Copy and transform data to and from SQL Server by using Azure Data Factory or Azure Synapse Analytics

APPLIES TO: Azure Data Factory Azure Synapse Analytics

This article outlines how to use the copy activity in Azure Data Factory and Azure Synapse pipelines to copy data from and to SQL Server database and use Data Flow to transform data in SQL Server database. To learn more read the introductory article for Azure Data Factory or Azure Synapse Analytics.

Supported capabilities

This SQL Server connector is supported for the following activities:

You can copy data from a SQL Server database to any supported sink data store. Or, you can copy data from any supported source data store to a SQL Server database. For a list of data stores that are supported as sources or sinks by the copy activity, see the Supported data stores table.

Specifically, this SQL Server connector supports:

  • SQL Server version 2005 and above.
  • Copying data by using SQL or Windows authentication.
  • As a source, retrieving data by using a SQL query or a stored procedure. You can also choose to parallel copy from SQL Server source, see the Parallel copy from SQL database section for details.
  • As a sink, automatically creating destination table if not exists based on the source schema; appending data to a table or invoking a stored procedure with custom logic during copy.

SQL Server Express LocalDB is not supported.

Prerequisites

If your data store is located inside an on-premises network, an Azure virtual network, or Amazon Virtual Private Cloud, you need to configure a self-hosted integration runtime to connect to it.

If your data store is a managed cloud data service, you can use the Azure Integration Runtime. If the access is restricted to IPs that are approved in the firewall rules, you can add Azure Integration Runtime IPs to the allow list.

You can also use the managed virtual network integration runtime feature in Azure Data Factory to access the on-premises network without installing and configuring a self-hosted integration runtime.

For more information about the network security mechanisms and options supported by Data Factory, see Data access strategies.

Get started

To perform the Copy activity with a pipeline, you can use one of the following tools or SDKs:

Create a SQL Server linked service using UI

Use the following steps to create a SQL Server linked service in the Azure portal UI.

  1. Browse to the Manage tab in your Azure Data Factory or Synapse workspace and select Linked Services, then click New:

  2. Search for SQL and select the SQL Server connector.

    Screenshot of the SQL Server connector.

  3. Configure the service details, test the connection, and create the new linked service.

    Screenshot of configuration for SQL Server linked service.

Connector configuration details

The following sections provide details about properties that are used to define Data Factory and Synapse pipeline entities specific to the SQL Server database connector.

Linked service properties

The following properties are supported for the SQL Server linked service:

Property Description Required
type The type property must be set to SqlServer. Yes
connectionString Specify connectionString information that's needed to connect to the SQL Server database by using either SQL authentication or Windows authentication. Refer to the following samples.
You also can put a password in Azure Key Vault. If it's SQL authentication, pull the password configuration out of the connection string. For more information, see the JSON example following the table and Store credentials in Azure Key Vault.
Yes
userName Specify a user name if you use Windows authentication. An example is domainname\username. No
password Specify a password for the user account you specified for the user name. Mark this field as SecureString to store it securely. Or, you can reference a secret stored in Azure Key Vault. No
alwaysEncryptedSettings Specify alwaysencryptedsettings information that's needed to enable Always Encrypted to protect sensitive data stored in SQL server by using either managed identity or service principal. For more information, see the JSON example following the table and Using Always Encrypted section. If not specified, the default always encrypted setting is disabled. No
connectVia This integration runtime is used to connect to the data store. Learn more from Prerequisites section. If not specified, the default Azure integration runtime is used. No

Note

SQL Server Always Encrypted is not supported in data flow.

Tip

If you hit an error with the error code "UserErrorFailedToConnectToSqlServer" and a message like "The session limit for the database is XXX and has been reached," add Pooling=false to your connection string and try again.

Example 1: Use SQL authentication

{
    "name": "SqlServerLinkedService",
    "properties": {
        "type": "SqlServer",
        "typeProperties": {
            "connectionString": "Data Source=<servername>\\<instance name if using named instance>;Initial Catalog=<databasename>;Integrated Security=False;User ID=<username>;Password=<password>;"
        },
        "connectVia": {
            "referenceName": "<name of Integration Runtime>",
            "type": "IntegrationRuntimeReference"
        }
    }
}

Example 2: Use SQL authentication with a password in Azure Key Vault

{
    "name": "SqlServerLinkedService",
    "properties": {
        "type": "SqlServer",
        "typeProperties": {
            "connectionString": "Data Source=<servername>\\<instance name if using named instance>;Initial Catalog=<databasename>;Integrated Security=False;User ID=<username>;",
            "password": { 
                "type": "AzureKeyVaultSecret", 
                "store": { 
                    "referenceName": "<Azure Key Vault linked service name>", 
                    "type": "LinkedServiceReference" 
                }, 
                "secretName": "<secretName>" 
            }
        },
        "connectVia": {
            "referenceName": "<name of Integration Runtime>",
            "type": "IntegrationRuntimeReference"
        }
    }
}

Example 3: Use Windows authentication

{
    "name": "SqlServerLinkedService",
    "properties": {
        "type": "SqlServer",
        "typeProperties": {
            "connectionString": "Data Source=<servername>\\<instance name if using named instance>;Initial Catalog=<databasename>;Integrated Security=True;",
            "userName": "<domain\\username>",
            "password": {
                "type": "SecureString",
                "value": "<password>"
            }
        },
        "connectVia": {
            "referenceName": "<name of Integration Runtime>",
            "type": "IntegrationRuntimeReference"
        }
    }
}

Example 4: Use Always Encrypted

{
    "name": "SqlServerLinkedService",
    "properties": {
        "type": "SqlServer",
        "typeProperties": {
            "connectionString": "Data Source=<servername>\\<instance name if using named instance>;Initial Catalog=<databasename>;Integrated Security=False;User ID=<username>;Password=<password>;"
        },
        "alwaysEncryptedSettings": {
            "alwaysEncryptedAkvAuthType": "ServicePrincipal",
            "servicePrincipalId": "<service principal id>",
            "servicePrincipalKey": {
                "type": "SecureString",
                "value": "<service principal key>"
            }
        },
        "connectVia": {
            "referenceName": "<name of Integration Runtime>",
            "type": "IntegrationRuntimeReference"
        }
    }
}

Dataset properties

For a full list of sections and properties available for defining datasets, see the datasets article. This section provides a list of properties supported by the SQL Server dataset.

To copy data from and to a SQL Server database, the following properties are supported:

Property Description Required
type The type property of the dataset must be set to SqlServerTable. Yes
schema Name of the schema. No for source, Yes for sink
table Name of the table/view. No for source, Yes for sink
tableName Name of the table/view with schema. This property is supported for backward compatibility. For new workload, use schema and table. No for source, Yes for sink

Example

{
    "name": "SQLServerDataset",
    "properties":
    {
        "type": "SqlServerTable",
        "linkedServiceName": {
            "referenceName": "<SQL Server linked service name>",
            "type": "LinkedServiceReference"
        },
        "schema": [ < physical schema, optional, retrievable during authoring > ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "schema": "<schema_name>",
            "table": "<table_name>"
        }
    }
}

Copy activity properties

For a full list of sections and properties available for use to define activities, see the Pipelines article. This section provides a list of properties supported by the SQL Server source and sink.

SQL Server as a source

Tip

To load data from SQL Server efficiently by using data partitioning, learn more from Parallel copy from SQL database.

To copy data from SQL Server, set the source type in the copy activity to SqlSource. The following properties are supported in the copy activity source section:

Property Description Required
type The type property of the copy activity source must be set to SqlSource. Yes
sqlReaderQuery Use the custom SQL query to read data. An example is select * from MyTable. No
sqlReaderStoredProcedureName This property is the name of the stored procedure that reads data from the source table. The last SQL statement must be a SELECT statement in the stored procedure. No
storedProcedureParameters These parameters are for the stored procedure.
Allowed values are name or value pairs. The names and casing of parameters must match the names and casing of the stored procedure parameters.
No
isolationLevel Specifies the transaction locking behavior for the SQL source. The allowed values are: ReadCommitted, ReadUncommitted, RepeatableRead, Serializable, Snapshot. If not specified, the database's default isolation level is used. Refer to this doc for more details. No
partitionOptions Specifies the data partitioning options used to load data from SQL Server.
Allowed values are: None (default), PhysicalPartitionsOfTable, and DynamicRange.
When a partition option is enabled (that is, not None), the degree of parallelism to concurrently load data from SQL Server is controlled by the parallelCopies setting on the copy activity.
No
partitionSettings Specify the group of the settings for data partitioning.
Apply when the partition option isn't None.
No
Under partitionSettings:
partitionColumnName Specify the name of the source column in integer or date/datetime type (int, smallint, bigint, date, smalldatetime, datetime, datetime2, or datetimeoffset) that will be used by range partitioning for parallel copy. If not specified, the index or the primary key of the table is auto-detected and used as the partition column.
Apply when the partition option is DynamicRange. If you use a query to retrieve the source data, hook ?AdfDynamicRangePartitionCondition in the WHERE clause. For an example, see the Parallel copy from SQL database section.
No
partitionUpperBound The maximum value of the partition column for partition range splitting. This value is used to decide the partition stride, not for filtering the rows in table. All rows in the table or query result will be partitioned and copied. If not specified, copy activity auto detect the value.
Apply when the partition option is DynamicRange. For an example, see the Parallel copy from SQL database section.
No
partitionLowerBound The minimum value of the partition column for partition range splitting. This value is used to decide the partition stride, not for filtering the rows in table. All rows in the table or query result will be partitioned and copied. If not specified, copy activity auto detect the value.
Apply when the partition option is DynamicRange. For an example, see the Parallel copy from SQL database section.
No

Note the following points:

  • If sqlReaderQuery is specified for SqlSource, the copy activity runs this query against the SQL Server source to get the data. You also can specify a stored procedure by specifying sqlReaderStoredProcedureName and storedProcedureParameters if the stored procedure takes parameters.
  • When using stored procedure in source to retrieve data, note if your stored procedure is designed as returning different schema when different parameter value is passed in, you may encounter failure or see unexpected result when importing schema from UI or when copying data to SQL database with auto table creation.

Example: Use SQL query

"activities":[
    {
        "name": "CopyFromSQLServer",
        "type": "Copy",
        "inputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<SQL Server input dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "outputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<output dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "source": {
                "type": "SqlSource",
                "sqlReaderQuery": "SELECT * FROM MyTable"
            },
            "sink": {
                "type": "<sink type>"
            }
        }
    }
]

Example: Use a stored procedure

"activities":[
    {
        "name": "CopyFromSQLServer",
        "type": "Copy",
        "inputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<SQL Server input dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "outputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<output dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "source": {
                "type": "SqlSource",
                "sqlReaderStoredProcedureName": "CopyTestSrcStoredProcedureWithParameters",
                "storedProcedureParameters": {
                    "stringData": { "value": "str3" },
                    "identifier": { "value": "$$Text.Format('{0:yyyy}', <datetime parameter>)", "type": "Int"}
                }
            },
            "sink": {
                "type": "<sink type>"
            }
        }
    }
]

The stored procedure definition

CREATE PROCEDURE CopyTestSrcStoredProcedureWithParameters
(
    @stringData varchar(20),
    @identifier int
)
AS
SET NOCOUNT ON;
BEGIN
    select *
    from dbo.UnitTestSrcTable
    where dbo.UnitTestSrcTable.stringData != stringData
    and dbo.UnitTestSrcTable.identifier != identifier
END
GO

SQL Server as a sink

Tip

Learn more about the supported write behaviors, configurations, and best practices from Best practice for loading data into SQL Server.

To copy data to SQL Server, set the sink type in the copy activity to SqlSink. The following properties are supported in the copy activity sink section:

Property Description Required
type The type property of the copy activity sink must be set to SqlSink. Yes
preCopyScript This property specifies a SQL query for the copy activity to run before writing data into SQL Server. It's invoked only once per copy run. You can use this property to clean up the preloaded data. No
tableOption Specifies whether to automatically create the sink table if not exists based on the source schema. Auto table creation is not supported when sink specifies stored procedure. Allowed values are: none (default), autoCreate. No
sqlWriterStoredProcedureName The name of the stored procedure that defines how to apply source data into a target table.
This stored procedure is invoked per batch. For operations that run only once and have nothing to do with source data, for example, delete or truncate, use the preCopyScript property.
See example from Invoke a stored procedure from a SQL sink.
No
storedProcedureTableTypeParameterName The parameter name of the table type specified in the stored procedure. No
sqlWriterTableType The table type name to be used in the stored procedure. The copy activity makes the data being moved available in a temp table with this table type. Stored procedure code can then merge the data that's being copied with existing data. No
storedProcedureParameters Parameters for the stored procedure.
Allowed values are name and value pairs. Names and casing of parameters must match the names and casing of the stored procedure parameters.
No
writeBatchSize Number of rows to insert into the SQL table per batch.
Allowed values are integers for the number of rows. By default, the service dynamically determines the appropriate batch size based on the row size.
No
writeBatchTimeout This property specifies the wait time for the batch insert operation to complete before it times out.
Allowed values are for the timespan. An example is "00:30:00" for 30 minutes. If no value is specified, the timeout defaults to "02:00:00".
No
 maxConcurrentConnections  The upper limit of concurrent connections established to the data store during the activity run. Specify a value only when you want to limit concurrent connections.  No 

Example 1: Append data

"activities":[
    {
        "name": "CopyToSQLServer",
        "type": "Copy",
        "inputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<input dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "outputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<SQL Server output dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "source": {
                "type": "<source type>"
            },
            "sink": {
                "type": "SqlSink",
                "tableOption": "autoCreate",
                "writeBatchSize": 100000
            }
        }
    }
]

Example 2: Invoke a stored procedure during copy

Learn more details from Invoke a stored procedure from a SQL sink.

"activities":[
    {
        "name": "CopyToSQLServer",
        "type": "Copy",
        "inputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<input dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "outputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<SQL Server output dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "source": {
                "type": "<source type>"
            },
            "sink": {
                "type": "SqlSink",
                "sqlWriterStoredProcedureName": "CopyTestStoredProcedureWithParameters",
                "storedProcedureTableTypeParameterName": "MyTable",
                "sqlWriterTableType": "MyTableType",
                "storedProcedureParameters": {
                    "identifier": { "value": "1", "type": "Int" },
                    "stringData": { "value": "str1" }
                }
            }
        }
    }
]

Parallel copy from SQL database

The SQL Server connector in copy activity provides built-in data partitioning to copy data in parallel. You can find data partitioning options on the Source tab of the copy activity.

Screenshot of partition options

When you enable partitioned copy, copy activity runs parallel queries against your SQL Server source to load data by partitions. The parallel degree is controlled by the parallelCopies setting on the copy activity. For example, if you set parallelCopies to four, the service concurrently generates and runs four queries based on your specified partition option and settings, and each query retrieves a portion of data from your SQL Server.

You are suggested to enable parallel copy with data partitioning especially when you load large amount of data from your SQL Server. The following are suggested configurations for different scenarios. When copying data into file-based data store, it's recommended to write to a folder as multiple files (only specify folder name), in which case the performance is better than writing to a single file.

Scenario Suggested settings
Full load from large table, with physical partitions. Partition option: Physical partitions of table.

During execution, the service automatically detects the physical partitions, and copies data by partitions.

To check if your table has physical partition or not, you can refer to this query.
Full load from large table, without physical partitions, while with an integer or datetime column for data partitioning. Partition options: Dynamic range partition.
Partition column (optional): Specify the column used to partition data. If not specified, the primary key column is used.
Partition upper bound and partition lower bound (optional): Specify if you want to determine the partition stride. This is not for filtering the rows in table, all rows in the table will be partitioned and copied. If not specified, copy activity auto detects the values and it can take long time depending on MIN and MAX values. It is recommended to provide upper bound and lower bound.

For example, if your partition column "ID" has values range from 1 to 100, and you set the lower bound as 20 and the upper bound as 80, with parallel copy as 4, the service retrieves data by 4 partitions - IDs in range <=20, [21, 50], [51, 80], and >=81, respectively.
Load a large amount of data by using a custom query, without physical partitions, while with an integer or date/datetime column for data partitioning. Partition options: Dynamic range partition.
Query: SELECT * FROM <TableName> WHERE ?AdfDynamicRangePartitionCondition AND <your_additional_where_clause>.
Partition column: Specify the column used to partition data.
Partition upper bound and partition lower bound (optional): Specify if you want to determine the partition stride. This is not for filtering the rows in table, all rows in the query result will be partitioned and copied. If not specified, copy activity auto detect the value.

During execution, the service replaces ?AdfRangePartitionColumnName with the actual column name and value ranges for each partition, and sends to SQL Server.
For example, if your partition column "ID" has values range from 1 to 100, and you set the lower bound as 20 and the upper bound as 80, with parallel copy as 4, the service retrieves data by 4 partitions- IDs in range <=20, [21, 50], [51, 80], and >=81, respectively.

Here are more sample queries for different scenarios:
1. Query the whole table:
SELECT * FROM <TableName> WHERE ?AdfDynamicRangePartitionCondition
2. Query from a table with column selection and additional where-clause filters:
SELECT <column_list> FROM <TableName> WHERE ?AdfDynamicRangePartitionCondition AND <your_additional_where_clause>
3. Query with subqueries:
SELECT <column_list> FROM (<your_sub_query>) AS T WHERE ?AdfDynamicRangePartitionCondition AND <your_additional_where_clause>
4. Query with partition in subquery:
SELECT <column_list> FROM (SELECT <your_sub_query_column_list> FROM <TableName> WHERE ?AdfDynamicRangePartitionCondition) AS T

Best practices to load data with partition option:

  1. Choose distinctive column as partition column (like primary key or unique key) to avoid data skew.
  2. If the table has built-in partition, use partition option "Physical partitions of table" to get better performance.
  3. If you use Azure Integration Runtime to copy data, you can set larger "Data Integration Units (DIU)" (>4) to utilize more computing resource. Check the applicable scenarios there.
  4. "Degree of copy parallelism" control the partition numbers, setting this number too large sometime hurts the performance, recommend setting this number as (DIU or number of Self-hosted IR nodes) * (2 to 4).

Example: full load from large table with physical partitions

"source": {
    "type": "SqlSource",
    "partitionOption": "PhysicalPartitionsOfTable"
}

Example: query with dynamic range partition

"source": {
    "type": "SqlSource",
    "query": "SELECT * FROM <TableName> WHERE ?AdfDynamicRangePartitionCondition AND <your_additional_where_clause>",
    "partitionOption": "DynamicRange",
    "partitionSettings": {
        "partitionColumnName": "<partition_column_name>",
        "partitionUpperBound": "<upper_value_of_partition_column (optional) to decide the partition stride, not as data filter>",
        "partitionLowerBound": "<lower_value_of_partition_column (optional) to decide the partition stride, not as data filter>"
    }
}

Sample query to check physical partition

SELECT DISTINCT s.name AS SchemaName, t.name AS TableName, pf.name AS PartitionFunctionName, c.name AS ColumnName, iif(pf.name is null, 'no', 'yes') AS HasPartition
FROM sys.tables AS t
LEFT JOIN sys.objects AS o ON t.object_id = o.object_id
LEFT JOIN sys.schemas AS s ON o.schema_id = s.schema_id
LEFT JOIN sys.indexes AS i ON t.object_id = i.object_id 
LEFT JOIN sys.index_columns AS ic ON ic.partition_ordinal > 0 AND ic.index_id = i.index_id AND ic.object_id = t.object_id 
LEFT JOIN sys.columns AS c ON c.object_id = ic.object_id AND c.column_id = ic.column_id 
LEFT JOIN sys.partition_schemes ps ON i.data_space_id = ps.data_space_id 
LEFT JOIN sys.partition_functions pf ON pf.function_id = ps.function_id 
WHERE s.name='[your schema]' AND t.name = '[your table name]'

If the table has physical partition, you would see "HasPartition" as "yes" like the following.

Sql query result

Best practice for loading data into SQL Server

When you copy data into SQL Server, you might require different write behavior:

  • Append: My source data has only new records.
  • Upsert: My source data has both inserts and updates.
  • Overwrite: I want to reload the entire dimension table each time.
  • Write with custom logic: I need extra processing before the final insertion into the destination table.

See the respective sections for how to configure and best practices.

Append data

Appending data is the default behavior of this SQL Server sink connector. the service does a bulk insert to write to your table efficiently. You can configure the source and sink accordingly in the copy activity.

Upsert data

Option 1: When you have a large amount of data to copy, you can bulk load all records into a staging table by using the copy activity, then run a stored procedure activity to apply a MERGE or INSERT/UPDATE statement in one shot.

Copy activity currently doesn't natively support loading data into a database temporary table. There is an advanced way to set it up with a combination of multiple activities, refer to Optimize SQL Database Bulk Upsert scenarios. Below shows a sample of using a permanent table as staging.

As an example, you can create a pipeline with a Copy activity chained with a Stored Procedure activity. The former copies data from your source store into a SQL Server staging table, for example, UpsertStagingTable, as the table name in the dataset. Then the latter invokes a stored procedure to merge source data from the staging table into the target table and clean up the staging table.

Upsert

In your database, define a stored procedure with MERGE logic, like the following example, which is pointed to from the previous stored procedure activity. Assume that the target is the Marketing table with three columns: ProfileID, State, and Category. Do the upsert based on the ProfileID column.

CREATE PROCEDURE [dbo].[spMergeData]
AS
BEGIN
    MERGE TargetTable AS target
    USING UpsertStagingTable AS source
    ON (target.[ProfileID] = source.[ProfileID])
    WHEN MATCHED THEN
        UPDATE SET State = source.State
    WHEN NOT matched THEN
        INSERT ([ProfileID], [State], [Category])
      VALUES (source.ProfileID, source.State, source.Category);
    
    TRUNCATE TABLE UpsertStagingTable
END

Option 2: You can choose to invoke a stored procedure within the copy activity. This approach runs each batch (as governed by the writeBatchSize property) in the source table instead of using bulk insert as the default approach in the copy activity.

Overwrite the entire table

You can configure the preCopyScript property in a copy activity sink. In this case, for each copy activity that runs, the service runs the script first. Then it runs the copy to insert the data. For example, to overwrite the entire table with the latest data, specify a script to first delete all the records before you bulk load the new data from the source.

Write data with custom logic

The steps to write data with custom logic are similar to those described in the Upsert data section. When you need to apply extra processing before the final insertion of source data into the destination table, you can load to a staging table then invoke stored procedure activity, or invoke a stored procedure in copy activity sink to apply data.

Invoke a stored procedure from a SQL sink

When you copy data into SQL Server database, you also can configure and invoke a user-specified stored procedure with additional parameters on each batch of the source table. The stored procedure feature takes advantage of table-valued parameters.

You can use a stored procedure when built-in copy mechanisms don't serve the purpose. An example is when you want to apply extra processing before the final insertion of source data into the destination table. Some extra processing examples are when you want to merge columns, look up additional values, and insert into more than one table.

The following sample shows how to use a stored procedure to do an upsert into a table in the SQL Server database. Assume that the input data and the sink Marketing table each have three columns: ProfileID, State, and Category. Do the upsert based on the ProfileID column, and only apply it for a specific category called "ProductA".

  1. In your database, define the table type with the same name as sqlWriterTableType. The schema of the table type is the same as the schema returned by your input data.

    CREATE TYPE [dbo].[MarketingType] AS TABLE(
        [ProfileID] [varchar](256) NOT NULL,
        [State] [varchar](256) NOT NULL,
        [Category] [varchar](256) NOT NULL
    )
    
  2. In your database, define the stored procedure with the same name as sqlWriterStoredProcedureName. It handles input data from your specified source and merges into the output table. The parameter name of the table type in the stored procedure is the same as tableName defined in the dataset.

    CREATE PROCEDURE spOverwriteMarketing @Marketing [dbo].[MarketingType] READONLY, @category varchar(256)
    AS
    BEGIN
    MERGE [dbo].[Marketing] AS target
    USING @Marketing AS source
    ON (target.ProfileID = source.ProfileID and target.Category = @category)
    WHEN MATCHED THEN
        UPDATE SET State = source.State
    WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN
        INSERT (ProfileID, State, Category)
        VALUES (source.ProfileID, source.State, source.Category);
    END
    
  3. Define the SQL sink section in the copy activity as follows:

    "sink": {
        "type": "SqlSink",
        "sqlWriterStoredProcedureName": "spOverwriteMarketing",
        "storedProcedureTableTypeParameterName": "Marketing",
        "sqlWriterTableType": "MarketingType",
        "storedProcedureParameters": {
            "category": {
                "value": "ProductA"
            }
        }
    }
    

Mapping data flow properties

When transforming data in mapping data flow, you can read and write to tables from SQL Server Database. For more information, see the source transformation and sink transformation in mapping data flows.

Note

To access on premise SQL Server, you need to use Azure Data Factory or Synapse workspace Managed Virtual Network using a private endpoint. Refer to this tutorial for detailed steps.

Source transformation

The below table lists the properties supported by SQL Server source. You can edit these properties in the Source options tab.

Name Description Required Allowed values Data flow script property
Table If you select Table as input, data flow fetches all the data from the table specified in the dataset. No - -
Query If you select Query as input, specify a SQL query to fetch data from source, which overrides any table you specify in dataset. Using queries is a great way to reduce rows for testing or lookups.

Order By clause is not supported, but you can set a full SELECT FROM statement. You can also use user-defined table functions. select * from udfGetData() is a UDF in SQL that returns a table that you can use in data flow.
Query example: Select * from MyTable where customerId > 1000 and customerId < 2000
No String query
Batch size Specify a batch size to chunk large data into reads. No Integer batchSize
Isolation Level Choose one of the following isolation levels:
- Read Committed
- Read Uncommitted (default)
- Repeatable Read
- Serializable
- None (ignore isolation level)
No READ_COMMITTED
READ_UNCOMMITTED
REPEATABLE_READ
SERIALIZABLE
NONE
isolationLevel

SQL Server source script example

When you use SQL Server as source type, the associated data flow script is:

source(allowSchemaDrift: true,
    validateSchema: false,
    isolationLevel: 'READ_UNCOMMITTED',
    query: 'select * from MYTABLE',
    format: 'query') ~> SQLSource

Sink transformation

The below table lists the properties supported by SQL Server sink. You can edit these properties in the Sink options tab.

Name Description Required Allowed values Data flow script property
Update method Specify what operations are allowed on your database destination. The default is to only allow inserts.
To update, upsert, or delete rows, an Alter row transformation is required to tag rows for those actions.
Yes true or false deletable
insertable
updateable
upsertable
Key columns For updates, upserts and deletes, key column(s) must be set to determine which row to alter.
The column name that you pick as the key will be used as part of the subsequent update, upsert, delete. Therefore, you must pick a column that exists in the Sink mapping.
No Array keys
Skip writing key columns If you wish to not write the value to the key column, select "Skip writing key columns". No true or false skipKeyWrites
Table action Determines whether to recreate or remove all rows from the destination table prior to writing.
- None: No action will be done to the table.
- Recreate: The table will get dropped and recreated. Required if creating a new table dynamically.
- Truncate: All rows from the target table will get removed.
No true or false recreate
truncate
Batch size Specify how many rows are being written in each batch. Larger batch sizes improve compression and memory optimization, but risk out of memory exceptions when caching data. No Integer batchSize
Pre and Post SQL scripts Specify multi-line SQL scripts that will execute before (pre-processing) and after (post-processing) data is written to your Sink database. No String preSQLs
postSQLs

SQL Server sink script example

When you use SQL Server as sink type, the associated data flow script is:

IncomingStream sink(allowSchemaDrift: true,
    validateSchema: false,
    deletable:false,
    insertable:true,
    updateable:true,
    upsertable:true,
    keys:['keyColumn'],
    format: 'table',
    skipDuplicateMapInputs: true,
    skipDuplicateMapOutputs: true) ~> SQLSink

Data type mapping for SQL Server

When you copy data from and to SQL Server, the following mappings are used from SQL Server data types to Azure Data Factory interim data types. Synapse pipelines, which implement Data Factory, use the same mappings. To learn how the copy activity maps the source schema and data type to the sink, see Schema and data type mappings.

SQL Server data type Data Factory interim data type
bigint Int64
binary Byte[]
bit Boolean
char String, Char[]
date DateTime
Datetime DateTime
datetime2 DateTime
Datetimeoffset DateTimeOffset
Decimal Decimal
FILESTREAM attribute (varbinary(max)) Byte[]
Float Double
image Byte[]
int Int32
money Decimal
nchar String, Char[]
ntext String, Char[]
numeric Decimal
nvarchar String, Char[]
real Single
rowversion Byte[]
smalldatetime DateTime
smallint Int16
smallmoney Decimal
sql_variant Object
text String, Char[]
time TimeSpan
timestamp Byte[]
tinyint Int16
uniqueidentifier Guid
varbinary Byte[]
varchar String, Char[]
xml String

Note

For data types that map to the Decimal interim type, currently Copy activity supports precision up to 28. If you have data that requires precision larger than 28, consider converting to a string in a SQL query.

Lookup activity properties

To learn details about the properties, check Lookup activity.

GetMetadata activity properties

To learn details about the properties, check GetMetadata activity

Using Always Encrypted

When you copy data from/to SQL Server with Always Encrypted, follow below steps:

  1. Store the Column Master Key (CMK) in an Azure Key Vault. Learn more on how to configure Always Encrypted by using Azure Key Vault

  2. Make sure to grant access to the key vault where the Column Master Key (CMK) is stored. Refer to this article for required permissions.

  3. Create linked service to connect to your SQL database and enable 'Always Encrypted' function by using either managed identity or service principal.

Note

SQL Server Always Encrypted supports below scenarios:

  1. Either source or sink data stores is using managed identity or service principal as key provider authentication type.
  2. Both source and sink data stores are using managed identity as key provider authentication type.
  3. Both source and sink data stores are using the same service principal as key provider authentication type.

Troubleshoot connection issues

  1. Configure your SQL Server instance to accept remote connections. Start SQL Server Management Studio, right-click server, and select Properties. Select Connections from the list, and select the Allow remote connections to this server check box.

    Enable remote connections

    For detailed steps, see Configure the remote access server configuration option.

  2. Start SQL Server Configuration Manager. Expand SQL Server Network Configuration for the instance you want, and select Protocols for MSSQLSERVER. Protocols appear in the right pane. Enable TCP/IP by right-clicking TCP/IP and selecting Enable.

    Enable TCP/IP

    For more information and alternate ways of enabling TCP/IP protocol, see Enable or disable a server network protocol.

  3. In the same window, double-click TCP/IP to launch the TCP/IP Properties window.

  4. Switch to the IP Addresses tab. Scroll down to see the IPAll section. Write down the TCP Port. The default is 1433.

  5. Create a rule for the Windows Firewall on the machine to allow incoming traffic through this port.

  6. Verify connection: To connect to SQL Server by using a fully qualified name, use SQL Server Management Studio from a different machine. An example is "<machine>.<domain>.corp.<company>.com,1433".

Next steps

For a list of data stores supported as sources and sinks by the copy activity, see Supported data stores.