Tutorial: Deploy and configure Azure Firewall using the Azure portal

Controlling outbound network access is an important part of an overall network security plan. For example, you may want to limit access to web sites. Or, you may want to limit the outbound IP addresses and ports that can be accessed.

One way you can control outbound network access from an Azure subnet is with Azure Firewall. With Azure Firewall, you can configure:

  • Application rules that define fully qualified domain names (FQDNs) that can be accessed from a subnet.
  • Network rules that define source address, protocol, destination port, and destination address.

Network traffic is subjected to the configured firewall rules when you route your network traffic to the firewall as the subnet default gateway.

For this tutorial, you create a simplified single VNet with two subnets for easy deployment.

For production deployments, a hub and spoke model is recommended, where the firewall is in its own VNet. The workload servers are in peered VNets in the same region with one or more subnets.

  • AzureFirewallSubnet - the firewall is in this subnet.
  • Workload-SN - the workload server is in this subnet. This subnet's network traffic goes through the firewall.

Tutorial network infrastructure

In this tutorial, you learn how to:

  • Set up a test network environment
  • Deploy a firewall
  • Create a default route
  • Configure an application rule to allow access to www.google.com
  • Configure a network rule to allow access to external DNS servers
  • Configure a NAT rule to allow a remote desktop to the test server
  • Test the firewall

If you prefer, you can complete this tutorial using Azure PowerShell.

Prerequisites

If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.

Set up the network

First, create a resource group to contain the resources needed to deploy the firewall. Then create a VNet, subnets, and a test server.

Create a resource group

The resource group contains all the resources for the tutorial.

  1. Sign in to the Azure portal at https://portal.azure.com.
  2. On the Azure portal menu, select Resource groups or search for and select Resource groups from any page. Then select Add.
  3. For Resource group name, enter Test-FW-RG.
  4. For Subscription, select your subscription.
  5. For Resource group location, select a location. All other resources that you create must be in the same location.
  6. Select Create.

Create a VNet

This VNet will contain three subnets.

Note

The size of the AzureFirewallSubnet subnet is /26. For more information about the subnet size, see Azure Firewall FAQ.

  1. On the Azure portal menu or from the Home page, select Create a resource.
  2. Select Networking > Virtual network.
  3. For Subscription, select your subscription.
  4. For Resource group, select Test-FW-RG.
  5. For Name, type Test-FW-VN.
  6. For Region, select the same location that you used previously.
  7. Select Next: IP addresses.
  8. For IPv4 Address space, type 10.0.0.0/16.
  9. Under Subnet, select default.
  10. For Subnet name type AzureFirewallSubnet. The firewall will be in this subnet, and the subnet name must be AzureFirewallSubnet.
  11. For Address range, type 10.0.1.0/26.
  12. Select Save.

Next, create a subnet for the workload server.

  1. Select Add subnet.
  2. For Subnet name, type Workload-SN.
  3. For Subnet address range, type 10.0.2.0/24.
  4. Select Add.
  5. Select Review + create.
  6. Select Create.

Create a virtual machine

Now create the workload virtual machine, and place it in the Workload-SN subnet.

  1. On the Azure portal menu or from the Home page, select Create a resource.

  2. Select Compute and then select Virtual machine.

  3. Windows Server 2016 Datacenter in the Featured list.

  4. Enter these values for the virtual machine:

    Setting Value
    Resource group Test-FW-RG
    Virtual machine name Srv-Work
    Region Same as previous
    Image Windows Server 2019 Datacenter
    Administrator user name Type a user name
    Password Type a password
  5. Under Inbound port rules, Public inbound ports, select None.

  6. Accept the other defaults and select Next: Disks.

  7. Accept the disk defaults and select Next: Networking.

  8. Make sure that Test-FW-VN is selected for the virtual network and the subnet is Workload-SN.

  9. For Public IP, select None.

  10. Accept the other defaults and select Next: Management.

  11. Select Off to disable boot diagnostics. Accept the other defaults and select Review + create.

  12. Review the settings on the summary page, and then select Create.

Deploy the firewall

Deploy the firewall into the VNet.

  1. On the Azure portal menu or from the Home page, select Create a resource.

  2. Type firewall in the search box and press Enter.

  3. Select Firewall and then select Create.

  4. On the Create a Firewall page, use the following table to configure the firewall:

    Setting Value
    Subscription <your subscription>
    Resource group Test-FW-RG
    Name Test-FW01
    Location Select the same location that you used previously
    Choose a virtual network Use existing: Test-FW-VN
    Public IP address Add new
    Name: fw-pip
  5. Select Review + create.

  6. Review the summary, and then select Create to create the firewall.

    This will take a few minutes to deploy.

  7. After deployment completes, go to the Test-FW-RG resource group, and select the Test-FW01 firewall.

  8. Note the firewall private and public IP addresses. You'll use these addresses later.

Create a default route

For the Workload-SN subnet, configure the outbound default route to go through the firewall.

  1. On the Azure portal menu, select All services or search for and select All services from any page.

  2. Under Networking, select Route tables.

  3. Select Add.

  4. For Name, type Firewall-route.

  5. For Subscription, select your subscription.

  6. For Resource group, select Test-FW-RG.

  7. For Location, select the same location that you used previously.

  8. Select Create.

  9. Select Refresh, and then select the Firewall-route route table.

  10. Select Subnets and then select Associate.

  11. Select Virtual network > Test-FW-VN.

  12. For Subnet, select Workload-SN. Make sure that you select only the Workload-SN subnet for this route, otherwise your firewall won't work correctly.

  13. Select OK.

  14. Select Routes and then select Add.

  15. For Route name, type fw-dg.

  16. For Address prefix, type 0.0.0.0/0.

  17. For Next hop type, select Virtual appliance.

    Azure Firewall is actually a managed service, but virtual appliance works in this situation.

  18. For Next hop address, type the private IP address for the firewall that you noted previously.

  19. Select OK.

Configure an application rule

This is the application rule that allows outbound access to www.google.com.

  1. Open the Test-FW-RG, and select the Test-FW01 firewall.
  2. On the Test-FW01 page, under Settings, select Rules.
  3. Select the Application rule collection tab.
  4. Select Add application rule collection.
  5. For Name, type App-Coll01.
  6. For Priority, type 200.
  7. For Action, select Allow.
  8. Under Rules, Target FQDNs, for Name, type Allow-Google.
  9. For Source type, select IP address.
  10. For Source, type 10.0.2.0/24.
  11. For Protocol:port, type http, https.
  12. For Target FQDNS, type www.google.com
  13. Select Add.

Azure Firewall includes a built-in rule collection for infrastructure FQDNs that are allowed by default. These FQDNs are specific for the platform and can't be used for other purposes. For more information, see Infrastructure FQDNs.

Configure a network rule

This is the network rule that allows outbound access to two IP addresses at port 53 (DNS).

  1. Select the Network rule collection tab.

  2. Select Add network rule collection.

  3. For Name, type Net-Coll01.

  4. For Priority, type 200.

  5. For Action, select Allow.

  6. Under Rules, IP addresses, for Name, type Allow-DNS.

  7. For Protocol, select UDP.

  8. For Source type, select IP address.

  9. For Source, type 10.0.2.0/24.

  10. For Destination type select IP address.

  11. For Destination address, type 209.244.0.3,209.244.0.4

    These are public DNS servers operated by CenturyLink.

  12. For Destination Ports, type 53.

  13. Select Add.

Configure a DNAT rule

This rule allows you to connect a remote desktop to the Srv-Work virtual machine through the firewall.

  1. Select the NAT rule collection tab.
  2. Select Add NAT rule collection.
  3. For Name, type rdp.
  4. For Priority, type 200.
  5. Under Rules, for Name, type rdp-nat.
  6. For Protocol, select TCP.
  7. For Source type, select IP address.
  8. For Source, type *.
  9. For Destination address, type the firewall public IP address.
  10. For Destination Ports, type 3389.
  11. For Translated address, type the Srv-work private IP address.
  12. For Translated port, type 3389.
  13. Select Add.

Change the primary and secondary DNS address for the Srv-Work network interface

For testing purposes in this tutorial, configure the server's primary and secondary DNS addresses. This isn't a general Azure Firewall requirement.

  1. On the Azure portal menu, select Resource groups or search for and select Resource groups from any page. Select the Test-FW-RG resource group.
  2. Select the network interface for the Srv-Work virtual machine.
  3. Under Settings, select DNS servers.
  4. Under DNS servers, select Custom.
  5. Type 209.244.0.3 in the Add DNS server text box, and 209.244.0.4 in the next text box.
  6. Select Save.
  7. Restart the Srv-Work virtual machine.

Test the firewall

Now, test the firewall to confirm that it works as expected.

  1. Connect a remote desktop to firewall public IP address and sign in to the Srv-Work virtual machine.

  2. Open Internet Explorer and browse to https://www.google.com.

  3. Select OK > Close on the Internet Explorer security alerts.

    You should see the Google home page.

  4. Browse to https://www.microsoft.com.

    You should be blocked by the firewall.

So now you've verified that the firewall rules are working:

  • You can browse to the one allowed FQDN, but not to any others.
  • You can resolve DNS names using the configured external DNS server.

Clean up resources

You can keep your firewall resources for the next tutorial, or if no longer needed, delete the Test-FW-RG resource group to delete all firewall-related resources.

Next steps