Quickstart: Create a public load balancer to load balance VMs using Azure PowerShell

Get started with Azure Load Balancer by using Azure PowerShell to create a public load balancer and three virtual machines.

Prerequisites

  • An Azure account with an active subscription. Create an account for free.
  • Azure PowerShell installed locally or Azure Cloud Shell

If you choose to install and use PowerShell locally, this article requires the Azure PowerShell module version 5.4.1 or later. Run Get-Module -ListAvailable Az to find the installed version. If you need to upgrade, see Install Azure PowerShell module. If you're running PowerShell locally, you also need to run Connect-AzAccount to create a connection with Azure.

Create a resource group

An Azure resource group is a logical container into which Azure resources are deployed and managed.

Create a resource group with New-AzResourceGroup:

New-AzResourceGroup -Name 'CreatePubLBQS-rg' -Location 'eastus'


Note

Standard SKU load balancer is recommended for production workloads. For more information about skus, see Azure Load Balancer SKUs.

Create a public IP address - Standard

Use New-AzPublicIpAddress to create a public IP address.

$publicip = @{
    Name = 'myPublicIP'
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Location = 'eastus'
    Sku = 'Standard'
    AllocationMethod = 'static'
}
New-AzPublicIpAddress @publicip

To create a zonal public IP address in zone 1, use the following command:

$publicip = @{
    Name = 'myPublicIP'
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Location = 'eastus'
    Sku = 'Standard'
    AllocationMethod = 'static'
    Zone = '1'
}
New-AzPublicIpAddress @publicip

Create standard load balancer

This section details how you can create and configure the following components of the load balancer:

## Place public IP created in previous steps into variable. ##
$publicIp = Get-AzPublicIpAddress -Name 'myPublicIP' -ResourceGroupName 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'

## Create load balancer frontend configuration and place in variable. ##
$feip = New-AzLoadBalancerFrontendIpConfig -Name 'myFrontEnd' -PublicIpAddress $publicIp

## Create backend address pool configuration and place in variable. ##
$bepool = New-AzLoadBalancerBackendAddressPoolConfig -Name 'myBackEndPool'

## Create the health probe and place in variable. ##
$probe = @{
    Name = 'myHealthProbe'
    Protocol = 'http'
    Port = '80'
    IntervalInSeconds = '360'
    ProbeCount = '5'
    RequestPath = '/'
}
$healthprobe = New-AzLoadBalancerProbeConfig @probe

## Create the load balancer rule and place in variable. ##
$lbrule = @{
    Name = 'myHTTPRule'
    Protocol = 'tcp'
    FrontendPort = '80'
    BackendPort = '80'
    IdleTimeoutInMinutes = '15'
    FrontendIpConfiguration = $feip
    BackendAddressPool = $bePool
}
$rule = New-AzLoadBalancerRuleConfig @lbrule -EnableTcpReset -DisableOutboundSNAT

## Create the load balancer resource. ##
$loadbalancer = @{
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Name = 'myLoadBalancer'
    Location = 'eastus'
    Sku = 'Standard'
    FrontendIpConfiguration = $feip
    BackendAddressPool = $bePool
    LoadBalancingRule = $rule
    Probe = $healthprobe
}
New-AzLoadBalancer @loadbalancer

Configure virtual network - Standard

Before you deploy VMs and test your load balancer, create the supporting virtual network resources.

Create a virtual network for the backend virtual machines.

Create a network security group to define inbound connections to your virtual network.

Create virtual network, network security group, and bastion host

## Create backend subnet config ##
$subnet = @{
    Name = 'myBackendSubnet'
    AddressPrefix = '10.0.0.0/24'
}
$subnetConfig = New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig @subnet 

## Create Azure Bastion subnet. ##
$bastsubnet = @{
    Name = 'AzureBastionSubnet' 
    AddressPrefix = '10.0.1.0/24'
}
$bastsubnetConfig = New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig @bastsubnet

## Create the virtual network ##
$net = @{
    Name = 'myVNet'
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Location = 'eastus'
    AddressPrefix = '10.0.0.0/16'
    Subnet = $subnetConfig,$bastsubnetConfig
}
$vnet = New-AzVirtualNetwork @net

## Create public IP address for bastion host. ##
$ip = @{
    Name = 'myBastionIP'
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Location = 'eastus'
    Sku = 'Standard'
    AllocationMethod = 'Static'
}
$publicip = New-AzPublicIpAddress @ip

## Create bastion host ##
$bastion = @{
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Name = 'myBastion'
    PublicIpAddress = $publicip
    VirtualNetwork = $vnet
}
New-AzBastion @bastion -AsJob

## Create rule for network security group and place in variable. ##
$nsgrule = @{
    Name = 'myNSGRuleHTTP'
    Description = 'Allow HTTP'
    Protocol = '*'
    SourcePortRange = '*'
    DestinationPortRange = '80'
    SourceAddressPrefix = 'Internet'
    DestinationAddressPrefix = '*'
    Access = 'Allow'
    Priority = '2000'
    Direction = 'Inbound'
}
$rule1 = New-AzNetworkSecurityRuleConfig @nsgrule

## Create network security group ##
$nsg = @{
    Name = 'myNSG'
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Location = 'eastus'
    SecurityRules = $rule1
}
New-AzNetworkSecurityGroup @nsg

Create virtual machines - Standard

In this section, you'll create the three virtual machines for the backend pool of the load balancer.

# Set the administrator and password for the VMs. ##
$cred = Get-Credential

## Place the virtual network into a variable. ##
$vnet = Get-AzVirtualNetwork -Name 'myVNet' -ResourceGroupName 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'

## Place the load balancer into a variable. ##
$lb = @{
    Name = 'myLoadBalancer'
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
}
$bepool = Get-AzLoadBalancer @lb  | Get-AzLoadBalancerBackendAddressPoolConfig

## Place the network security group into a variable. ##
$nsg = Get-AzNetworkSecurityGroup -Name 'myNSG' -ResourceGroupName 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'

## For loop with variable to create virtual machines for load balancer backend pool. ##
for ($i=1; $i -le 3; $i++)
{
## Command to create network interface for VMs ##
$nic = @{
    Name = "myNicVM$i"
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Location = 'eastus'
    Subnet = $vnet.Subnets[0]
    NetworkSecurityGroup = $nsg
    LoadBalancerBackendAddressPool = $bepool
}
$nicVM = New-AzNetworkInterface @nic

## Create a virtual machine configuration for VMs ##
$vmsz = @{
    VMName = "myVM$i"
    VMSize = 'Standard_DS1_v2'  
}
$vmos = @{
    ComputerName = "myVM$i"
    Credential = $cred
}
$vmimage = @{
    PublisherName = 'MicrosoftWindowsServer'
    Offer = 'WindowsServer'
    Skus = '2019-Datacenter'
    Version = 'latest'    
}
$vmConfig = New-AzVMConfig @vmsz `
    | Set-AzVMOperatingSystem @vmos -Windows `
    | Set-AzVMSourceImage @vmimage `
    | Add-AzVMNetworkInterface -Id $nicVM.Id

## Create the virtual machine for VMs ##
$vm = @{
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Location = 'eastus'
    VM = $vmConfig
    Zone = "$i"
}
New-AzVM @vm -AsJob
}

The deployments of the virtual machines and bastion host are submitted as PowerShell jobs. To view the status of the jobs, use Get-Job:

Get-Job

Id     Name            PSJobTypeName   State         HasMoreData     Location             Command
--     ----            -------------   -----         -----------     --------             -------
1      Long Running O… AzureLongRunni… Completed     True            localhost            New-AzBastion
2      Long Running O… AzureLongRunni… Completed     True            localhost            New-AzVM
3      Long Running O… AzureLongRunni… Completed     True            localhost            New-AzVM
4      Long Running O… AzureLongRunni… Completed     True            localhost            New-AzVM

Create outbound rule configuration

Load balancer outbound rules configure outbound source network address translation (SNAT) for VMs in the backend pool.

For more information on outbound connections, see Outbound connections in Azure.

Create outbound public IP address

Use New-AzPublicIpAddress to create a standard zone redundant public IP address named myPublicIPOutbound.

$publicipout = @{
    Name = 'myPublicIPOutbound'
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Location = 'eastus'
    Sku = 'Standard'
    AllocationMethod = 'static'
}
New-AzPublicIpAddress @publicipout

To create a zonal public IP address in zone 1, use the following command:

$publicipout = @{
    Name = 'myPublicIPOutbound'
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Location = 'eastus'
    Sku = 'Standard'
    AllocationMethod = 'static'
    Zone = '1'
}
New-AzPublicIpAddress @publicipout

Create outbound configuration

## Place public IP created in previous steps into variable. ##
$pubip = @{
    Name = 'myPublicIPOutbound'
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
}
$publicIp = Get-AzPublicIpAddress @pubip

## Get the load balancer configuration ##
$lbc = @{
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Name = 'myLoadBalancer'
}
$lb = Get-AzLoadBalancer @lbc

## Create the frontend configuration ##
$fe = @{
    Name = 'myFrontEndOutbound'
    PublicIPAddress = $publicIP
}
$lb | Add-AzLoadBalancerFrontendIPConfig @fe | Set-AzLoadBalancer

## Create the outbound backend address pool ##
$be = @{
    Name = 'myBackEndPoolOutbound'
}
$lb | Add-AzLoadBalancerBackendAddressPoolConfig @be | Set-AzLoadBalancer

## Apply the outbound rule configuration to the load balancer. ##
$rule = @{
    Name = 'myOutboundRule'
    AllocatedOutboundPort = '10000'
    Protocol = 'All'
    IdleTimeoutInMinutes = '15'
    FrontendIPConfiguration = $lb.FrontendIpConfigurations[1]
    BackendAddressPool = $lb.BackendAddressPools[1]
}
$lb | Add-AzLoadBalancerOutBoundRuleConfig @rule | Set-AzLoadBalancer

Add virtual machines to outbound pool

Add the virtual machine network interfaces to the outbound pool of the load balancer with Add-AzNetworkInterfaceIpConfig:

## Get the load balancer configuration ##
$lbc = @{
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Name = 'myLoadBalancer'
}
$lb = Get-AzLoadBalancer @lbc

# For loop with variable to add virtual machines to backend outbound pool. ##
for ($i=1; $i -le 3; $i++)
{
$nic = @{
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Name = "myNicVM$i"
}
$nicvm = Get-AzNetworkInterface @nic

## Apply the backend to the network interface ##
$be = @{
    Name = 'ipconfig1'
    LoadBalancerBackendAddressPoolId = $lb.BackendAddressPools[0].id,$lb.BackendAddressPools[1].id
}
$nicvm | Set-AzNetworkInterfaceIpConfig @be | Set-AzNetworkInterface
}

Install IIS

Use Set-AzVMExtension to install the Custom Script Extension.

The extension runs PowerShell Add-WindowsFeature Web-Server to install the IIS webserver and then updates the Default.htm page to show the hostname of the VM:

Important

Ensure the virtual machine deployments have completed from the previous steps before proceeding. Use Get-Job to check the status of the virtual machine deployment jobs.

## For loop with variable to install custom script extension on virtual machines. ##
for ($i=1; $i -le 3; $i++)
{
$ext = @{
    Publisher = 'Microsoft.Compute'
    ExtensionType = 'CustomScriptExtension'
    ExtensionName = 'IIS'
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    VMName = "myVM$i"
    Location = 'eastus'
    TypeHandlerVersion = '1.8'
    SettingString = '{"commandToExecute":"powershell Add-WindowsFeature Web-Server; powershell Add-Content -Path \"C:\\inetpub\\wwwroot\\Default.htm\" -Value $($env:computername)"}'
}
Set-AzVMExtension @ext -AsJob
}

The extensions are deployed as PowerShell jobs. To view the status of the installation jobs, use Get-Job:

Get-Job

Id     Name            PSJobTypeName   State         HasMoreData     Location             Command
--     ----            -------------   -----         -----------     --------             -------
8      Long Running O… AzureLongRunni… Running       True            localhost            Set-AzVMExtension
9      Long Running O… AzureLongRunni… Running       True            localhost            Set-AzVMExtension
10     Long Running O… AzureLongRunni… Running       True            localhost            Set-AzVMExtension

Test the load balancer

Use Get-AzPublicIpAddress to get the public IP address of the load balancer:

$ip = @{
    ResourceGroupName = 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'
    Name = 'myPublicIP'
}  
Get-AzPublicIPAddress @ip | select IpAddress

Copy the public IP address, and then paste it into the address bar of your browser. The default page of IIS Web server is displayed on the browser.

IIS Web server

To see the load balancer distribute traffic across all three VMs, you can customize the default page of each VM's IIS Web server and then force-refresh your web browser from the client machine.

Clean up resources

When no longer needed, you can use the Remove-AzResourceGroup command to remove the resource group, load balancer, and the remaining resources.

Remove-AzResourceGroup -Name 'CreatePubLBQS-rg'

Next steps

In this quickstart

  • You created a standard or basic public load balancer
  • Attached virtual machines.
  • Configured the load balancer traffic rule and health probe.
  • Tested the load balancer.

To learn more about Azure Load Balancer, continue to: