Build a LUIS app programmatically using Node.js

LUIS provides a programmatic API that does everything that the LUIS website does. This can save time when you have pre-existing data and it would be faster to create a LUIS app programmatically than by entering information by hand.

Prerequisites

  • Log in to the LUIS website and find your authoring key in Account Settings. You use this key to call the Authoring APIs.
  • If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.
  • This tutorial starts with a CSV for a hypothetical company's log files of user requests. Download it here.
  • Install the latest Node.js with NPM. Download it from here.
  • [Recommended] Visual Studio Code for IntelliSense and debugging, download it from here for free.

Map preexisting data to intents and entities

Even if you have a system that wasn't created with LUIS in mind, if it contains textual data that maps to different things users want to do, you might be able to come up with a mapping from the existing categories of user input to intents in LUIS. If you can identify important words or phrases in what the users said, these words might map to entities.

Open the IoT.csv file. It contains a log of user queries to a hypothetical home automation service, including how they were categorized, what the user said, and some columns with useful information pulled out of them.

CSV file

You see that the RequestType column could be intents, and the Request column shows an example utterance. The other fields could be entities if they occur in the utterance. Because there are intents, entities, and example utterances, you have the requirements for a simple, sample app.

Steps to generate a LUIS app from non-LUIS data

To generate a new LUIS app from the source file, first you parse the data from the CSV file and convert this data to a format that you can upload to LUIS using the Authoring API. From the parsed data, you gather information on what intents and entities are there. Then you make API calls to create the app, and add intents and entities that were gathered from the parsed data. Once you have created the LUIS app, you can add the example utterances from the parsed data. You can see this flow in the last part of the following code. Copy or download this code and save it in index.js.

var path = require('path');

const parse = require('./_parse');
const createApp = require('./_create');
const addEntities = require('./_entities');
const addIntents = require('./_intents');
const upload = require('./_upload');

// Change these values
const LUIS_programmaticKey = "YOUR_PROGRAMMATIC_KEY";
const LUIS_appName = "Sample App";
const LUIS_appCulture = "en-us"; 
const LUIS_versionId = "0.1";

// NOTE: final output of add-utterances api named utterances.upload.json
const downloadFile = "./IoT.csv";
const uploadFile = "./utterances.json"

// The app ID is returned from LUIS when your app is created
var LUIS_appId = ""; // default app ID
var intents = [];
var entities = [];


/* add utterances parameters */
var configAddUtterances = {
    LUIS_subscriptionKey: LUIS_programmaticKey,
    LUIS_appId: LUIS_appId,
    LUIS_versionId: LUIS_versionId,
    inFile: path.join(__dirname, uploadFile),
    batchSize: 100,
    uri: "https://westus.api.cognitive.microsoft.com/luis/api/v2.0/apps/{appId}/versions/{versionId}/examples"
};

/* create app parameters */
var configCreateApp = {
    LUIS_subscriptionKey: LUIS_programmaticKey,
    LUIS_versionId: LUIS_versionId,
    appName: LUIS_appName,
    culture: LUIS_appCulture,
    uri: "https://westus.api.cognitive.microsoft.com/luis/api/v2.0/apps/"
};

/* add intents parameters */
var configAddIntents = {
    LUIS_subscriptionKey: LUIS_programmaticKey,
    LUIS_appId: LUIS_appId,
    LUIS_versionId: LUIS_versionId,
    intentList: intents,
    uri: "https://westus.api.cognitive.microsoft.com/luis/api/v2.0/apps/{appId}/versions/{versionId}/intents"
};

/* add entities parameters */
var configAddEntities = {
    LUIS_subscriptionKey: LUIS_programmaticKey,
    LUIS_appId: LUIS_appId,
    LUIS_versionId: LUIS_versionId,
    entityList: intents,
    uri: "https://westus.api.cognitive.microsoft.com/luis/api/v2.0/apps/{appId}/versions/{versionId}/entities"
};

/* input and output files for parsing CSV */
var configParse = {
    inFile: path.join(__dirname, downloadFile),
    outFile: path.join(__dirname, uploadFile)
};

// Parse CSV
parse(configParse)
    .then((model) => {
        // Save intent and entity names from parse
        intents = model.intents;
        entities = model.entities;
        // Create the LUIS app
        return createApp(configCreateApp);

    }).then((appId) => {
        // Add intents
        LUIS_appId = appId;
        configAddIntents.LUIS_appId = appId;
        configAddIntents.intentList = intents;
        return addIntents(configAddIntents);

    }).then(() => {
        // Add entities
        configAddEntities.LUIS_appId = LUIS_appId;
        configAddEntities.entityList = entities;
        return addEntities(configAddEntities);

    }).then(() => {
        // Add example utterances to the intents in the app
        configAddUtterances.LUIS_appId = LUIS_appId;
        return upload(configAddUtterances);

    }).catch(err => {
        console.log(err.message);
    });

Parse the CSV

The column entries that contain the utterances in the CSV have to be parsed into a JSON format that LUIS can understand. This JSON format must contain an intentName field that identifies the intent of the utterance. It must also contain an entityLabels field, which can be empty if there are no entities in the utterance.

For example, the entry for "Turn on the lights" maps to this JSON:

        {
            "text": "Turn on the lights",
            "intentName": "TurnOn",
            "entityLabels": [
                {
                    "entityName": "Operation",
                    "startCharIndex": 5,
                    "endCharIndex": 6
                },
                {
                    "entityName": "Device",
                    "startCharIndex": 12,
                    "endCharIndex": 17
                }
            ]
        }

In this example, the intentName comes from the user request under the Request column heading in the CSV file, and the entityName comes from the other columns with key information. For example, if there's an entry for Operation or Device, and that string also occurs in the actual request, then it can be labeled as an entity. The following code demonstrates this parsing process. You can copy or download it and save it to _parse.js.

// node 7.x
// built with streams for larger files

const fse = require('fs-extra');
const path = require('path');
const lineReader = require('line-reader');
const babyparse = require('babyparse');
const Promise = require('bluebird');

const intent_column = 0;
const utterance_column = 1;
var entityNames = [];

var eachLine = Promise.promisify(lineReader.eachLine);

function listOfIntents(intents) {
    return intents.reduce(function (a, d) {
        if (a.indexOf(d.intentName) === -1) {
            a.push(d.intentName);
        }
        return a;
    }, []);

}

function listOfEntities(utterances) {
    return utterances.reduce(function (a, d) {        
        d.entityLabels.forEach(function(entityLabel) {
            if (a.indexOf(entityLabel.entityName) === -1) {
                a.push(entityLabel.entityName);
            }     
        }, this);
        return a;
    }, []);
}

var utterance = function (rowAsString) {

    let json = {
        "text": "",
        "intentName": "",
        "entityLabels": [],
    };

    if (!rowAsString) return json;

    let dataRow = babyparse.parse(rowAsString);
    // Get intent name and utterance text 
    json.intentName = dataRow.data[0][intent_column];
    json.text = dataRow.data[0][utterance_column];
    // For each column heading that may be an entity, search for the element in this column in the utterance.
    entityNames.forEach(function (entityName) {
        entityToFind = dataRow.data[0][entityName.column];
        if (entityToFind != "") {
            strInd = json.text.indexOf(entityToFind);
            if (strInd > -1) {
                let entityLabel = {
                    "entityName": entityName.name,
                    "startCharIndex": strInd,
                    "endCharIndex": strInd + entityToFind.length - 1
                }
                json.entityLabels.push(entityLabel);
            }
        }
    }, this);
    return json;

};


const convert = async (config) => {

    try {

        var i = 0;

        // get inFile stream
        inFileStream = await fse.createReadStream(config.inFile, 'utf-8')

        // create out file
        var myOutFile = await fse.createWriteStream(config.outFile, 'utf-8');
        var utterances = [];

        // read 1 line at a time
        return eachLine(inFileStream, (line) => {

            // skip first line with headers
            if (i++ == 0) {

                // csv to baby parser object
                let dataRow = babyparse.parse(line);

                // populate entityType list
                var index = 0;
                dataRow.data[0].forEach(function (element) {
                    if ((index != intent_column) && (index != utterance_column)) {
                        entityNames.push({ name: element, column: index });
                    }
                    index++;
                }, this);

                return;
            }

            // transform utterance from csv to json
            utterances.push(utterance(line));

        }).then(() => {
            console.log("intents: " + JSON.stringify(listOfIntents(utterances)));
            console.log("entities: " + JSON.stringify(listOfEntities(utterances)));
            myOutFile.write(JSON.stringify({ "converted_date": new Date().toLocaleString(), "utterances": utterances }));
            myOutFile.end();
            console.log("parse done");
            console.log("JSON file should contain utterances. Next step is to create an app with the intents and entities it found.");

            var model = 
            {
                intents: listOfIntents(utterances),
                entities: listOfEntities(utterances)                
            }
            return model;

        });

    } catch (err) {
        throw err;
    }

}

module.exports = convert;

Create the LUIS app

Once the data has been parsed into JSON, add it to a LUIS app. The following code creates the LUIS app. Copy or download it, and save it into _create.js.

// node 7.x
// uses async/await - promises

var rp = require('request-promise');
var fse = require('fs-extra');
var path = require('path');



// main function to call
// Call Apps_Create
var createApp = async (config) => {
    
        try {
    
            // JSON for the request body
            // { "name": MyAppName, "culture": "en-us"}
            var jsonBody = { 
                "name": config.appName, 
                "culture": config.culture
            };
    
            // Create a LUIS app
            var createAppPromise = callCreateApp({
                uri: config.uri,
                method: 'POST',
                headers: {
                    'Ocp-Apim-Subscription-Key': config.LUIS_subscriptionKey
                },
                json: true,
                body: jsonBody
            });
    
            let results = await createAppPromise;

            // Create app returns an app ID
            let appId = results.response;  
            console.log(`Called createApp, created app with ID ${appId}`);
            return appId;

    
        } catch (err) {
            console.log(`Error creating app:  ${err.message} `);
            throw err;
        }
    
    }

// Send JSON as the body of the POST request to the API
var callCreateApp = async (options) => {
    try {

        var response; 
        if (options.method === 'POST') {
            response = await rp.post(options);
        } else if (options.method === 'GET') { // TODO: There's no GET for create app
            response = await rp.get(options);
        }
        // response from successful create should be the new app ID
        return { response };

    } catch (err) {
        throw err;
    }
} 

module.exports = createApp;

Add intents

Once you have an app, you need to intents to it. The following code creates the LUIS app. Copy or download it, and save it into _intents.js.


var rp = require('request-promise');
var fse = require('fs-extra');
var path = require('path');
var request = require('requestretry');

// time delay between requests
const delayMS = 1000;

// retry recount
const maxRetry = 5;

// retry request if error or 429 received
var retryStrategy = function (err, response, body) {
    let shouldRetry = err || (response.statusCode === 429);
    if (shouldRetry) console.log("retrying add intent...");
    return shouldRetry;
}

// Call add-intents
var addIntents = async (config) => {
    var intentPromises = [];
    config.uri = config.uri.replace("{appId}", config.LUIS_appId).replace("{versionId}", config.LUIS_versionId);

    config.intentList.forEach(function (intent) {
        config.intentName = intent;
        try {

            // JSON for the request body
            var jsonBody = {
                "name": config.intentName,
            };

            // Create an intent
            var addIntentPromise = callAddIntent({
                // uri: config.uri,
                url: config.uri,
                fullResponse: false,
                method: 'POST',
                headers: {
                    'Ocp-Apim-Subscription-Key': config.LUIS_subscriptionKey
                },
                json: true,
                body: jsonBody,
                maxAttempts: maxRetry,
                retryDelay: delayMS,
                retryStrategy: retryStrategy
            });
            intentPromises.push(addIntentPromise);

            console.log(`Called addIntents for intent named ${intent}.`);

        } catch (err) {
            console.log(`Error in addIntents:  ${err.message} `);

        }
    }, this);

    let results = await Promise.all(intentPromises);
    console.log(`Results of all promises = ${JSON.stringify(results)}`);
    let response = results;


}

// Send JSON as the body of the POST request to the API
var callAddIntent = async (options) => {
    try {

        var response;        
        response = await request(options);
        return { response: response };

    } catch (err) {
        console.log(`Error in callAddIntent:  ${err.message} `);
    }
}

module.exports = addIntents;

Add entities

The following code adds the entities to the LUIS app. Copy or download it, and save it into _entities.js.

// node 7.x
// uses async/await - promises

const request = require("requestretry");
var rp = require('request-promise');
var fse = require('fs-extra');
var path = require('path');

// time delay between requests
const delayMS = 1000;

// retry recount
const maxRetry = 5;

// retry request if error or 429 received
var retryStrategy = function (err, response, body) {
    let shouldRetry = err || (response.statusCode === 429);
    if (shouldRetry) console.log("retrying add entity...");
    return shouldRetry;
}

// main function to call
// Call add-entities
var addEntities = async (config) => {
    var entityPromises = [];
    config.uri = config.uri.replace("{appId}", config.LUIS_appId).replace("{versionId}", config.LUIS_versionId);

    config.entityList.forEach(function (entity) {
        try {
            config.entityName = entity;
            // JSON for the request body
            // { "name": MyEntityName}
            var jsonBody = {
                "name": config.entityName,
            };

            // Create an app
            var addEntityPromise = callAddEntity({
                url: config.uri,
                fullResponse: false,
                method: 'POST',
                headers: {
                    'Ocp-Apim-Subscription-Key': config.LUIS_subscriptionKey
                },
                json: true,
                body: jsonBody,
                maxAttempts: maxRetry,
                retryDelay: delayMS,
                retryStrategy: retryStrategy
            });
            entityPromises.push(addEntityPromise);

            console.log(`called addEntity for entity named ${entity}.`);

        } catch (err) {
            console.log(`Error in addEntities:  ${err.message} `);
            //throw err;
        }
    }, this);
    let results = await Promise.all(entityPromises);
    console.log(`Results of all promises = ${JSON.stringify(results)}`);
    let response = results;// await fse.writeJson(createResults.json, results);


}

// Send JSON as the body of the POST request to the API
var callAddEntity = async (options) => {
    try {

        var response;        
        response = await request(options);
        return { response: response };

    } catch (err) {
        console.log(`error in callAddEntity: ${err.message}`);
    }
}

module.exports = addEntities;

Add utterances

Once the entities and intents have been defined in the LUIS app, you can add the utterances. The following code uses the Utterances_AddBatch API, which allows you to add up to 100 utterances at a time. Copy or download it, and save it into _upload.js.

// node 7.x
// uses async/await - promises

var rp = require('request-promise');
var fse = require('fs-extra');
var path = require('path');
var request = require('requestretry');

// time delay between requests
const delayMS = 500;

// retry recount
const maxRetry = 5;

// retry request if error or 429 received
var retryStrategy = function (err, response, body) {
    let shouldRetry = err || (response.statusCode === 429);
    if (shouldRetry) console.log("retrying add examples...");
    return shouldRetry;
}

// main function to call
var upload = async (config) => {

    try{
      
        // read in utterances
        var entireBatch = await fse.readJson(config.inFile);

        // break items into pages to fit max batch size
        var pages = getPagesForBatch(entireBatch.utterances, config.batchSize);

        var uploadPromises = [];

        // load up promise array
        pages.forEach(page => {
            config.uri = "https://westus.api.cognitive.microsoft.com/luis/api/v2.0/apps/{appId}/versions/{versionId}/examples".replace("{appId}", config.LUIS_appId).replace("{versionId}", config.LUIS_versionId)
            var pagePromise = sendBatchToApi({
                url: config.uri,
                fullResponse: false,
                method: 'POST',
                headers: {
                    'Ocp-Apim-Subscription-Key': config.LUIS_subscriptionKey
                },
                json: true,
                body: page,
                maxAttempts: maxRetry,
                retryDelay: delayMS,
                retryStrategy: retryStrategy
            });

            uploadPromises.push(pagePromise);
        })

        //execute promise array
        
        let results =  await Promise.all(uploadPromises)
        console.log(`\n\nResults of all promises = ${JSON.stringify(results)}`);
        let response = await fse.writeJson(config.inFile.replace('.json','.upload.json'),results);

        console.log("upload done");

    } catch(err){
        throw err;        
    }

}
// turn whole batch into pages batch 
// because API can only deal with N items in batch
var getPagesForBatch = (batch, maxItems) => {

    try{
        var pages = []; 
        var currentPage = 0;

        var pageCount = (batch.length % maxItems == 0) ? Math.round(batch.length / maxItems) : Math.round((batch.length / maxItems) + 1);

        for (let i = 0;i<pageCount;i++){

            var currentStart = currentPage * maxItems;
            var currentEnd = currentStart + maxItems;
            var pagedBatch = batch.slice(currentStart,currentEnd);

            var j = 0;
            pagedBatch.forEach(item=>{
                item.ExampleId = j++;
            });

            pages.push(pagedBatch);

            currentPage++;
        }
        return pages;
    }catch(err){
        throw(err);
    }
}

// send json batch as post.body to API
var sendBatchToApi = async (options) => {
    try {

        var response = await request(options);
        //return {page: options.body, response:response};
        return {response:response};
    }catch(err){
        throw err;
    }   
}   

module.exports = upload;

Run the code

Install Node.js dependencies

Install the Node.js dependencies from NPM in the terminal/command line.

> npm install

Change Configuration Settings

In order to use this application, you need to change the values in the index.js file to your own subscription key, and provide the name you want the app to have. You can also set the app's culture or change the version number.

Open the index.js file, and change these values at the top of the file.

// Change these values
const LUIS_programmaticKey = "YOUR_PROGRAMMATIC_KEY";
const LUIS_appName = "Sample App";
const LUIS_appCulture = "en-us"; 
const LUIS_versionId = "0.1";

Run the script

Run the script from a terminal/command line with Node.js.

> node index.js

or

> npm start

Application progress

While the application is running, the command line shows progress. The command line output includes the format of the responses from LUIS.

> node index.js
intents: ["TurnOn","TurnOff","Dim","Other"]
entities: ["Operation","Device","Room"]
parse done
JSON file should contain utterances. Next step is to create an app with the intents and entities it found.
Called createApp, created app with ID 314b306c-0033-4e09-92ab-94fe5ed158a2
Called addIntents for intent named TurnOn.
Called addIntents for intent named TurnOff.
Called addIntents for intent named Dim.
Called addIntents for intent named Other.
Results of all calls to addIntent = [{"response":"e7eaf224-8c61-44ed-a6b0-2ab4dc56f1d0"},{"response":"a8a17efd-f01c-488d-ad44-a31a818cf7d7"},{"response":"bc7c32fc-14a0-4b72-bad4-d345d807f965"},{"response":"727a8d73-cd3b-4096-bc8d-d7cfba12eb44"}]
called addEntity for entity named Operation.
called addEntity for entity named Device.
called addEntity for entity named Room.
Results of all calls to addEntity= [{"response":"6a7e914f-911d-4c6c-a5bc-377afdce4390"},{"response":"56c35237-593d-47f6-9d01-2912fa488760"},{"response":"f1dd440c-2ce3-4a20-a817-a57273f169f3"}]
retrying add examples...

Results of add utterances = [{"response":[{"value":{"UtteranceText":"turn on the lights","ExampleId":-67649},"hasError":false},{"value":{"UtteranceText":"turn the heat on","ExampleId":-69067},"hasError":false},{"value":{"UtteranceText":"switch on the kitchen fan","ExampleId":-3395901},"hasError":false},{"value":{"UtteranceText":"turn off bedroom lights","ExampleId":-85402},"hasError":false},{"value":{"UtteranceText":"turn off air conditioning","ExampleId":-8991572},"hasError":false},{"value":{"UtteranceText":"kill the lights","ExampleId":-70124},"hasError":false},{"value":{"UtteranceText":"dim the lights","ExampleId":-174358},"hasError":false},{"value":{"UtteranceText":"hi how are you","ExampleId":-143722},"hasError":false},{"value":{"UtteranceText":"answer the phone","ExampleId":-69939},"hasError":false},{"value":{"UtteranceText":"are you there","ExampleId":-149588},"hasError":false},{"value":{"UtteranceText":"help","ExampleId":-81949},"hasError":false},{"value":{"UtteranceText":"testing the circuit","ExampleId":-11548708},"hasError":false}]}]
upload done

Open the LUIS app

Once the script completes, you can log in to LUIS and see the LUIS app you created under My Apps. You should be able to see the utterances you added under the TurnOn, TurnOff, and None intents.

TurnOn intent

Next steps

Additional resources

This sample application uses the following LUIS APIs: