Copy data from PostgreSQL by using Azure Data Factory

This article outlines how to use the Copy Activity in Azure Data Factory to copy data from a PostgreSQL database. It builds on the copy activity overview article that presents a general overview of copy activity.

Supported capabilities

You can copy data from PostgreSQL database to any supported sink data store. For a list of data stores that are supported as sources/sinks by the copy activity, see the Supported data stores table.

Specifically, this PostgreSQL connector supports PostgreSQL version 7.4 and above.

Prerequisites

If your PostgreSQL database is not publicly accessible, you need to set up a Self-hosted Integration Runtime. To learn about Self-hosted integration runtimes, see Self-hosted Integration Runtime article. The Integration Runtime provides a built-in PostgreSQL driver starting from version 3.7, therefore you don't need to manually install any driver.

For Self-hosted IR version lower than 3.7, you need to install the Ngpsql data provider for PostgreSQL with version between 2.0.12 and 3.1.9 on the Integration Runtime machine.

Getting started

You can create a pipeline with the copy activity by using one of the following tools or SDKs. Select a link to go to a tutorial with step-by-step instructions to create a pipeline with a copy activity.

The following sections provide details about properties that are used to define Data Factory entities specific to PostgreSQL connector.

Linked service properties

The following properties are supported for PostgreSQL linked service:

Property Description Required
type The type property must be set to: PostgreSql Yes
connectionString An ODBC connection string to connect to Azure Database for PostgreSQL. Mark this field as a SecureString to store it securely in Data Factory, or reference a secret stored in Azure Key Vault. Yes
connectVia The Integration Runtime to be used to connect to the data store. You can use Self-hosted Integration Runtime or Azure Integration Runtime (if your data store is publicly accessible). If not specified, it uses the default Azure Integration Runtime. No

A typical connection string is Server=<server>;Database=<database>;Port=<port>;UID=<username>;Password=<Password>. More properties you can set per your case:

Property Description Options Required
EncryptionMethod (EM) The method the driver uses to encrypt data sent between the driver and the database server. E.g. ValidateServerCertificate=<0/1/6>; 0 (No Encryption) (Default) / 1 (SSL) / 6 (RequestSSL) No
ValidateServerCertificate (VSC) Determines whether the driver validates the certificate that is sent by the database server when SSL encryption is enabled (Encryption Method=1). E.g. ValidateServerCertificate=<0/1>; 0 (Disabled) (Default) / 1 (Enabled) No

Example:

{
    "name": "PostgreSqlLinkedService",
    "properties": {
        "type": "PostgreSql",
        "typeProperties": {
            "connectionString": {
                 "type": "SecureString",
                 "value": "Server=<server>;Database=<database>;Port=<port>;UID=<username>;Password=<Password>"
            }
        },
        "connectVia": {
            "referenceName": "<name of Integration Runtime>",
            "type": "IntegrationRuntimeReference"
        }
    }
}

If you were using PostgreSQL linked service with the following payload, it is still supported as-is, while you are suggested to use the new one going forward.

Previous payload:

{
    "name": "PostgreSqlLinkedService",
    "properties": {
        "type": "PostgreSql",
        "typeProperties": {
            "server": "<server>",
            "database": "<database>",
            "username": "<username>",
            "password": {
                "type": "SecureString",
                "value": "<password>"
            }
        },
        "connectVia": {
            "referenceName": "<name of Integration Runtime>",
            "type": "IntegrationRuntimeReference"
        }
    }
}

Dataset properties

For a full list of sections and properties available for defining datasets, see the datasets article. This section provides a list of properties supported by PostgreSQL dataset.

To copy data from PostgreSQL, set the type property of the dataset to RelationalTable. The following properties are supported:

Property Description Required
type The type property of the dataset must be set to: RelationalTable Yes
tableName Name of the table in the PostgreSQL database. No (if "query" in activity source is specified)

Example

{
    "name": "PostgreSQLDataset",
    "properties":
    {
        "type": "RelationalTable",
        "linkedServiceName": {
            "referenceName": "<PostgreSQL linked service name>",
            "type": "LinkedServiceReference"
        },
        "typeProperties": {}
    }
}

Copy activity properties

For a full list of sections and properties available for defining activities, see the Pipelines article. This section provides a list of properties supported by PostgreSQL source.

PostgreSQL as source

To copy data from PostgreSQL, set the source type in the copy activity to RelationalSource. The following properties are supported in the copy activity source section:

Property Description Required
type The type property of the copy activity source must be set to: RelationalSource Yes
query Use the custom SQL query to read data. For example: "query": "SELECT * FROM \"MySchema\".\"MyTable\"". No (if "tableName" in dataset is specified)

Note

Schema and table names are case-sensitive. Enclose them in "" (double quotes) in the query.

Example:

"activities":[
    {
        "name": "CopyFromPostgreSQL",
        "type": "Copy",
        "inputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<PostgreSQL input dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "outputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<output dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "source": {
                "type": "RelationalSource",
                "query": "SELECT * FROM \"MySchema\".\"MyTable\""
            },
            "sink": {
                "type": "<sink type>"
            }
        }
    }
]

Data type mapping for PostgreSQL

When copying data from PostgreSQL, the following mappings are used from PostgreSQL data types to Azure Data Factory interim data types. See Schema and data type mappings to learn about how copy activity maps the source schema and data type to the sink.

PostgreSQL data type PostgresSQL aliases Data factory interim data type
abstime   String
bigint int8 Int64
bigserial serial8 Int64
bit [1]   Boolean
bit [(n)], n>1   Byte[]
bit varying [(n)] varbit Byte[]
boolean bool Boolean
box   String
bytea   Byte[], String
character [(n)] char [(n)] String
character varying [(n)] varchar [(n)] String
cid   Int32
cidr   String
circle   String
date   Datetime
daterange   String
double precision float8 Double
inet   String
intarray   String
int4range   String
int8range   String
integer int, int4 Int32
interval [fields] [(p)] String
json   String
jsonb   Byte[]
line   Byte[], String
lseg   String
macaddr   String
money   String
numeric [(p, s)] decimal [(p, s)] String
numrange   String
oid   Int32
path   String
pg_lsn   Int64
point   String
polygon   String
real float4 Single
smallint int2 Int16
smallserial serial2 Int16
serial serial4 Int32
text   String
timewithtimezone   String
timewithouttimezone   String
timestampwithtimezone   String
xid   Int32

Next steps

For a list of data stores supported as sources and sinks by the copy activity in Azure Data Factory, see supported data stores.