Create an Azure Virtual Desktop image using Azure VM Image Builder and PowerShell

Applies to: ✔️ Windows VMs

This article shows you how to create an Azure Virtual Desktop image with these customizations:

We will show you how to automate this using the Azure VM Image Builder, and distribute the image to an Azure Compute Gallery (formerly known as Shared Image Gallery), where you can replicate to other regions, control the scale, and share the image inside and outside your organizations.

To simplify deploying an Image Builder configuration, this example uses an Azure Resource Manager template with the Image Builder template nested inside. This gives you some other benefits, like variables and parameter inputs. You can also pass parameters from the command line.

This article is intended to be a copy and paste exercise.


The scripts to install the apps are located on GitHub. They are for illustration and testing only, and not for production workloads.

Tips for building Windows images

  • VM Size - the default VM size is a Standard_D1_v2, which is not suitable for Windows. Use a Standard_D2_v2 or greater.

  • This example uses the PowerShell customizer scripts. You need to use these settings or the build will stop responding.

      "runElevated": true,
      "runAsSystem": true,

    For example:

          "type": "PowerShell",
          "name": "installFsLogix",
          "runElevated": true,
          "runAsSystem": true,
          "scriptUri": ""
  • Comment your code - The AIB build log (customization.log) is extremely verbose, if you comment your scripts using 'write-host' these will be sent to the logs, and make troubleshooting easier.

     write-host 'AIB Customization: Starting OS Optimizations script'
  • Exit Codes - AIB expects all scripts to return a 0 exit code, any non-zero exit code will result in AIB failing the customization and stopping the build. If you have complex scripts, add instrumentation and emit exit codes, these will be shown in the customization.log.

     Write-Host "Exit code: " $LASTEXITCODE
  • Test: Please test and test your code before on a standalone VM, ensure there are no user prompts, you are using the right privilege etc.

  • Networking - Set-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty. This is being set in the optimization script, but fails the AIB build, as it disconnects the network, this is commented out. It is under investigation.


You must have the latest Azure PowerShell CmdLets installed, see Overview of Azure PowerShell for install details.

# check you are registered for the providers, ensure RegistrationState is set to 'Registered'.
Get-AzResourceProvider -ProviderNamespace Microsoft.VirtualMachineImages
Get-AzResourceProvider -ProviderNamespace Microsoft.Storage 
Get-AzResourceProvider -ProviderNamespace Microsoft.Compute
Get-AzResourceProvider -ProviderNamespace Microsoft.KeyVault

# If they do not show as registered, run the commented out code below.

## Register-AzResourceProvider -ProviderNamespace Microsoft.VirtualMachineImages
## Register-AzResourceProvider -ProviderNamespace Microsoft.Storage
## Register-AzResourceProvider -ProviderNamespace Microsoft.Compute
## Register-AzResourceProvider -ProviderNamespace Microsoft.KeyVault

Set up environment and variables

# Step 1: Import module
Import-Module Az.Accounts

# Step 2: get existing context
$currentAzContext = Get-AzContext

# destination image resource group

# location (see possible locations in main docs)

# your subscription, this will get your current subscription

# image template name

# distribution properties object name (runOutput), i.e. this gives you the properties of the managed image on completion

# create resource group
New-AzResourceGroup -Name $imageResourceGroup -Location $location

Permissions, user identity and role

Create a user identity.

# setup role def names, these need to be unique
$timeInt=$(get-date -UFormat "%s")
$imageRoleDefName="Azure Image Builder Image Def"+$timeInt

## Add AZ PS modules to support AzUserAssignedIdentity and Az AIB
'Az.ImageBuilder', 'Az.ManagedServiceIdentity' | ForEach-Object {Install-Module -Name $_ -AllowPrerelease}

# create identity
New-AzUserAssignedIdentity -ResourceGroupName $imageResourceGroup -Name $identityName

$identityNameResourceId=$(Get-AzUserAssignedIdentity -ResourceGroupName $imageResourceGroup -Name $identityName).Id
$identityNamePrincipalId=$(Get-AzUserAssignedIdentity -ResourceGroupName $imageResourceGroup -Name $identityName).PrincipalId

Assign permissions to the identity to distribute images. This command will download and update the template with the parameters specified earlier.

$aibRoleImageCreationPath = "aibRoleImageCreation.json"

# download config
Invoke-WebRequest -Uri $aibRoleImageCreationUrl -OutFile $aibRoleImageCreationPath -UseBasicParsing

((Get-Content -path $aibRoleImageCreationPath -Raw) -replace '<subscriptionID>',$subscriptionID) | Set-Content -Path $aibRoleImageCreationPath
((Get-Content -path $aibRoleImageCreationPath -Raw) -replace '<rgName>', $imageResourceGroup) | Set-Content -Path $aibRoleImageCreationPath
((Get-Content -path $aibRoleImageCreationPath -Raw) -replace 'Azure Image Builder Service Image Creation Role', $imageRoleDefName) | Set-Content -Path $aibRoleImageCreationPath

# create role definition
New-AzRoleDefinition -InputFile  ./aibRoleImageCreation.json

# grant role definition to image builder service principal
New-AzRoleAssignment -ObjectId $identityNamePrincipalId -RoleDefinitionName $imageRoleDefName -Scope "/subscriptions/$subscriptionID/resourceGroups/$imageResourceGroup"


If you see this error: 'New-AzRoleDefinition: Role definition limit exceeded. No more role definitions can be created.' see Troubleshoot Azure RBAC.

If you don't already have an Azure Compute Gallery, you need to create one.

$sigGalleryName= "myaibsig01"
$imageDefName ="win10avd"

# create gallery
New-AzGallery -GalleryName $sigGalleryName -ResourceGroupName $imageResourceGroup  -Location $location

# create gallery definition
New-AzGalleryImageDefinition -GalleryName $sigGalleryName -ResourceGroupName $imageResourceGroup -Location $location -Name $imageDefName -OsState generalized -OsType Windows -Publisher 'myCo' -Offer 'Windows' -Sku '10avd'

Configure the Image Template

For this example, we have a template ready to that will download and update the template with the parameters specified earlier, it will install FsLogix, OS optimizations, Microsoft Teams, and run Windows Update at the end.

If you open the template you can see in the source property the image that is being used, in this example it uses a Win 10 Multi session image.

Windows 10 images

Two key types you should be aware of: multisession and single-session.

Multi session images are intended for pooled usage. Here is an example of the image details in Azure:

"publisher": "MicrosoftWindowsDesktop",
"offer": "Windows-10",
"sku": "20h2-evd",
"version": "latest"

Single session images are intend for individual usage. Here is an example of the image details in Azure:

"publisher": "MicrosoftWindowsDesktop",
"offer": "Windows-10",
"sku": "19h2-ent",
"version": "latest"

You can also change the Win10 images available:

Get-AzVMImageSku -Location westus2 -PublisherName MicrosoftWindowsDesktop -Offer windows-10

Download template and configure

Now, you need to download the template and configure it for your use.

$templateFilePath = "armTemplateWVD.json"

Invoke-WebRequest -Uri $templateUrl -OutFile $templateFilePath -UseBasicParsing

((Get-Content -path $templateFilePath -Raw) -replace '<subscriptionID>',$subscriptionID) | Set-Content -Path $templateFilePath
((Get-Content -path $templateFilePath -Raw) -replace '<rgName>',$imageResourceGroup) | Set-Content -Path $templateFilePath
((Get-Content -path $templateFilePath -Raw) -replace '<region>',$location) | Set-Content -Path $templateFilePath
((Get-Content -path $templateFilePath -Raw) -replace '<runOutputName>',$runOutputName) | Set-Content -Path $templateFilePath

((Get-Content -path $templateFilePath -Raw) -replace '<imageDefName>',$imageDefName) | Set-Content -Path $templateFilePath
((Get-Content -path $templateFilePath -Raw) -replace '<sharedImageGalName>',$sigGalleryName) | Set-Content -Path $templateFilePath
((Get-Content -path $templateFilePath -Raw) -replace '<region1>',$location) | Set-Content -Path $templateFilePath
((Get-Content -path $templateFilePath -Raw) -replace '<imgBuilderId>',$identityNameResourceId) | Set-Content -Path $templateFilePath

Feel free to view the template, all the code is viewable.

Submit the template

Your template must be submitted to the service, this will download any dependent artifacts (like scripts), validate, check permissions, and store them in the staging Resource Group, prefixed, IT_.

New-AzResourceGroupDeployment -ResourceGroupName $imageResourceGroup -TemplateFile $templateFilePath -TemplateParameterObject @{"api-Version" = "2020-02-14"} -imageTemplateName $imageTemplateName -svclocation $location

# Optional - if you have any errors running the above, run:
$getStatus=$(Get-AzImageBuilderTemplate -ResourceGroupName $imageResourceGroup -Name $imageTemplateName)

Build the image

Start-AzImageBuilderTemplate -ResourceGroupName $imageResourceGroup -Name $imageTemplateName -NoWait


The command will not wait for the image builder service to complete the image build, you can query the status below.

$getStatus=$(Get-AzImageBuilderTemplate -ResourceGroupName $imageResourceGroup -Name $imageTemplateName)

# this shows all the properties
$getStatus | Format-List -Property *

# these show the status the build

Create a VM

Now the build is finished you can build a VM from the image, use the examples from New-AzVM (Az.Compute).

Clean up

Delete the resource group template first, do not just delete the entire resource group, otherwise the staging resource group (IT_) used by AIB will not be cleaned up.

Remove the Image Template.

Remove-AzImageBuilderTemplate -ResourceGroupName $imageResourceGroup -Name vd10ImageTemplate

Delete the role assignment.

Remove-AzRoleAssignment -ObjectId $identityNamePrincipalId -RoleDefinitionName $imageRoleDefName -Scope "/subscriptions/$subscriptionID/resourceGroups/$imageResourceGroup"

## remove definitions
Remove-AzRoleDefinition -Name "$identityNamePrincipalId" -Force -Scope "/subscriptions/$subscriptionID/resourceGroups/$imageResourceGroup"

## delete identity
Remove-AzUserAssignedIdentity -ResourceGroupName $imageResourceGroup -Name $identityName -Force

Delete the resource group.

Remove-AzResourceGroup $imageResourceGroup -Force

Next steps

You can try more examples on GitHub.