CDocTemplate Class

An abstract base class that defines the basic functionality for document templates.

Syntax

class CDocTemplate : public CCmdTarget

Members

Protected Constructors

Name Description
CDocTemplate::CDocTemplate Constructs a CDocTemplate object.

Public Methods

Name Description
CDocTemplate::AddDocument Adds a document to a template.
CDocTemplate::CloseAllDocuments Closes all documents associated with this template.
CDocTemplate::CreateNewDocument Creates a new document.
CDocTemplate::CreateNewFrame Creates a new frame window containing a document and view.
CDocTemplate::CreateOleFrame Creates an OLE-enabled frame window.
CDocTemplate::CreatePreviewFrame Creates a child frame used for Rich Preview.
CDocTemplate::GetDocString Retrieves a string associated with the document type.
CDocTemplate::GetFirstDocPosition Retrieves the position of the first document associated with this template.
CDocTemplate::GetNextDoc Retrieves a document and the position of the next one.
CDocTemplate::InitialUpdateFrame Initializes the frame window, and optionally makes it visible.
CDocTemplate::LoadTemplate Loads the resources for a given CDocTemplate or derived class.
CDocTemplate::MatchDocType Determines the degree of confidence in the match between a document type and this template.
CDocTemplate::OpenDocumentFile Opens a file specified by a pathname.
CDocTemplate::RemoveDocument Removes a document from a template.
CDocTemplate::SaveAllModified Saves all documents associated with this template which have been modified.
CDocTemplate::SetContainerInfo Determines the resources for OLE containers when editing an in-place OLE item.
CDocTemplate::SetDefaultTitle Displays the default title in the document window's title bar.
CDocTemplate::SetPreviewInfo Setups out of process preview handler.
CDocTemplate::SetServerInfo Determines the resources and classes when the server document is embedded or edited in-place.

Remarks

You usually create one or more document templates in the implementation of your application's InitInstance function. A document template defines the relationships among three types of classes:

  • A document class, which you derive from CDocument.

  • A view class, which displays data from the document class listed above. You can derive this class from CView, CScrollView, CFormView, or CEditView. (You can also use CEditView directly.)

  • A frame window class, which contains the view. For a single document interface (SDI) application, you derive this class from CFrameWnd. For a multiple document interface (MDI) application, you derive this class from CMDIChildWnd. If you don't need to customize the behavior of the frame window, you can use CFrameWnd or CMDIChildWnd directly without deriving your own class.

Your application has one document template for each type of document that it supports. For example, if your application supports both spreadsheets and text documents, the application has two document template objects. Each document template is responsible for creating and managing all the documents of its type.

The document template stores pointers to the CRuntimeClass objects for the document, view, and frame window classes. These CRuntimeClass objects are specified when constructing a document template.

The document template contains the ID of the resources used with the document type (such as menu, icon, or accelerator table resources). The document template also has strings containing additional information about its document type. These include the name of the document type (for example, "Worksheet") and the file extension (for example, ".xls"). Optionally, it can contain other strings used by the application's user interface, the Windows File Manager, and Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) support.

If your application is an OLE container and/or server, the document template also defines the ID of the menu used during in-place activation. If your application is an OLE server, the document template defines the ID of the toolbar and menu used during in-place activation. You specify these additional OLE resources by calling SetContainerInfo and SetServerInfo.

Because CDocTemplate is an abstract class, you cannot use the class directly. A typical application uses one of the two CDocTemplate-derived classes provided by the Microsoft Foundation Class Library: CSingleDocTemplate, which implements SDI, and CMultiDocTemplate, which implements MDI. See those classes for more information on using document templates.

If your application requires a user-interface paradigm that is fundamentally different from SDI or MDI, you can derive your own class from CDocTemplate.

For more information on CDocTemplate, see Document Templates and the Document/View Creation Process.

Inheritance Hierarchy

CObject

CCmdTarget

CDocTemplate

Requirements

Header: afxwin.h

CDocTemplate::AddDocument

Use this function to add a document to a template.

virtual void AddDocument(CDocument* pDoc);

Parameters

pDoc
A pointer to the document to be added.

Remarks

The derived classes CMultiDocTemplate and CSingleDocTemplate override this function. If you derive your own document-template class from CDocTemplate, your derived class must override this function.

CDocTemplate::CDocTemplate

Constructs a CDocTemplate object.

CDocTemplate (
    UINT nIDResource,
    CRuntimeClass* pDocClass,
    CRuntimeClass* pFrameClass,
    CRuntimeClass* pViewClass);

Parameters

nIDResource
Specifies the ID of the resources used with the document type. This may include menu, icon, accelerator table, and string resources.

The string resource consists of up to seven substrings separated by the '\n' character (the '\n' character is needed as a place holder if a substring is not included; however, trailing '\n' characters are not necessary); these substrings describe the document type. For information on the substrings, see GetDocString. This string resource is found in the application's resource file. For example:

// MYCALC.RC
STRINGTABLE PRELOAD DISCARDABLE
BEGIN
  IDR_SHEETTYPE "\nSheet\nWorksheet\nWorksheets (*.myc)\n.myc\n MyCalcSheet\nMyCalc Worksheet"
END

Note that the string begins with a '\n' character; this is because the first substring is not used for MDI applications and so is not included. You can edit this string using the string editor; the entire string appears as a single entry in the String Editor, not as seven separate entries.

pDocClass
Points to the CRuntimeClass object of the document class. This class is a CDocument-derived class you define to represent your documents.

pFrameClass
Points to the CRuntimeClass object of the frame window class. This class can be a CFrameWnd-derived class, or it can be CFrameWnd itself if you want default behavior for your main frame window.

pViewClass
Points to the CRuntimeClass object of the view class. This class is a CView-derived class you define to display your documents.

Remarks

Use this member function to construct a CDocTemplate object. Dynamically allocate a CDocTemplate object and pass it to CWinApp::AddDocTemplate from the InitInstance member function of your application class.

CDocTemplate::CloseAllDocuments

Call this member function to close all open documents.

virtual void CloseAllDocuments(BOOL bEndSession);

Parameters

bEndSession
Not used.

Remarks

This member function is typically used as part of the File Exit command. The default implementation of this function calls the CDocument::DeleteContents member function to delete the document's data and then closes the frame windows for all the views attached to the document.

Override this function if you want to require the user to perform special cleanup processing before the document is closed. For example, if the document represents a record in a database, you may want to override this function to close the database.

CDocTemplate::CreateNewDocument

Call this member function to create a new document of the type associated with this document template.

virtual CDocument* CreateNewDocument();

Return Value

A pointer to the newly created document, or NULL if an error occurs.

CDocTemplate::CreateNewFrame

Creates a new frame window containing a document and view.

virtual CFrameWnd* CreateNewFrame(
    CDocument* pDoc,
    CFrameWnd* pOther);

Parameters

pDoc
The document to which the new frame window should refer. Can be NULL.

pOther
The frame window on which the new frame window is to be based. Can be NULL.

Return Value

A pointer to the newly created frame window, or NULL if an error occurs.

Remarks

CreateNewFrame uses the CRuntimeClass objects passed to the constructor to create a new frame window with a view and document attached. If the pDoc parameter is NULL, the framework outputs a TRACE message.

The pOther parameter is used to implement the Window New command. It provides a frame window on which to model the new frame window. The new frame window is usually created invisible. Call this function to create frame windows outside the standard framework implementation of File New and File Open.

CDocTemplate::CreateOleFrame

Creates an OLE frame window.

CFrameWnd* CreateOleFrame(
    CWnd* pParentWnd,
    CDocument* pDoc,
    BOOL bCreateView);

Parameters

pParentWnd
A pointer to the frame's parent window.

pDoc
A pointer to the document to which the new OLE frame window should refer.

bCreateView
Determines whether a view is created along with the frame.

Return Value

A pointer to a frame window if successful; otherwise NULL.

Remarks

If bCreateView is zero, an empty frame is created.

CDocTemplate::GetDocString

Retrieves a string associated with the document type.

virtual BOOL GetDocString(
    CString& rString,
    enum DocStringIndex index) const;

Parameters

rString
A reference to a CString object that will contain the string when the function returns.

index
An index of the substring being retrieved from the string that describes the document type. This parameter can have one of the following values:

  • CDocTemplate::windowTitle Name that appears in the application window's title bar (for example, "Microsoft Excel"). Present only in the document template for SDI applications.

  • CDocTemplate::docName Root for the default document name (for example, "Sheet"). This root, plus a number, is used for the default name of a new document of this type whenever the user chooses the New command from the File menu (for example, "Sheet1" or "Sheet2"). If not specified, "Untitled" is used as the default.

  • CDocTemplate::fileNewName Name of this document type. If the application supports more than one type of document, this string is displayed in the File New dialog box (for example, "Worksheet"). If not specified, the document type is inaccessible using the File New command.

  • CDocTemplate::filterName Description of the document type and a wildcard filter matching documents of this type. This string is displayed in the List Files Of Type drop-down list in the File Open dialog box (for example, "Worksheets (*.xls)"). If not specified, the document type is inaccessible using the File Open command.

  • CDocTemplate::filterExt Extension for documents of this type (for example, ".xls"). If not specified, the document type is inaccessible using the File Open command.

  • CDocTemplate::regFileTypeId Identifier for the document type to be stored in the registration database maintained by Windows. This string is for internal use only (for example, "ExcelWorksheet"). If not specified, the document type cannot be registered with the Windows File Manager.

  • CDocTemplate::regFileTypeName Name of the document type to be stored in the registration database. This string may be displayed in dialog boxes of applications that access the registration database (for example, "Microsoft Excel Worksheet").

Return Value

Nonzero if the specified substring was found; otherwise 0.

Remarks

Call this function to retrieve a specific substring describing the document type. The string containing these substrings is stored in the document template and is derived from a string in the resource file for the application. The framework calls this function to get the strings it needs for the application's user interface. If you have specified a filename extension for your application's documents, the framework also calls this function when adding an entry to the Windows registration database; this allows documents to be opened from the Windows File Manager.

Call this function only if you are deriving your own class from CDocTemplate.

CDocTemplate::GetFirstDocPosition

Retrieves the position of the first document associated with this template.

virtual POSITION GetFirstDocPosition() const = 0;

Return Value

A POSITION value that can be used to iterate through the list of documents associated with this document template; or NULL if the list is empty.

Remarks

Use this function to get the position of the first document in the list of documents associated with this template. Use the POSITION value as an argument to CDocTemplate::GetNextDoc to iterate through the list of documents associated with the template.

CSingleDocTemplate and CMultiDocTemplate both override this pure virtual function. Any class you derive from CDocTemplate must also override this function.

CDocTemplate::GetNextDoc

Retrieves the list element identified by rPos, then sets rPos to the POSITION value of the next entry in the list.

virtual CDocument* GetNextDoc(POSITION& rPos) const = 0;

Return Value

A pointer to the next document in the list of documents associated with this template.

Parameters

rPos
A reference to a POSITION value returned by a previous call to GetFirstDocPosition or GetNextDoc.

Remarks

If the retrieved element is the last in the list, then the new value of rPos is set to NULL.

You can use GetNextDoc in a forward iteration loop if you establish the initial position with a call to GetFirstDocPosition.

You must ensure that your POSITION value represents a valid position in the list. If it is invalid, then the Debug version of the Microsoft Foundation Class Library asserts.

CDocTemplate::InitialUpdateFrame

Initializes the frame window, and optionally makes it visible.

virtual void InitialUpdateFrame(
    CFrameWnd* pFrame,
    CDocument* pDoc,
    BOOL bMakeVisible = TRUE);

Parameters

pFrame
The frame window that needs the initial update.

pDoc
The document to which the frame is associated. Can be NULL.

bMakeVisible
Indicates whether the frame should become visible and active.

Remarks

Call IntitialUpdateFrame after creating a new frame with CreateNewFrame. Calling this function causes the views in that frame window to receive their OnInitialUpdate calls. Also, if there was not previously an active view, the primary view of the frame window is made active; the primary view is a view with a child ID of AFX_IDW_PANE_FIRST. Finally, the frame window is made visible if bMakeVisible is non-zero. If bMakeVisible is zero, the current focus and visible state of the frame window will remain unchanged.

It is not necessary to call this function when using the framework's implementation of File New and File Open.

CDocTemplate::LoadTemplate

Loads the resources for a given CDocTemplate or derived class.

virtual void LoadTemplate();

Remarks

This member function is called by the framework to load the resources for a given CDocTemplate or derived class. Normally it is called during construction, except when the template is being constructed globally. In that case, the call to LoadTemplate is delayed until CWinApp::AddDocTemplate is called.

CDocTemplate::MatchDocType

Determines the degree of confidence in the match between a document type and this template.

virtual Confidence MatchDocType(
    LPCTSTR lpszPathName,
    CDocument*& rpDocMatch);

Parameters

lpszPathName
Pathname of the file whose type is to be determined.

rpDocMatch
Pointer to a document that is assigned the matching document, if the file specified by lpszPathName is already open.

Return Value

A value from the Confidence enumeration, which is defined as follows:

enum Confidence
    {
    noAttempt,
    maybeAttemptForeign,
    maybeAttemptNative,
    yesAttemptForeign,
    yesAttemptNative,
    yesAlreadyOpen
    };

Remarks

Use this function to determine the type of document template to use for opening a file. If your application supports multiple file types, for example, you can use this function to determine which of the available document templates is appropriate for a given file by calling MatchDocType for each template in turn, and choosing a template according to the confidence value returned.

If the file specified by lpszPathName is already open, this function returns CDocTemplate::yesAlreadyOpen and copies the file's CDocument object into the object at rpDocMatch.

If the file is not open but the extension in lpszPathName matches the extension specified by CDocTemplate::filterExt, this function returns CDocTemplate::yesAttemptNative and sets rpDocMatch to NULL. For more information on CDocTemplate::filterExt, see CDocTemplate::GetDocString.

If neither case is true, the function returns CDocTemplate::yesAttemptForeign.

The default implementation does not return CDocTemplate::maybeAttemptForeign or CDocTemplate::maybeAttemptNative. Override this function to implement type-matching logic appropriate to your application, perhaps using these two values from the Confidence enumeration.

CDocTemplate::OpenDocumentFile

Opens a file specified by a path.

virtual CDocument* OpenDocumentFile(LPCTSTR lpszPathName) = 0;

virtual CDocument* OpenDocumentFile(
    LPCTSTR lpszPathName,
    BOOL bAddToMRU) = 0;

Parameters

lpszPathName
[in] Pointer to the path of the file that contains the document to be opened.

bAddToMRU
[in] TRUE indicates the document is one of the most recent files; FALSE indicates the document is not one of the most recent files.

Return Value

A pointer to the document whose file is named by lpszPathName; NULL if unsuccessful.

Remarks

Opens the file whose path is specified by lpszPathName. If lpszPathName is NULL, a new file that contains a document of the type associated with this template is created.

CDocTemplate::RemoveDocument

Removes the document pointed to by pDoc from the list of documents associated with this template.

virtual void RemoveDocument(CDocument* pDoc);

Parameters

pDoc
Pointer to the document to be removed.

Remarks

The derived classes CMultiDocTemplate and CSingleDocTemplate override this function. If you derive your own document-template class from CDocTemplate, your derived class must override this function.

CDocTemplate::SaveAllModified

Saves all documents that have been modified.

virtual BOOL SaveAllModified();

Return Value

Non-zero if successful; otherwise 0.

CDocTemplate::SetContainerInfo

Determines the resources for OLE containers when editing an in-place OLE item.

void SetContainerInfo(UINT nIDOleInPlaceContainer);

Parameters

nIDOleInPlaceContainer
The ID of the resources used when an embedded object is activated.

Remarks

Call this function to set the resources to be used when an OLE object is in-place activated. These resources may include menus and accelerator tables. This function is usually called in the CWinApp::InitInstance function of your application.

The menu associated with nIDOleInPlaceContainer contains separators that allow the menu of the activated in-place item to merge with the menu of the container application. For more information about merging server and container menus, see the article Menus and Resources (OLE).

CDocTemplate::SetDefaultTitle

Call this function to load the document's default title and display it in the document's title bar.

virtual void SetDefaultTitle(CDocument* pDocument) = 0;

Parameters

pDocument
Pointer to the document whose title is to be set.

Remarks

For information on the default title, see the description of CDocTemplate::docName in CDocTemplate::GetDocString.

CDocTemplate::SetServerInfo

Determines the resources and classes when the server document is embedded or edited in-place.

void SetServerInfo(
    UINT nIDOleEmbedding,
    UINT nIDOleInPlaceServer = 0,
    CRuntimeClass* pOleFrameClass = NULL,
    CRuntimeClass* pOleViewClass = NULL);

Parameters

nIDOleEmbedding
The ID of the resources used when an embedded object is opened in a separate window.

nIDOleInPlaceServer
The ID of the resources used when an embedded object is activated in-place.

pOleFrameClass
Pointer to a CRuntimeClass structure containing class information for the frame window object created when in-place activation occurs.

pOleViewClass
Pointer to a CRuntimeClass structure containing class information for the view object created when in-place activation occurs.

Remarks

Call this member function to identify resources that will be used by the server application when the user requests activation of an embedded object. These resources consist of menus and accelerator tables. This function is usually called in the InitInstance of your application.

The menu associated with nIDOleInPlaceServer contains separators that allow the server menu to merge with the menu of the container. For more information about merging server and container menus, see the article Menus and Resources (OLE).

CDocTemplate::CreatePreviewFrame

Creates a child frame used for Rich Preview.

CFrameWnd* CreatePreviewFrame(
    CWnd* pParentWnd,
    CDocument* pDoc);

Parameters

pParentWnd
A pointer to a parent window (usually provided by the Shell).

pDoc
A pointer to a document object, whose content will be previewed.

Return Value

A valid pointer to a CFrameWnd object, or NULL if the creation fails.

Remarks

CDocTemplate::SetPreviewInfo

Sets up the out of process preview handler.

void SetPreviewInfo(
    UINT nIDPreviewFrame,
    CRuntimeClass* pPreviewFrameClass = NULL,
    CRuntimeClass* pPreviewViewClass = NULL);

Parameters

nIDPreviewFrame
Specifies a resource ID of the preview frame.

pPreviewFrameClass
Specifies a pointer to a runtime class information structure of the preview frame.

pPreviewViewClass
Specifies a pointer to a runtime class information structure of the preview view.

Remarks

See also

CCmdTarget Class
Hierarchy Chart
CSingleDocTemplate Class
CMultiDocTemplate Class
CDocument Class
CView Class
CScrollView Class
CEditView Class
CFormView Class
CFrameWnd Class
CMDIChildWnd Class