Allow read access to blobs based on tags and custom security attributes (Preview)

Important

Custom security attributes are currently in PREVIEW. See the Supplemental Terms of Use for Microsoft Azure Previews for legal terms that apply to Azure features that are in beta, preview, or otherwise not yet released into general availability.

In this article, you learn how to allow read access to blobs based on blob index tags and custom security attributes by using attribute-based access control (ABAC) conditions. This can make it easier to manage access to blobs.

Prerequisites

To assign custom security attributes and add role assignments conditions in your Azure AD tenant, you need:

Important

By default, Global Administrator and other administrator roles do not have permissions to read, define, or assign custom security attributes. If you do not meet these prerequisites, you won't see the principal/user attributes in the condition builder.

Condition

In this article, you allow read access to blobs if the user has a custom security attribute that matches the blob index tag. This is accomplished by adding a condition to the role assignment.

Diagram of role assignment with a condition.

For example, if Brenda has the attribute Project=Baker, she can only read blobs with the Project=Baker blob index tag. Similarly, Chandra can only read blobs with Project=Cascade.

Diagram showing read access to blobs based on tags and custom security attributes.

Here is what the condition looks like in code:

(
 (
  !(ActionMatches{'Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/blobServices/containers/blobs/read'} AND NOT SubOperationMatches{'Blob.List'})
 )
 OR 
 (
  @Principal[Microsoft.Directory/CustomSecurityAttributes/Id:Engineering_Project] StringEquals @Resource[Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/blobServices/containers/blobs/tags:Project<$key_case_sensitive$>]
 )
)

For more information about conditions, see What is Azure attribute-based access control (Azure ABAC)? (preview).

Step 1: Add a new custom security attribute

  1. Sign in to the Azure portal.

  2. Click Azure Active Directory > Custom security attributes (Preview).

  3. Add an attribute named Project with values of Baker and Cascade. Or use an existing attribute. For more information, see Add or deactivate custom security attributes in Azure AD.

    Screenshot of adding a custom security attribute.

Step 2: Assign the custom security attribute to a user

  1. In Azure AD, create a security group.

  2. Add a user as a member of the group.

  3. Assign the Project attribute with a value of Cascade to the user. For more information, see Assign or remove custom security attributes for a user.

    Screenshot of assigning a custom security attribute.

  4. Be sure to click Save to save your assignment.

Step 3: Set up storage and blob index tags

  1. Create a storage account that is compatible with the blob index tags feature. For more information, see Manage and find Azure Blob data with blob index tags.

  2. Create a new container within the storage account and set the Public access level to Private (no anonymous access).

  3. Set the authentication type to Azure AD User Account.

  4. Upload text files to the container and set the following blob index tags.

    File Key Value
    Baker text file Project Baker
    Cascade text file Project Cascade

    Tip

    For information about the characters that are allowed for blob index tags, see Setting blob index tags.

Step 4: Assign Storage Blob Data Reader role with a condition

  1. Open a new tab and sign in to the Azure portal.

  2. Open the resource group that has the storage account.

  3. Click Access control (IAM).

  4. Click the Role assignments tab to view the role assignments at this scope.

  5. Click Add > Add role assignment.

  6. On the Role tab, select the Storage Blob Data Reader role.

  7. On the Members tab, select the security group you created earlier.

  8. (Optional) In the Description box, enter Read access to blobs if the user has a custom security attribute that matches the blob index tag.

  9. On the Conditions (optional) tab, click Add condition.

    The Add role assignment condition page appears.

  10. In the Add action section, click Add action.

    The Select an action pane appears. This pane is a filtered list of data actions based on the role assignment that will be the target of your condition.

  11. Click Read a blob and then click Select.

  12. In the Build expression section, click Add.

  13. Enter the following settings:

    Setting Value
    Attribute source Principal
    Attribute <attributeset>_Project
    Operator StringEquals
    Option Attribute
    Attribute source Resource
    Attribute Blob index tags [Values in key]
    Key Project

    Note

    If Principal is not listed as an option in Attribute source, make sure you have defined custom security attribute as described earlier in Step 1: Add a new custom security attribute.

    Screenshot of condition using principal attribute displayed in visual editor.

  14. Scroll up to Editor type and click Code.

    Your condition should look similar to the following:

    (
     (
      !(ActionMatches{'Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/blobServices/containers/blobs/read'} AND NOT SubOperationMatches{'Blob.List'})
     )
     OR 
     (
      @Principal[Microsoft.Directory/CustomSecurityAttributes/Id:Engineering_Project] StringEquals @Resource[Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/blobServices/containers/blobs/tags:Project<$key_case_sensitive$>]
     )
    )
    
  15. Click Save to save the condition.

  16. On the Review + assign tab, click Review + assign to assign the Storage Blob Data Reader role with a condition.

Step 5: Assign Reader role

  • Repeat the previous steps to assign the Reader role for the security group at resource group scope.

    Note

    You typically don't need to assign the Reader role. However, this is done so that you can test the condition using the Azure portal.

Step 6: Test the condition

  1. In a new window, open the Azure portal.

  2. Sign in as the user you created with the Project=Cascade custom security attribute.

  3. Open the storage account and container you created.

  4. Ensure that the authentication method is set to Azure AD User Account and not Access key.

    Screenshot of storage container with test files.

  5. Click the Baker text file.

    You should NOT be able to view or download the blob and an authorization failed message should be displayed.

  6. Click Cascade text file.

    You should be able to view and download the blob.

Azure PowerShell

You can also use Azure PowerShell to add role assignment conditions. The following commands show how to add conditions. For information, see Tutorial: Add a role assignment condition to restrict access to blobs using Azure PowerShell (preview).

Add a condition

  1. Use the Connect-AzAccount command and follow the instructions that appear to sign in to your directory as User Access Administrator or Owner.

    Connect-AzAccount
    
  2. Use Get-AzRoleAssignment to get the role assignment you assigned to the security group.

    $groupRoleAssignment = Get-AzRoleAssignment -ObjectId <groupObjectId> -Scope <scope>
    
  3. Set the Condition property of the role assignment object. Be sure to use your attribute set name.

    $groupRoleAssignment.Condition="((!(ActionMatches{'Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/blobServices/containers/blobs/read'} AND NOT SubOperationMatches{'Blob.List' })) OR (@Principal[Microsoft.Directory/CustomSecurityAttributes/Id:Engineering_Project] StringEquals @Resource[Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/blobServices/containers/blobs/tags:Project<`$key_case_sensitive`$>]))"
    
  4. Set the ConditionVersion property of the role assignment object.

    $groupRoleAssignment.ConditionVersion = "2.0"
    
  5. Use Set-AzRoleAssignment to update the role assignment.

    Set-AzRoleAssignment -InputObject $groupRoleAssignment
    

Test the condition

  1. In a new PowerShell window, use the Connect-AzAccount command to sign in as a member of the security group.

    Connect-AzAccount
    
  2. Use New-AzStorageContext to set the context for the storage account.

    $bearerCtx = New-AzStorageContext -StorageAccountName <accountName>
    
  3. Use Get-AzStorageBlob to try to read the Baker file.

    Get-AzStorageBlob -Container <containerName> -Blob <blobNameBaker> -Context $bearerCtx
    

    You should NOT be able to read the blob and an authorization failed message should be displayed.

    Get-AzStorageBlob : This request is not authorized to perform this operation using this permission. HTTP Status Code:
    403 - HTTP Error Message: This request is not authorized to perform this operation using this permission.
    ...
    
  4. Use Get-AzStorageBlob to try to read the Cascade file.

    Get-AzStorageBlob -Container <containerName> -Blob <blobNameCascade> -Context $bearerCtx
    You should be able to read the blob.
    AccountName: <storageAccountName>, ContainerName: <containerName>
    
    Name                 BlobType  Length          ContentType                    LastModified         AccessTier SnapshotT
                                                                                                                  ime
    ----                 --------  ------          -----------                    ------------         ---------- ---------
    CascadeFile.txt      BlockBlob 7               text/plain                     2021-04-24 05:35:24Z Hot
    

Azure CLI

You can also use Azure CLI to add role assignments conditions. The following commands show how to add conditions. For information, see Tutorial: Add a role assignment condition to restrict access to blobs using Azure CLI (preview).

Add a condition

  1. Use the az login command and follow the instructions that appear to sign in to your directory as User Access Administrator or Owner.

    az login
    
  2. Use az role assignment list to get the role assignment you assigned to the security group.

    az role assignment list --assignee <groupObjectId> --scope <scope>
    
  3. Create a JSON file with the following format.

    {
        "canDelegate": null,
        "condition": "",
        "conditionVersion": "",
        "description": "",
        "id": "/subscriptions/{subscriptionId}/resourceGroups/{resourceGroup}/providers/Microsoft.Authorization/roleAssignments/{roleAssignmentId}",
        "name": "{roleAssignmentId}",
        "principalId": "{groupObjectId}",
        "principalName": "{principalName}",
        "principalType": "Group",
        "resourceGroup": "{resourceGroup}",
        "roleDefinitionId": "/subscriptions/{subscriptionId}/providers/Microsoft.Authorization/roleDefinitions/2a2b9908-6ea1-4ae2-8e65-a410df84e7d1",
        "roleDefinitionName": "Storage Blob Data Reader",
        "scope": "/subscriptions/{subscriptionId}/resourceGroups/{resourceGroup}",
        "type": "Microsoft.Authorization/roleAssignments"
    }
    
  4. Update the condition property. Be sure to use your attribute set name.

    "condition": "((!(ActionMatches{'Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/blobServices/containers/blobs/read'} AND NOT SubOperationMatches{'Blob.List' })) OR (@Principal[Microsoft.Directory/CustomSecurityAttributes/Id:Engineering_Project] StringEquals @Resource[Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/blobServices/containers/blobs/tags:Project<$key_case_sensitive$>]))",
    
  5. Update the conditionVersion property.

    "conditionVersion": "2.0",
    
  6. Use az role assignment update to add the condition to the role assignment.

    az role assignment update --role-assignment "./path/roleassignment.json"
    

Test the condition

  1. In a new command window, use the az login command to sign in as a member of the security group.

    az login
    
  2. Use az storage blob show to try to read the properties for the Baker file.

    az storage blob show --account-name <storageAccountName> --container-name <containerName> --name <blobNameBaker> --auth-mode login
    

    You should NOT be able to read the blob and an authorization failed message should be displayed.

    You do not have the required permissions needed to perform this operation.
    ...
    
  3. Use az storage blob show to try to read the properties for the Cascade file.

    az storage blob show --account-name <storageAccountName> --container-name <containerName> --name <blobNameCascade> --auth-mode login
    You should be able to read the blob.
    {
      "container": "<containerName>",
      "content": "",
      "deleted": false,
      "encryptedMetadata": null,
      "encryptionKeySha256": null,
      "encryptionScope": null,
    ...
    }
    

Next steps