About VPN Gateway

To send network traffic between your Azure virtual network and your on-premises site, you must create a virtual network gateway for your virtual network. A VPN gateway is a type of virtual network gateway that sends encrypted traffic across a public connection. You can also use VPN gateways to send traffic between Azure virtual networks over the Microsoft network.

There are two types of virtual network gateways: 'ExpressRoute' and 'Vpn'. When you create a virtual network gateway, you specify the gateway type that you want to create. A VPN gateway is a virtual network gateway that uses the gateway type 'Vpn'.

Each virtual network can have two virtual network gateways, but only one of each type. Depending on the settings that you choose, you can create multiple connections to a single VPN gateway. An example of this is a Multi-Site connection configuration. When you create multiple connections to the same VPN gateway, all VPN tunnels, including Point-to-Site VPNs, share the bandwidth that is available for the gateway.

Configuring a VPN Gateway

A VPN gateway connection relies on multiple resources that are configured with specific settings. Most of the resources can be configured separately, although they must be configured in a certain order in some cases.


The settings that you chose for each resource are critical to creating a successful connection. For information about individual resources and settings for VPN Gateway, see About VPN Gateway settings. You'll find information to help you understand gateway types, VPN types, connection types, gateway subnets, local network gateways, and various other resource settings that you may want to consider.

Deployment tools

You can start out creating and configuring resources using one configuration tool, such as the Azure portal. You can then later decide to switch to another tool, such as PowerShell, to configure additional resources, or modify existing resources when applicable. Currently, you can't configure every resource and resource setting in the Azure portal. The instructions in the articles for each connection topology specify when a specific configuration tool is needed.

Deployment model

When you configure a VPN gateway, the steps you take depend on the deployment model that you used to create your virtual network. For example, if you created your VNet using the classic deployment model, you use the guidelines and instructions for the classic deployment model to create and configure your VPN gateway settings. For more information about deployment models, see Understanding Resource Manager and classic deployment models.

Connection topology diagrams

It's important to know that there are different configurations available for VPN gateway connections. You need to determine which configuration best fits your needs. In the sections below, you can view information and topology diagrams about the following VPN gateway connections: The following sections contain tables which list:

  • Available deployment model
  • Available configuration tools
  • Links that take you directly to an article, if available

Use the diagrams and descriptions to help select the connection topology to match your requirements. The diagrams show the main baseline topologies, but it's possible to build more complex configurations using the diagrams as a guideline.

Site-to-Site and Multi-Site (IPsec/IKE VPN tunnel)


A Site-to-Site (S2S) VPN gateway connection is a connection over IPsec/IKE (IKEv1 or IKEv2) VPN tunnel. This type of connection requires a VPN device located on-premises that has a public IP address assigned to it and is not located behind a NAT. S2S connections can be used for cross-premises and hybrid configurations.

Azure VPN Gateway Site-to-Site connection example


This type of connection is a variation of the Site-to-Site connection. You create more than one VPN connection from your virtual network gateway, typically connecting to multiple on-premises sites. When working with multiple connections, you must use a RouteBased VPN type (known as a dynamic gateway when working with classic VNets). Because each virtual network can only have one VPN gateway, all connections through the gateway share the available bandwidth. This is often called a "multi-site" connection.

Azure VPN Gateway Multi-Site connection example

Deployment models and methods for Site-to-Site and Multi-Site

Deployment Model/Method Azure Portal Classic Portal PowerShell Azure CLI
Resource Manager Article Not Supported Article Article
Classic Article** Article* Article+ Not Supported

(*) denotes that the classic portal can only support creating one S2S VPN connection.

(**) denotes that this method contains steps that require PowerShell.

(+) denotes that this article is written for multi-site connections.

Point-to-Site (VPN over SSTP)

A Point-to-Site (P2S) VPN gateway connection allows you to create a secure connection to your virtual network from an individual client computer. P2S is a VPN connection over SSTP (Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol). P2S connections do not require a VPN device or a public-facing IP address to work. You establish the VPN connection by starting it from the client computer. This solution is useful when you want to connect to your VNet from a remote location, such as from home or a conference, or when you only have a few clients that need to connect to a VNet. P2S connections can be used with S2S connections through the same VPN gateway, as long as all the configuration requirements for both connections are compatible.

Azure VPN Gateway Point-to-Site connection example

Deployment models and methods for Point-to-Site

Deployment Model/Method Azure Portal Classic Portal PowerShell
Classic Article Supported Supported
Resource Manager Article Not Supported Article

VNet-to-VNet connections (IPsec/IKE VPN tunnel)

Connecting a virtual network to another virtual network (VNet-to-VNet) is similar to connecting a VNet to an on-premises site location. Both connectivity types use a VPN gateway to provide a secure tunnel using IPsec/IKE. You can even combine VNet-to-VNet communication with multi-site connection configurations. This lets you establish network topologies that combine cross-premises connectivity with inter-virtual network connectivity.

The VNets you connect can be:

  • in the same or different regions
  • in the same or different subscriptions
  • in the same or different deployment models

Azure VPN Gateway VNet to VNet connection example

Connections between deployment models

Azure currently has two deployment models: classic and Resource Manager. If you have been using Azure for some time, you probably have Azure VMs and instance roles running in a classic VNet. Your newer VMs and role instances may be running in a VNet created in Resource Manager. You can create a connection between the VNets to allow the resources in one VNet to communicate directly with resources in another.

VNet peering

You may be able to use VNet peering to create your connection, as long as your virtual network meets certain requirements. VNet peering does not use a virtual network gateway. For more information, see VNet peering.

Deployment models and methods for VNet-to-VNet

Deployment Model/Method Azure Portal Classic Portal PowerShell CLI
Classic Article* Article* Supported Not Supported
Resource Manager Article+ Not Supported Article Article
Connections between different deployment models Article* Supported* Article Not Supported

(+) denotes this deployment method is available only for VNets in the same subscription.
(*) denotes that this deployment method also requires PowerShell.

ExpressRoute (dedicated private connection)

Microsoft Azure ExpressRoute lets you extend your on-premises networks into the Microsoft cloud over a dedicated private connection facilitated by a connectivity provider. With ExpressRoute, you can establish connections to Microsoft cloud services, such as Microsoft Azure, Office 365, and CRM Online. Connectivity can be from an any-to-any (IP VPN) network, a point-to-point Ethernet network, or a virtual cross-connection through a connectivity provider at a co-location facility.

ExpressRoute connections do not go over the public Internet. This allows ExpressRoute connections to offer more reliability, faster speeds, lower latencies, and higher security than typical connections over the Internet.

An ExpressRoute connection does not use a VPN gateway, although it does use a virtual network gateway as part of its required configuration. In an ExpressRoute connection, the virtual network gateway is configured with the gateway type 'ExpressRoute', rather than 'Vpn'. For more information about ExpressRoute, see the ExpressRoute technical overview.

Site-to-Site and ExpressRoute coexisting connections

ExpressRoute is a direct, dedicated connection from your WAN (not over the public Internet) to Microsoft Services, including Azure. Site-to-Site VPN traffic travels encrypted over the public Internet. Being able to configure Site-to-Site VPN and ExpressRoute connections for the same virtual network has several advantages.

You can configure a Site-to-Site VPN as a secure failover path for ExpressRoute, or use Site-to-Site VPNs to connect to sites that are not part of your network, but that are connected through ExpressRoute. Notice that this configuration requires two virtual network gateways for the same virtual network, one using the gateway type 'Vpn', and the other using the gateway type 'ExpressRoute'.

ExpressRoute and VPN Gateway coexisting connections example

Deployment models and methods for S2S and ExpressRoute

Classic Deployment Resource Manager Deployment
Classic Portal Not Supported Not Supported
Azure Portal Not Supported Not Supported
PowerShell Article Article


You pay for two things: the hourly compute costs for the virtual network gateway, and the egress data transfer from the virtual network gateway. Pricing information can be found on the Pricing page.

Virtual network gateway compute costs
Each virtual network gateway has an hourly compute cost. The price is based on the gateway SKU that you specify when you create a virtual network gateway. The cost is for the gateway itself and is in addition to the data transfer that flows through the gateway.

Data transfer costs
Data transfer costs are calculated based on egress traffic from the source virtual network gateway.

  • If you are sending traffic to your on-premises VPN device, it will be charged with the Internet egress data transfer rate.
  • If you are sending traffic between virtual networks in different regions, the pricing is based the region.
  • If you are sending traffic only between virtual networks that are in the same region, there are no data costs. Traffic between VNets in the same region is free.

Gateway SKUs

When you create a virtual network gateway, you need to specify the gateway SKU that you want to use. When you select a higher gateway SKU, more CPUs and network bandwidth are allocated to the gateway, and as a result, the gateway can support higher network throughput to the virtual network.

VPN Gateway can use the following SKUs:

  • Basic
  • Standard
  • HighPerformance

VPN Gateway does not use the UltraPerformance gateway SKU. For information about the UltraPerformance SKU, see the ExpressRoute documentation.

When selecting a SKU, consider the following:

  • If you want to use a PolicyBased VPN type, you must use the Basic SKU. PolicyBased VPNs (previously called Static Routing) are not supported on any other SKU.
  • BGP is not supported on the Basic SKU.
  • ExpressRoute-VPN Gateway coexist configurations are not supported on the Basic SKU.
  • Active-active S2S VPN Gateway connections can be configured on the HighPerformance SKU only.

For more information about gateway SKUs for VPN Gateway, see Gateway SKUs.

Estimated aggregate throughput by SKU

The following table shows the gateway types and the estimated aggregate throughput by gateway SKU. This table applies to both the Resource Manager and classic deployment models. Pricing differs between gateway SKUs. For more information, see VPN Gateway Pricing.

Note that the UltraPerformance gateway SKU is not represented in this table. For information about the UltraPerformance SKU, see the ExpressRoute documentation.

VPN Gateway throughput (1) VPN Gateway max IPsec tunnels (2) ExpressRoute Gateway throughput VPN Gateway and ExpressRoute coexist
Basic SKU (3)(5)(6) 100 Mbps 10 500 Mbps (6) No
Standard SKU (4)(5) 100 Mbps 10 1000 Mbps Yes
High Performance SKU (4) 200 Mbps 30 2000 Mbps Yes
  • (1) The VPN throughput is a rough estimate based on the measurements between VNets in the same Azure region. It is not a guaranteed throughput for cross-premises connections across the Internet. It is the maximum possible throughput measurement.
  • (2) The number of tunnels refer to RouteBased VPNs. A PolicyBased VPN can only support one Site-to-Site VPN tunnel.
  • (3) BGP is not supported for the Basic SKU.
  • (4) PolicyBased VPNs are not supported for this SKU. They are supported for the Basic SKU only.
  • (5) Active-active S2S VPN Gateway connections are not supported for this SKU. Active-active is supported on the HighPerformance SKU only.
  • (6) Basic SKU is deprecated for use with Expressroute.


For frequently asked questions about VPN gateway, see the VPN Gateway FAQ.

Next steps