Data formats supported by Azure Data Explorer for ingestion

Data ingestion is the process by which data is added to a table and is made available for query in Azure Data Explorer. For all ingestion methods, other than ingest-from-query, the data must be in one of the supported formats. The following table lists and describes the formats that Azure Data Explorer supports for data ingestion.

Format Extension Description
ApacheAvro .avro An Avro format with support for logical types and for snappy compression codec.
Avro .avro A legacy implementation for Avro container file. The following codes are supported: null, deflate (for snappy - use apacheavro file format).
CSV .csv A text file with comma-separated values (,). See RFC 4180: Common Format and MIME Type for Comma-Separated Values (CSV) Files.
JSON .json A text file with JSON objects delimited by \n or \r\n. See JSON Lines (JSONL).
MultiJSON .multijson A text file with a JSON array of property bags (each representing a record), or any number of property bags delimited by whitespace, \n or \r\n. Each property bag can be spread on multiple lines. This format is preferred over JSON, unless the data is non-property bags.
ORC .orc An Orc file.
Parquet .parquet A Parquet file.
PSV .psv A text file with pipe-separated values (|).
RAW .raw A text file whose entire contents is a single string value.
SCsv .scsv A text file with semicolon-separated values (;).
SOHsv .sohsv A text file with SOH-separated values. (SOH is ASCII codepoint 1; this format is used by Hive on HDInsight.)
TSV .tsv A text file with tab-separated values (\t).
TSVE .tsv A text file with tab-separated values (\t). A backslash character (\) is used for escaping.
TXT .txt A text file with lines delimited by \n. Empty lines are skipped.
W3CLOGFILE .log Web log file format standardised by the W3C.


Internally, strings are encoded in UTF-8.

Supported data compression formats

Blobs and files can be compressed through any of the following compression algorithms:

Compression Extension
GZip .gz
Zip .zip

Indicate compression by appending the extension to the name of the blob or file.

For example:

  • indicates a blob or a file formatted as CSV, compressed with ZIP (archive or a single file)
  • MyData.json.gz indicates a blob or a file formatted as JSON, compressed with GZip.

Blob or file names that don't include the format extensions but just compression (for example, is also supported. In this case, the file format must be specified as an ingestion property because it cannot be inferred.


Some compression formats keep track of the original file extension as part of the compressed stream. This extension is generally ignored for determining the file format. If the file format can't be determined from the (compressed) blob or file name, it must be specified through the format ingestion property.

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