Tutorial: Integrate a NAT gateway with a public load balancer using the Azure portal

In this tutorial, you'll learn how to integrate a NAT gateway with a public load balancer.

By default, an Azure Standard Load Balancer is secure. Outbound connectivity is explicitly defined by enabling outbound SNAT (Source Network Address Translation). SNAT is enabled in a load-balancing rule or outbound rules.

The NAT gateway integration replaces the need for outbound rules for backend pool outbound SNAT.

In this tutorial, you learn how to:

  • Create an Azure Load Balancer
  • Create two virtual machines for the backend pool of the Azure Load Balancer
  • Create a NAT gateway
  • Validate outbound connectivity of the virtual machines in the load balancer backend pool

Prerequisites

An Azure account with an active subscription. Create an account for free.

Create the virtual network

In this section, you'll create a virtual network and subnet.

  1. In the search box at the top of the portal, enter Virtual network. Select Virtual Networks in the search results.

  2. In Virtual networks, select + Create.

  3. In Create virtual network, enter or select this information in the Basics tab:

    Setting Value
    Project Details
    Subscription Select your Azure subscription
    Resource Group Select Create new.
    In Name enter TutorPubLBNAT-rg.
    Select OK.
    Instance details
    Name Enter myVNet
    Region Select (US) East US
  4. Select the IP Addresses tab or select the Next: IP Addresses button at the bottom of the page.

  5. In the IP Addresses tab, enter this information:

    Setting Value
    IPv4 address space Enter 10.1.0.0/16
  6. Under Subnet name, select the word default.

  7. In Edit subnet, enter this information:

    Setting Value
    Subnet name Enter myBackendSubnet
    Subnet address range Enter 10.1.0.0/24
  8. Select Save.

  9. Select the Security tab.

  10. Under BastionHost, select Enable. Enter this information:

    Setting Value
    Bastion name Enter myBastionHost
    AzureBastionSubnet address space Enter 10.1.1.0/27
    Public IP Address Select Create new.
    For Name, enter myBastionIP.
    Select OK.
  11. Select the Review + create tab or select the Review + create button.

  12. Select Create.

Create load balancer

In this section, you'll create a zone redundant load balancer that load balances virtual machines. With zone-redundancy, one or more availability zones can fail and the data path survives as long as one zone in the region remains healthy.

During the creation of the load balancer, you'll configure:

  • Frontend IP address
  • Backend pool
  • Inbound load-balancing rules
  1. In the search box at the top of the portal, enter Load balancer. Select Load balancers in the search results.

  2. In the Load balancer page, select Create.

  3. In the Basics tab of the Create load balancer page, enter, or select the following information:

    Setting Value
    Project details
    Subscription Select your subscription.
    Resource group Select TutorPubLBNAT-rg.
    Instance details
    Name Enter myLoadBalancer
    Region Select (US) East US.
    Type Select Public.
    SKU Leave the default Standard.
    Tier Leave the default Regional.
  4. Select Next: Frontend IP configuration at the bottom of the page.

  5. In Frontend IP configuration, select + Add a frontend IP.

  6. Enter LoadBalancerFrontend in Name.

  7. Select IPv4 or IPv6 for the IP version.

    Note

    IPv6 isn't currently supported with Routing Preference or Cross-region load-balancing (Global Tier).

  8. Select IP address for the IP type.

    Note

    For more information on IP prefixes, see Azure Public IP address prefix.

  9. Select Create new in Public IP address.

  10. In Add a public IP address, enter myPublicIP for Name.

  11. Select Zone-redundant in Availability zone.

    Note

    In regions with Availability Zones, you have the option to select no-zone (default option), a specific zone, or zone-redundant. The choice will depend on your specific domain failure requirements. In regions without Availability Zones, this field won't appear.
    For more information on availability zones, see Availability zones overview.

  12. Leave the default of Microsoft Network for Routing preference.

  13. Select OK.

  14. Select Add.

  15. Select Next: Backend pools at the bottom of the page.

  16. In the Backend pools tab, select + Add a backend pool.

  17. Enter myBackendPool for Name in Add backend pool.

  18. Select myVNet in Virtual network.

  19. Select NIC or IP Address for Backend Pool Configuration.

  20. Select IPv4 or IPv6 for IP version.

  21. Select Add.

  22. Select the Next: Inbound rules button at the bottom of the page.

  23. In Load balancing rule in the Inbound rules tab, select + Add a load balancing rule.

  24. In Add load balancing rule, enter or select the following information:

    Setting Value
    Name Enter myHTTPRule
    IP Version Select IPv4 or IPv6 depending on your requirements.
    Frontend IP address Select LoadBalancerFrontend.
    Protocol Select TCP.
    Port Enter 80.
    Backend port Enter 80.
    Backend pool Select myBackendPool.
    Health probe Select Create new.
    In Name, enter myHealthProbe.
    Select HTTP in Protocol.
    Leave the rest of the defaults, and select OK.
    Session persistence Select None.
    Idle timeout (minutes) Enter or select 15.
    TCP reset Select Enabled.
    Floating IP Select Disabled.
    Outbound source network address translation (SNAT) Leave the default of (Recommended) Use outbound rules to provide backend pool members access to the internet.
  25. Select Add.

  26. Select the blue Review + create button at the bottom of the page.

  27. Select Create.

Create virtual machines

In this section, you'll create two VMs (myVM1 and myVM2) in two different zones (Zone 1 and Zone 2).

These VMs are added to the backend pool of the load balancer that was created earlier.

  1. On the upper-left side of the portal, select Create a resource > Compute > Virtual machine.

  2. In Create a virtual machine, type or select the values in the Basics tab:

    Setting Value
    Project Details
    Subscription Select your Azure subscription
    Resource Group Select TutorPubLBNAT-rg
    Instance details
    Virtual machine name Enter myVM1
    Region Select (US) East US
    Availability Options Select Availability zones
    Availability zone Select 1
    Image Select Windows Server 2019 Datacenter
    Azure Spot instance Leave the default
    Size Choose VM size or take default setting
    Administrator account
    Username Enter a username
    Password Enter a password
    Confirm password Reenter password
    Inbound port rules
    Public inbound ports Select None
  3. Select the Networking tab, or select Next: Disks, then Next: Networking.

  4. In the Networking tab, select or enter:

    Setting Value
    Network interface
    Virtual network myVNet
    Subnet myBackendSubnet
    Public IP Select None.
    NIC network security group Select Advanced
    Configure network security group Select Create new.
    In the Create network security group, enter myNSG in Name.
    Under Inbound rules, select +Add an inbound rule.
    In Destination port ranges, enter 80.
    Under Priority, enter 100.
    In Name, enter myNSGRule
    Select Add
    Select OK
    Load balancing
    Place this virtual machine behind an existing load-balancing solution? Select the check box.
    Load balancing settings
    Load-balancing options Select Azure load balancer
    Select a load balancer Select myLoadBalancer
    Select a backend pool Select myBackendPool
  5. Select Review + create.

  6. Review the settings, and then select Create.

  7. Follow the steps 1 to 7 to create a VM with the following values and all the other settings the same as myVM1:

    Setting VM 2
    Name myVM2
    Availability zone 2
    Network security group Select the existing myNSG

Create NAT gateway

In this section, you'll create a NAT gateway and assign it to the subnet in the virtual network you created previously.

  1. On the upper-left side of the screen, select Create a resource > Networking > NAT gateway or search for NAT gateway in the search box.

  2. Select Create.

  3. In Create network address translation (NAT) gateway, enter or select this information in the Basics tab:

    Setting Value
    Project Details
    Subscription Select your Azure subscription.
    Resource Group Select TutorPubLBNAT-rg.
    Instance details
    Name Enter myNATGateway
    Region Select (US) East US
    Availability Zone Select None.
    Idle timeout (minutes) Enter 10.
  4. Select the Outbound IP tab, or select the Next: Outbound IP button at the bottom of the page.

  5. In the Outbound IP tab, enter or select the following information:

    Setting Value
    Public IP addresses Select Create a new public IP address.
    In Name, enter myNATgatewayIP.
    Select OK.
  6. Select the Subnet tab, or select the Next: Subnet button at the bottom of the page.

  7. In the Subnet tab, select myVNet in the Virtual network pull-down.

  8. Check the box next to myBackendSubnet.

  9. Select the Review + create tab, or select the blue Review + create button at the bottom of the page.

  10. Select Create.

Test NAT gateway

In this section, we'll test the NAT gateway. We'll first discover the public IP of the NAT gateway. We'll then connect to the test virtual machine and verify the outbound connection through the NAT gateway.

  1. Find the public IP address for the NAT gateway on the Overview screen. Select All services in the left-hand menu, select All resources, and then select myPublicIP.

  2. Make note of the public IP address:

    Screenshot discover public IP address of NAT gateway.

  3. Select All services in the left-hand menu, select All resources, and then from the resources list, select myVM1 that is located in the TutorPubLBNAT-rg resource group.

  4. On the Overview page, select Connect, then Bastion.

  5. Select the blue Use Bastion button.

  6. Enter the username and password entered during VM creation.

  7. Open Internet Explorer on myVM1.

  8. Enter https://whatsmyip.com in the address bar.

  9. Verify the IP address displayed matches the NAT gateway address you noted in the previous step:

    Screenshot Internet Explorer showing external outbound IP.

Clean up resources

If you're not going to continue to use this application, delete the virtual network, virtual machine, and NAT gateway with the following steps:

  1. From the left-hand menu, select Resource groups.

  2. Select the TutorPubLBNAT-rg resource group.

  3. Select Delete resource group.

  4. Enter TutorPubLBNAT-rg and select Delete.

Next steps

For more information on Azure Virtual Network NAT, see: