Move data From MySQL using Azure Data Factory

This article explains how to use the Copy Activity in Azure Data Factory to move data from an on-premises MySQL database. It builds on the Data Movement Activities article, which presents a general overview of data movement with the copy activity.

You can copy data from an on-premises MySQL data store to any supported sink data store. For a list of data stores supported as sinks by the copy activity, see the Supported data stores table. Data factory currently supports only moving data from a MySQL data store to other data stores, but not for moving data from other data stores to an MySQL data store.

Prerequisites

Data Factory service supports connecting to on-premises MySQL sources using the Data Management Gateway. See moving data between on-premises locations and cloud article to learn about Data Management Gateway and step-by-step instructions on setting up the gateway.

Gateway is required even if the MySQL database is hosted in an Azure IaaS virtual machine (VM). You can install the gateway on the same VM as the data store or on a different VM as long as the gateway can connect to the database.

Note

See Troubleshoot gateway issues for tips on troubleshooting connection/gateway related issues.

Supported versions and installation

For Data Management Gateway to connect to the MySQL Database, you need to install the MySQL Connector/Net 6.6.5 for Microsoft Windows or above on the same system as the Data Management Gateway. MySQL version 5.1 and above is supported.

Getting started

You can create a pipeline with a copy activity that moves data from an on-premises Cassandra data store by using different tools/APIs.

  • The easiest way to create a pipeline is to use the Copy Wizard. See Tutorial: Create a pipeline using Copy Wizard for a quick walkthrough on creating a pipeline using the Copy data wizard.
  • You can also use the following tools to create a pipeline: Azure portal, Visual Studio, Azure PowerShell, Azure Resource Manager template, .NET API, and REST API. See Copy activity tutorial for step-by-step instructions to create a pipeline with a copy activity.

Whether you use the tools or APIs, you perform the following steps to create a pipeline that moves data from a source data store to a sink data store:

  1. Create linked services to link input and output data stores to your data factory.
  2. Create datasets to represent input and output data for the copy operation.
  3. Create a pipeline with a copy activity that takes a dataset as an input and a dataset as an output.

When you use the wizard, JSON definitions for these Data Factory entities (linked services, datasets, and the pipeline) are automatically created for you. When you use tools/APIs (except .NET API), you define these Data Factory entities by using the JSON format. For a sample with JSON definitions for Data Factory entities that are used to copy data from an on-premises MySQL data store, see JSON example: Copy data from MySQL to Azure Blob section of this article.

The following sections provide details about JSON properties that are used to define Data Factory entities specific to a MySQL data store:

Linked service properties

The following table provides description for JSON elements specific to MySQL linked service.

Property Description Required
type The type property must be set to: OnPremisesMySql Yes
server Name of the MySQL server. Yes
database Name of the MySQL database. Yes
schema Name of the schema in the database. No
authenticationType Type of authentication used to connect to the MySQL database. Possible values are: Basic. Yes
username Specify user name to connect to the MySQL database. Yes
password Specify password for the user account you specified. Yes
gatewayName Name of the gateway that the Data Factory service should use to connect to the on-premises MySQL database. Yes

Dataset properties

For a full list of sections & properties available for defining datasets, see the Creating datasets article. Sections such as structure, availability, and policy of a dataset JSON are similar for all dataset types (Azure SQL, Azure blob, Azure table, etc.).

The typeProperties section is different for each type of dataset and provides information about the location of the data in the data store. The typeProperties section for dataset of type RelationalTable (which includes MySQL dataset) has the following properties

Property Description Required
tableName Name of the table in the MySQL Database instance that linked service refers to. No (if query of RelationalSource is specified)

Copy activity properties

For a full list of sections & properties available for defining activities, see the Creating Pipelines article. Properties such as name, description, input and output tables, are policies are available for all types of activities.

Whereas, properties available in the typeProperties section of the activity vary with each activity type. For Copy activity, they vary depending on the types of sources and sinks.

When source in copy activity is of type RelationalSource (which includes MySQL), the following properties are available in typeProperties section:

Property Description Allowed values Required
query Use the custom query to read data. SQL query string. For example: select * from MyTable. No (if tableName of dataset is specified)

JSON example: Copy data from MySQL to Azure Blob

This example provides sample JSON definitions that you can use to create a pipeline by using Azure portal or Visual Studio or Azure PowerShell. It shows how to copy data from an on-premises MySQL database to an Azure Blob Storage. However, data can be copied to any of the sinks stated here using the Copy Activity in Azure Data Factory.

Important

This sample provides JSON snippets. It does not include step-by-step instructions for creating the data factory. See moving data between on-premises locations and cloud article for step-by-step instructions.

The sample has the following data factory entities:

  1. A linked service of type OnPremisesMySql.
  2. A linked service of type AzureStorage.
  3. An input dataset of type RelationalTable.
  4. An output dataset of type AzureBlob.
  5. A pipeline with Copy Activity that uses RelationalSource and BlobSink.

The sample copies data from a query result in MySQL database to a blob hourly. The JSON properties used in these samples are described in sections following the samples.

As a first step, setup the data management gateway. The instructions are in the moving data between on-premises locations and cloud article.

MySQL linked service:

    {
      "name": "OnPremMySqlLinkedService",
      "properties": {
        "type": "OnPremisesMySql",
        "typeProperties": {
          "server": "<server name>",
          "database": "<database name>",
          "schema": "<schema name>",
          "authenticationType": "<authentication type>",
          "userName": "<user name>",
          "password": "<password>",
          "gatewayName": "<gateway>"
        }
      }
    }

Azure Storage linked service:

    {
      "name": "AzureStorageLinkedService",
      "properties": {
        "type": "AzureStorage",
        "typeProperties": {
          "connectionString": "DefaultEndpointsProtocol=https;AccountName=<accountname>;AccountKey=<accountkey>"
        }
      }
    }

MySQL input dataset:

The sample assumes you have created a table “MyTable” in MySQL and it contains a column called “timestampcolumn” for time series data.

Setting “external”: ”true” informs the Data Factory service that the table is external to the data factory and is not produced by an activity in the data factory.

    {
        "name": "MySqlDataSet",
        "properties": {
            "published": false,
            "type": "RelationalTable",
            "linkedServiceName": "OnPremMySqlLinkedService",
            "typeProperties": {},
            "availability": {
                "frequency": "Hour",
                "interval": 1
            },
            "external": true,
            "policy": {
                "externalData": {
                    "retryInterval": "00:01:00",
                    "retryTimeout": "00:10:00",
                    "maximumRetry": 3
                }
            }
        }
    }

Azure Blob output dataset:

Data is written to a new blob every hour (frequency: hour, interval: 1). The folder path for the blob is dynamically evaluated based on the start time of the slice that is being processed. The folder path uses year, month, day, and hours parts of the start time.

    {
        "name": "AzureBlobMySqlDataSet",
        "properties": {
            "type": "AzureBlob",
            "linkedServiceName": "AzureStorageLinkedService",
            "typeProperties": {
                "folderPath": "mycontainer/mysql/yearno={Year}/monthno={Month}/dayno={Day}/hourno={Hour}",
                "format": {
                    "type": "TextFormat",
                    "rowDelimiter": "\n",
                    "columnDelimiter": "\t"
                },
                "partitionedBy": [
                    {
                        "name": "Year",
                        "value": {
                            "type": "DateTime",
                            "date": "SliceStart",
                            "format": "yyyy"
                        }
                    },
                    {
                        "name": "Month",
                        "value": {
                            "type": "DateTime",
                            "date": "SliceStart",
                            "format": "MM"
                        }
                    },
                    {
                        "name": "Day",
                        "value": {
                            "type": "DateTime",
                            "date": "SliceStart",
                            "format": "dd"
                        }
                    },
                    {
                        "name": "Hour",
                        "value": {
                            "type": "DateTime",
                            "date": "SliceStart",
                            "format": "HH"
                        }
                    }
                ]
            },
            "availability": {
                "frequency": "Hour",
                "interval": 1
            }
        }
    }

Pipeline with Copy activity:

The pipeline contains a Copy Activity that is configured to use the input and output datasets and is scheduled to run every hour. In the pipeline JSON definition, the source type is set to RelationalSource and sink type is set to BlobSink. The SQL query specified for the query property selects the data in the past hour to copy.

    {
        "name": "CopyMySqlToBlob",
        "properties": {
            "description": "pipeline for copy activity",
            "activities": [
                {
                    "type": "Copy",
                    "typeProperties": {
                        "source": {
                            "type": "RelationalSource",
                            "query": "$$Text.Format('select * from MyTable where timestamp >= \\'{0:yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mm:ss}\\' AND timestamp < \\'{1:yyyy-MM-ddTHH:mm:ss}\\'', WindowStart, WindowEnd)"
                        },
                        "sink": {
                            "type": "BlobSink",
                            "writeBatchSize": 0,
                            "writeBatchTimeout": "00:00:00"
                        }
                    },
                    "inputs": [
                        {
                            "name": "MySqlDataSet"
                        }
                    ],
                    "outputs": [
                        {
                            "name": "AzureBlobMySqlDataSet"
                        }
                    ],
                    "policy": {
                        "timeout": "01:00:00",
                        "concurrency": 1
                    },
                    "scheduler": {
                        "frequency": "Hour",
                        "interval": 1
                    },
                    "name": "MySqlToBlob"
                }
            ],
            "start": "2014-06-01T18:00:00Z",
            "end": "2014-06-01T19:00:00Z"
        }
    }

Type mapping for MySQL

As mentioned in the data movement activities article, Copy activity performs automatic type conversions from source types to sink types with the following two-step approach:

  1. Convert from native source types to .NET type
  2. Convert from .NET type to native sink type

When moving data to MySQL, the following mappings are used from MySQL types to .NET types.

MySQL Database type .NET Framework type
bigint unsigned Decimal
bigint Int64
bit Decimal
blob Byte[]
bool Boolean
char String
date Datetime
datetime Datetime
decimal Decimal
double precision Double
double Double
enum String
float Single
int unsigned Int64
int Int32
integer unsigned Int64
integer Int32
long varbinary Byte[]
long varchar String
longblob Byte[]
longtext String
mediumblob Byte[]
mediumint unsigned Int64
mediumint Int32
mediumtext String
numeric Decimal
real Double
set String
smallint unsigned Int32
smallint Int16
text String
time TimeSpan
timestamp Datetime
tinyblob Byte[]
tinyint unsigned Int16
tinyint Int16
tinytext String
varchar String
year Int

Map source to sink columns

To learn about mapping columns in source dataset to columns in sink dataset, see Mapping dataset columns in Azure Data Factory.

Repeatable read from relational sources

When copying data from relational data stores, keep repeatability in mind to avoid unintended outcomes. In Azure Data Factory, you can rerun a slice manually. You can also configure retry policy for a dataset so that a slice is rerun when a failure occurs. When a slice is rerun in either way, you need to make sure that the same data is read no matter how many times a slice is run. See Repeatable read from relational sources.

Performance and Tuning

See Copy Activity Performance & Tuning Guide to learn about key factors that impact performance of data movement (Copy Activity) in Azure Data Factory and various ways to optimize it.