmAccount cmdlet.
- Open the textual editor by clicking Edit on the MyFirstRunbook-PowerShell pane.
- We don't need the Write-Output line anymore, so go ahead and delete it.
Type or copy and paste the following code that handles the authentication with your Automation Run As account:
$Conn = Get-AutomationConnection -Name AzureRunAsConnection Add-AzureRMAccount -ServicePrincipal -Tenant $Conn.TenantID ` -ApplicationId $Conn.ApplicationID -CertificateThumbprint $Conn.CertificateThumbprint
- Click Test pane so that we can test the runbook.
- Click Start to start the test. Once it completes, you should receive output similar to the following, displaying basic information from your account. This confirms that the credential is valid.
Step 6 - Add code to start a virtual machine
Now that our runbook is authenticating to our Azure subscription, we can manage resources. We add a command to start a virtual machine. You can pick any virtual machine in your Azure subscription, and for now we will hardcode that name in the runbook.
After Add-AzureRmAccount, type Start-AzureRmVM -Name 'VMName' -ResourceGroupName 'NameofResourceGroup' providing the name and Resource Group name of the virtual machine to start.
$Conn = Get-AutomationConnection -Name AzureRunAsConnection Add-AzureRMAccount -ServicePrincipal -Tenant $Conn.TenantID ` -ApplicationID $Conn.ApplicationID -CertificateThumbprint $Conn.CertificateThumbprint Start-AzureRmVM -Name 'VMName' -ResourceGroupName 'ResourceGroupName'
- Save the runbook and then click Test pane so that we can test it.
- Click Start to start the test. Once it completes, check that the virtual machine was started.
Step 7 - Add an input parameter to the runbook
Our runbook currently starts the virtual machine that we hardcoded in the runbook, but it would be more useful if we specify the virtual machine when the runbook is started. We will now add input parameters to the runbook to provide that functionality.
Add parameters for VMName and ResourceGroupName to the runbook and use these variables with the Start-AzureRmVM cmdlet as in the example below.
Param( [string]$VMName, [string]$ResourceGroupName ) $Conn = Get-AutomationConnection -Name AzureRunAsConnection Add-AzureRMAccount -ServicePrincipal -Tenant $Conn.TenantID ` -ApplicationID $Conn.ApplicationID -CertificateThumbprint $Conn.CertificateThumbprint Start-AzureRmVM -Name $VMName -ResourceGroupName $ResourceGroupName
- Save the runbook and open the Test pane. You can now provide values for the two input variables that are used in the test.
- Close the Test pane.
- Click Publish to publish the new version of the runbook.
- Stop the virtual machine that you started in the previous step.
- Click Start to start the runbook. Type in the VMName and ResourceGroupName for the virtual machine that you're going to start.
- When the runbook completes, check that the virtual machine was started.
Differences from PowerShell Workflow
PowerShell runbooks have the same lifecycle, capabilities, and management as PowerShell Workflow runbooks but there are some differences and limitations:
- PowerShell runbooks run fast compared to PowerShell Workflow runbooks as they don’t have compilation step.
- PowerShell Workflow runbooks support checkpoints, using checkpoints, PowerShell Workflow runbooks can resume from any point in the runbook whereas PowerShell runbooks can only resume from the beginning.
- PowerShell Workflow runbooks support parallel and serial execution whereas PowerShell runbooks can only execute commands serially.
- In a PowerShell Workflow runbook, an activity, a command, or a script block can have its own runspace whereas in a PowerShell runbook, everything in a script runs in a single runspace. There are also some syntactic differences between a native PowerShell runbook and a PowerShell Workflow runbook.
- To get started with Graphical runbooks, see My first graphical runbook
- To get started with PowerShell workflow runbooks, see My first PowerShell workflow runbook
- To know more about runbook types, their advantages and limitations, see Azure Automation runbook types
- For more information on PowerShell script support feature, see Native PowerShell script support in Azure Automation