Perform Azure Table storage operations with Azure PowerShell

Tip

The content in this article applies to Azure Table storage. However, there is now a premium offering for table storage, the Azure Cosmos DB Table API that offers throughput-optimized tables, global distribution, and automatic secondary indexes. To learn more and try out the premium experience, please check out Azure Cosmos DB Table API. This article's programming language is not yet supported in the premium offering, but will be added in the future.

Azure Table storage is a NoSQL datastore that you can use to store and query huge sets of structured, non-relational data. The main components of the service are tables, entities, and properties. A table is a collection of entities. An entity is a set of properties. Each entity can have up to 252 properties, which are all name-value pairs. This article assumes that you are already familiar with the Azure Table Storage Service concepts. For detailed information, see Understanding the Table Service Data Model and Get started with Azure Table storage using .NET.

This how-to article covers common Azure Table storage operations. You learn how to:

  • Create a table
  • Retrieve a table
  • Add table entities
  • Query a table
  • Delete table entities
  • Delete a table

This how-to article shows you how to create a new Azure Storage account in a new resource group so you can easily remove it when you're done. If you'd rather use an existing Storage account, you can do that instead.

The examples require Az PowerShell modules Az.Storage (1.1.0 or greater) and Az.Resources (1.2.0 or greater). In a PowerShell window, run Get-Module -ListAvailable Az* to find the version. If nothing is displayed, or you need to upgrade, see Install Azure PowerShell module.

Important

Using this Azure feature from PowerShell requires that you have the Az module installed. The current version of AzTable is not compatible with the older AzureRM module. Follow the latest install instructions for installing Az module if needed.

After Azure PowerShell is installed or updated, you must install module AzTable, which has the commands for managing the entities. To install this module, run PowerShell as an administrator and use the Install-Module command.

Important

For module name compatibility reasons we are still publishing this same module under the old name AzureRmStorageTables in PowerShell Gallery. This document will reference the new name only.

Install-Module AzTable

Sign in to Azure

Sign in to your Azure subscription with the Add-AzAccount command and follow the on-screen directions.

Add-AzAccount

Retrieve list of locations

If you don't know which location you want to use, you can list the available locations. After the list is displayed, find the one you want to use. These examples use eastus. Store this value in the variable location for future use.

Get-AzLocation | select Location
$location = "eastus"

Create resource group

Create a resource group with the New-AzResourceGroup command.

An Azure resource group is a logical container into which Azure resources are deployed and managed. Store the resource group name in a variable for future use. In this example, a resource group named pshtablesrg is created in the eastus region.

$resourceGroup = "pshtablesrg"
New-AzResourceGroup -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroup -Location $location

Create storage account

Create a standard general-purpose storage account with locally redundant storage (LRS) using New-AzStorageAccount. Be sure to specify a unique storage account name. Next, get the context that represents the storage account. When acting on a storage account, you can reference the context instead of repeatedly providing your credentials.

$storageAccountName = "pshtablestorage"
$storageAccount = New-AzStorageAccount -ResourceGroupName $resourceGroup `
  -Name $storageAccountName `
  -Location $location `
  -SkuName Standard_LRS `
  -Kind Storage

$ctx = $storageAccount.Context

Create a new table

To create a table, use the New-AzStorageTable cmdlet. In this example, the table is called pshtesttable.

$tableName = "pshtesttable"
New-AzStorageTable –Name $tableName –Context $ctx

Retrieve a list of tables in the storage account

Retrieve a list of tables in the storage account using Get-AzStorageTable.

Get-AzStorageTable –Context $ctx | select Name

Retrieve a reference to a specific table

To perform operations on a table, you need a reference to the specific table. Get a reference using Get-AzStorageTable.

$storageTable = Get-AzStorageTable –Name $tableName –Context $ctx

Reference CloudTable property of a specific table

Important

Usage of CloudTable is mandatory when working with AzTable PowerShell module. Call the Get-AzTableTable command to get the reference to this object. This command also creates the table if it does not already exist.

To perform operations on a table using AzTable, you need a reference to CloudTable property of a specific table.

$cloudTable = (Get-AzStorageTable –Name $tableName –Context $ctx).CloudTable

Managing table entities

Now that you have a table, let's look at how to manage entities, or rows, in the table.

Entities can have up to 255 properties, including three system properties: PartitionKey, RowKey, and Timestamp. You're responsible for inserting and updating the values of PartitionKey and RowKey. The server manages the value of Timestamp, which can't be modified. Together the PartitionKey and RowKey uniquely identify every entity within a table.

  • PartitionKey: Determines the partition that the entity is stored in.
  • RowKey: Uniquely identifies the entity within the partition.

You may define up to 252 custom properties for an entity.

Add table entities

Add entities to a table using Add-AzTableRow. These examples use partition keys with values partition1 and partition2, and row keys equal to state abbreviations. The properties in each entity are username and userid.

$partitionKey1 = "partition1"
$partitionKey2 = "partition2"

# add four rows 
Add-AzTableRow `
    -table $cloudTable `
    -partitionKey $partitionKey1 `
    -rowKey ("CA") -property @{"username"="Chris";"userid"=1}

Add-AzTableRow `
    -table $cloudTable `
    -partitionKey $partitionKey2 `
    -rowKey ("NM") -property @{"username"="Jessie";"userid"=2}

Add-AzTableRow `
    -table $cloudTable `
    -partitionKey $partitionKey1 `
    -rowKey ("WA") -property @{"username"="Christine";"userid"=3}

Add-AzTableRow `
    -table $cloudTable `
    -partitionKey $partitionKey2 `
    -rowKey ("TX") -property @{"username"="Steven";"userid"=4}

Query the table entities

You can query the entities in a table by using the Get-AzTableRow command.

Note

The cmdlets Get-AzureStorageTableRowAll, Get-AzureStorageTableRowByPartitionKey, Get-AzureStorageTableRowByColumnName, and Get-AzureStorageTableRowByCustomFilter are deprecated and will be removed in a future version update.

Retrieve all entities

Get-AzTableRow -table $cloudTable | ft

This command yields results similar to the following table:

userid username partition rowkey
1 Chris partition1 CA
3 Christine partition1 WA
2 Jessie partition2 NM
4 Steven partition2 TX

Retrieve entities for a specific partition

Get-AzTableRow -table $cloudTable -partitionKey $partitionKey1 | ft

The results look similar to the following table:

userid username partition rowkey
1 Chris partition1 CA
3 Christine partition1 WA

Retrieve entities for a specific value in a specific column

Get-AzTableRow -table $cloudTable `
    -columnName "username" `
    -value "Chris" `
    -operator Equal

This query retrieves one record.

field value
userid 1
username Chris
PartitionKey partition1
RowKey CA

Retrieve entities using a custom filter

Get-AzTableRow `
    -table $cloudTable `
    -customFilter "(userid eq 1)"

This query retrieves one record.

field value
userid 1
username Chris
PartitionKey partition1
RowKey CA

Updating entities

There are three steps for updating entities. First, retrieve the entity to change. Second, make the change. Third, commit the change using Update-AzTableRow.

Update the entity with username = 'Jessie' to have username = 'Jessie2'. This example also shows another way to create a custom filter using .NET types.

# Create a filter and get the entity to be updated.
[string]$filter = `
    [Microsoft.Azure.Cosmos.Table.TableQuery]::GenerateFilterCondition("username",`
    [Microsoft.Azure.Cosmos.Table.QueryComparisons]::Equal,"Jessie")
$user = Get-AzTableRow `
    -table $cloudTable `
    -customFilter $filter

# Change the entity.
$user.username = "Jessie2"

# To commit the change, pipe the updated record into the update cmdlet.
$user | Update-AzTableRow -table $cloudTable

# To see the new record, query the table.
Get-AzTableRow -table $cloudTable `
    -customFilter "(username eq 'Jessie2')"

The results show the Jessie2 record.

field value
userid 2
username Jessie2
PartitionKey partition2
RowKey NM

Deleting table entities

You can delete one entity or all entities in the table.

Deleting one entity

To delete a single entity, get a reference to that entity and pipe it into Remove-AzTableRow.

# Set filter.
[string]$filter = `
  [Microsoft.Azure.Cosmos.Table.TableQuery]::GenerateFilterCondition("username",`
  [Microsoft.Azure.Cosmos.Table.QueryComparisons]::Equal,"Jessie2")

# Retrieve entity to be deleted, then pipe it into the remove cmdlet.
$userToDelete = Get-AzTableRow `
    -table $cloudTable `
    -customFilter $filter
$userToDelete | Remove-AzTableRow -table $cloudTable

# Retrieve entities from table and see that Jessie2 has been deleted.
Get-AzTableRow -table $cloudTable | ft

Delete all entities in the table

To delete all entities in the table, you retrieve them and pipe the results into the remove cmdlet.

# Get all rows and pipe the result into the remove cmdlet.
Get-AzTableRow `
    -table $cloudTable | Remove-AzTableRow -table $cloudTable 

# List entities in the table (there won't be any).
Get-AzTableRow -table $cloudTable | ft

Delete a table

To delete a table, use Remove-AzStorageTable. This cmdlet removes the table, including all of its data.

Remove-AzStorageTable –Name $tableName –Context $ctx

# Retrieve the list of tables to verify the table has been removed.
Get-AzStorageTable –Context $Ctx | select Name

Clean up resources

If you created a new resource group and storage account at the beginning of this how-to, you can remove all of the assets you have created in this exercise by removing the resource group. This command deletes all resources contained within the group as well as the resource group itself.

Remove-AzResourceGroup -Name $resourceGroup

Next steps

In this how-to article, you learned about common Azure Table storage operations with PowerShell, including how to:

  • Create a table
  • Retrieve a table
  • Add table entities
  • Query a table
  • Delete table entities
  • Delete a table

For more information, see the following articles