What is Virtual Network NAT?
Virtual Network NAT is a fully managed and highly resilient Network Address Translation (NAT) service. VNet NAT simplifies outbound Internet connectivity for virtual networks. When configured on a subnet, all outbound connectivity uses the VNet NAT's static public IP addresses.
Figure: Virtual Network NAT
VNet NAT benefits
With NAT, individual VMs (or other compute resources) do not need public IP addresses and can remain fully private. Such resources without a public IP address can still reach external sources outside the VNet. You can also associate a Public IP Prefix to ensure that a contiguous set of IPs will be used for outbound. Destination firewall rules can be then configured based on this predictable IP list.
NAT is a fully managed and distributed service. It doesn't depend on any individual compute instances such as VMs or a single physical gateway device. It leverages software defined networking making it highly resilient.
NAT can be associated to a subnet and can be used by all compute resources in that subnet. Further, all subnets in a VNet can leverage the same resource. When associated to a Public Ip Prefix, it will automatically scale to the number of IP addresses needed for outbound.
NAT will not impact the network bandwidth of your compute resources since it is a software defined networking service. Learn more about NAT gateway's performance.
VNet NAT basics
NAT can be created in a specific Availability Zone and has redundancy built in within the specified zone. NAT is non zonal by default. When creating availability zones scenarios, NAT can be isolated in a specific zone. This is known as a zonal deployment.
NAT is fully scaled out from the start. There's no ramp up or scale-out operation required. Azure manages the operation of NAT for you. NAT always has multiple fault domains and can sustain multiple failures without service outage.
Outbound connectivity can be defined for each subnet with NAT. Multiple subnets within the same virtual network can have different NATs. A subnet is configured by specifying which NAT gateway resource to use. All outbound traffic for the subnet is processed by NAT automatically without any customer configuration. User-defined routes aren't necessary. NAT takes precedence over other outbound scenarios and replaces the default Internet destination of a subnet.
NAT supports TCP and UDP protocols only. ICMP is not supported.
A NAT gateway resource can use a:
- Public IP
- Public IP prefix
NAT is compatible with Standard SKU public IP address or public IP prefix resources or a combination of both. You can use a public IP prefix directly or distribute the public IP addresses of the prefix across multiple NAT gateway resources. NAT will groom all traffic to the range of IP addresses of the prefix. Basic resources, such as Basic Load Balancer or Basic Public IP aren't compatible with NAT. Basic resources must be placed on a subnet not associated to a NAT Gateway.
NAT cannot be associated to an IPv6 Public IP address or IPv6 Public IP Prefix. However, it can be associated to a dual stack subnet.
NAT allows flows to be created from the virtual network to the services outside your VNet. Return traffic from the Internet is only allowed in response to an active flow. Services outside your VNet cannot initiate a connection to instances.
NAT can't span multiple virtual networks.
NAT cannot be deployed in a Gateway Subnet
The private side of NAT (virtual machine instances or other compute resources) sends TCP Reset packets for attempts to communicate on a TCP connection that doesn't exist. One example is connections that have reached idle timeout. The next packet received will return a TCP Reset to the private IP address to signal and force connection closure. The public side of NAT doesn't generate TCP Reset packets or any other traffic. Only traffic produced by the customer's virtual network is emitted.
A default TCP idle timeout of 4 minutes is used and can be increased to up to 120 minutes. Any activity on a flow can also reset the idle timer, including TCP keepalives.
Pricing and SLA
For pricing details, see Virtual Network pricing. NAT data path is at least 99.9% available.
- Learn how to get better outbound connectivity using an Azure NAT Gateway.
- Learn about NAT gateway resource.
- Learn more about NAT gateway metrics.