OpenMP Clauses

Provides links to clauses used in the OpenMP API.

Visual C++ supports the following OpenMP clauses.

For general attributes:

Clause Description
if Specifies whether a loop should be executed in parallel or in serial.
num_threads Sets the number of threads in a thread team.
ordered Required on a parallel for statement if an ordered directive is to be used in the loop.
schedule Applies to the for directive.
nowait Overrides the barrier implicit in a directive.

For data-sharing attributes:

Clause Description
private Specifies that each thread should have its own instance of a variable.
firstprivate Specifies that each thread should have its own instance of a variable, and that the variable should be initialized with the value of the variable, because it exists before the parallel construct.
lastprivate Specifies that the enclosing context's version of the variable is set equal to the private version of whichever thread executes the final iteration (for-loop construct) or last section (#pragma sections).
shared Specifies that one or more variables should be shared among all threads.
default Specifies the behavior of unscoped variables in a parallel region.
reduction Specifies that one or more variables that are private to each thread are the subject of a reduction operation at the end of the parallel region.
copyin Allows threads to access the master thread's value, for a threadprivate variable.
copyprivate Specifies that one or more variables should be shared among all threads.

copyin

Allows threads to access the master thread's value, for a threadprivate variable.

copyin(var)

Parameters

var
The threadprivate variable that will be initialized with the variable's value in the master thread, as it exists before the parallel construct.

Remarks

copyin applies to the following directives:

For more information, see 2.7.2.7 copyin.

Example

See threadprivate for an example of using copyin.

copyprivate

Specifies that one or more variables should be shared among all threads.

copyprivate(var)

Parameters

var
One or more variables to share. If more than one variable is specified, separate variable names with a comma.

Remarks

copyprivate applies to the single directive.

For more information, see 2.7.2.8 copyprivate.

Example

// omp_copyprivate.cpp
// compile with: /openmp
#include <stdio.h>
#include <omp.h>

float x, y, fGlobal = 1.0;
#pragma omp threadprivate(x, y)

float get_float() {
   fGlobal += 0.001;
   return fGlobal;
}

void use_float(float f, int t) {
   printf_s("Value = %f, thread = %d\n", f, t);
}

void CopyPrivate(float a, float b) {
   #pragma omp single copyprivate(a, b, x, y)
   {
      a = get_float();
      b = get_float();
      x = get_float();
      y = get_float();
    }

   use_float(a, omp_get_thread_num());
   use_float(b, omp_get_thread_num());
   use_float(x, omp_get_thread_num());
   use_float(y, omp_get_thread_num());
}

int main() {
   float a = 9.99, b = 123.456;

   printf_s("call CopyPrivate from a single thread\n");
   CopyPrivate(9.99, 123.456);

   printf_s("call CopyPrivate from a parallel region\n");
   #pragma omp parallel
   {
      CopyPrivate(a, b);
   }
}
call CopyPrivate from a single thread
Value = 1.001000, thread = 0
Value = 1.002000, thread = 0
Value = 1.003000, thread = 0
Value = 1.004000, thread = 0
call CopyPrivate from a parallel region
Value = 1.005000, thread = 0
Value = 1.005000, thread = 1
Value = 1.006000, thread = 0
Value = 1.006000, thread = 1
Value = 1.007000, thread = 0
Value = 1.007000, thread = 1
Value = 1.008000, thread = 0
Value = 1.008000, thread = 1

default

Specifies the behavior of unscoped variables in a parallel region.

default(shared | none)

Remarks

shared, which is in effect if the default clause is unspecified, means that any variable in a parallel region will be treated as if it were specified with the shared clause. none means that any variables used in a parallel region that aren't scoped with the private, shared, reduction, firstprivate, or lastprivate clause will cause a compiler error.

default applies to the following directives:

For more information, see 2.7.2.5 default.

Example

See private for an example of using default.

firstprivate

Specifies that each thread should have its own instance of a variable, and that the variable should be initialized with the value of the variable, because it exists before the parallel construct.

firstprivate(var)

Parameters

var
The variable to have instances in each thread and that will be initialized with the variable's value, because it exists before the parallel construct. If more than one variable is specified, separate variable names with a comma.

Remarks

firstprivate applies to the following directives:

For more information, see 2.7.2.2 firstprivate.

Example

For an example of using firstprivate, see the example in private.

if (OpenMP)

Specifies whether a loop should be executed in parallel or in serial.

if(expression)

Parameters

expression
An integral expression that, if it evaluates to true (nonzero), causes the code in the parallel region to execute in parallel. If the expression evaluates to false (zero), the parallel region is executed in serial (by a single thread).

Remarks

if applies to the following directives:

For more information, see 2.3 parallel construct.

Example

// omp_if.cpp
// compile with: /openmp
#include <stdio.h>
#include <omp.h>

void test(int val)
{
    #pragma omp parallel if (val)
    if (omp_in_parallel())
    {
        #pragma omp single
        printf_s("val = %d, parallelized with %d threads\n",
                 val, omp_get_num_threads());
    }
    else
    {
        printf_s("val = %d, serialized\n", val);
    }
}

int main( )
{
    omp_set_num_threads(2);
    test(0);
    test(2);
}
val = 0, serialized
val = 2, parallelized with 2 threads

lastprivate

Specifies that the enclosing context's version of the variable is set equal to the private version of whichever thread executes the final iteration (for-loop construct) or last section (#pragma sections).

lastprivate(var)

Parameters

var
The variable that is set equal to the private version of whichever thread executes the final iteration (for-loop construct) or last section (#pragma sections).

Remarks

lastprivate applies to the following directives:

For more information, see 2.7.2.3 lastprivate.

Example

See schedule for an example of using lastprivate clause.

nowait

Overrides the barrier implicit in a directive.

nowait

Remarks

nowait applies to the following directives:

For more information, see 2.4.1 for construct, 2.4.2 sections construct, and 2.4.3 single construct.

Example

// omp_nowait.cpp
// compile with: /openmp /c
#include <stdio.h>

#define SIZE 5

void test(int *a, int *b, int *c, int size)
{
    int i;
    #pragma omp parallel
    {
        #pragma omp for nowait
        for (i = 0; i < size; i++)
            b[i] = a[i] * a[i];

        #pragma omp for nowait
        for (i = 0; i < size; i++)
            c[i] = a[i]/2;
    }
}

int main( )
{
    int a[SIZE], b[SIZE], c[SIZE];
    int i;

    for (i=0; i<SIZE; i++)
        a[i] = i;

    test(a,b,c, SIZE);

    for (i=0; i<SIZE; i++)
        printf_s("%d, %d, %d\n", a[i], b[i], c[i]);
}
0, 0, 0
1, 1, 0
2, 4, 1
3, 9, 1
4, 16, 2

num_threads

Sets the number of threads in a thread team.

num_threads(num)

Parameters

num
The number of threads

Remarks

The num_threads clause has the same functionality as the omp_set_num_threads function.

num_threads applies to the following directives:

For more information, see 2.3 parallel construct.

Example

See parallel for an example of using num_threads clause.

ordered

Required on a parallel for statement if an ordered directive is to be used in the loop.

ordered

Remarks

ordered applies to the for directive.

For more information, see 2.4.1 for construct.

Example

See ordered for an example of using ordered clause.

private

Specifies that each thread should have its own instance of a variable.

private(var)

Parameters

var
The variable to have instances in each thread.

Remarks

private applies to the following directives:

For more information, see 2.7.2.1 private.

Example

// openmp_private.c
// compile with: /openmp
#include <windows.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <omp.h>

#define NUM_THREADS 4
#define SLEEP_THREAD 1
#define NUM_LOOPS 2

enum Types {
   ThreadPrivate,
   Private,
   FirstPrivate,
   LastPrivate,
   Shared,
   MAX_TYPES
};

int nSave[NUM_THREADS][MAX_TYPES][NUM_LOOPS] = {{0}};
int nThreadPrivate;

#pragma omp threadprivate(nThreadPrivate)
#pragma warning(disable:4700)

int main() {
   int nPrivate = NUM_THREADS;
   int nFirstPrivate = NUM_THREADS;
   int nLastPrivate = NUM_THREADS;
   int nShared = NUM_THREADS;
   int nRet = 0;
   int i;
   int j;
   int nLoop = 0;

   nThreadPrivate = NUM_THREADS;
   printf_s("These are the variables before entry "
           "into the parallel region.\n");
   printf_s("nThreadPrivate = %d\n", nThreadPrivate);
   printf_s("      nPrivate = %d\n", nPrivate);
   printf_s(" nFirstPrivate = %d\n", nFirstPrivate);
   printf_s("  nLastPrivate = %d\n", nLastPrivate);
   printf_s("       nShared = %d\n\n", nShared);
   omp_set_num_threads(NUM_THREADS);

   #pragma omp parallel copyin(nThreadPrivate) private(nPrivate) shared(nShared) firstprivate(nFirstPrivate)
   {
      #pragma omp for schedule(static) lastprivate(nLastPrivate)
      for (i = 0 ; i < NUM_THREADS ; ++i) {
         for (j = 0 ; j < NUM_LOOPS ; ++j) {
            int nThread = omp_get_thread_num();
            assert(nThread < NUM_THREADS);

            if (nThread == SLEEP_THREAD)
               Sleep(100);
            nSave[nThread][ThreadPrivate][j] = nThreadPrivate;
            nSave[nThread][Private][j] = nPrivate;
            nSave[nThread][Shared][j] = nShared;
            nSave[nThread][FirstPrivate][j] = nFirstPrivate;
            nSave[nThread][LastPrivate][j] = nLastPrivate;
            nThreadPrivate = nThread;
            nPrivate = nThread;
            nShared = nThread;
            nLastPrivate = nThread;
            --nFirstPrivate;
         }
      }
   }

   for (i = 0 ; i < NUM_LOOPS ; ++i) {
      for (j = 0 ; j < NUM_THREADS ; ++j) {
         printf_s("These are the variables at entry of "
                  "loop %d of thread %d.\n", i + 1, j);
         printf_s("nThreadPrivate = %d\n",
                  nSave[j][ThreadPrivate][i]);
         printf_s("      nPrivate = %d\n",
                  nSave[j][Private][i]);
         printf_s(" nFirstPrivate = %d\n",
                  nSave[j][FirstPrivate][i]);
         printf_s("  nLastPrivate = %d\n",
                  nSave[j][LastPrivate][i]);
         printf_s("       nShared = %d\n\n",
                  nSave[j][Shared][i]);
      }
   }

   printf_s("These are the variables after exit from "
            "the parallel region.\n");
   printf_s("nThreadPrivate = %d (The last value in the "
            "master thread)\n", nThreadPrivate);
   printf_s("      nPrivate = %d (The value prior to "
            "entering parallel region)\n", nPrivate);
   printf_s(" nFirstPrivate = %d (The value prior to "
            "entering parallel region)\n", nFirstPrivate);
   printf_s("  nLastPrivate = %d (The value from the "
            "last iteration of the loop)\n", nLastPrivate);
   printf_s("       nShared = %d (The value assigned, "
            "from the delayed thread, %d)\n\n",
            nShared, SLEEP_THREAD);
}
These are the variables before entry into the parallel region.
nThreadPrivate = 4
      nPrivate = 4
nFirstPrivate = 4
  nLastPrivate = 4
       nShared = 4

These are the variables at entry of loop 1 of thread 0.
nThreadPrivate = 4
      nPrivate = 1310720
nFirstPrivate = 4
  nLastPrivate = 1245104
       nShared = 3

These are the variables at entry of loop 1 of thread 1.
nThreadPrivate = 4
      nPrivate = 4488
nFirstPrivate = 4
  nLastPrivate = 19748
       nShared = 0

These are the variables at entry of loop 1 of thread 2.
nThreadPrivate = 4
      nPrivate = -132514848
nFirstPrivate = 4
  nLastPrivate = -513199792
       nShared = 4

These are the variables at entry of loop 1 of thread 3.
nThreadPrivate = 4
      nPrivate = 1206
nFirstPrivate = 4
  nLastPrivate = 1204
       nShared = 2

These are the variables at entry of loop 2 of thread 0.
nThreadPrivate = 0
      nPrivate = 0
nFirstPrivate = 3
  nLastPrivate = 0
       nShared = 0

These are the variables at entry of loop 2 of thread 1.
nThreadPrivate = 1
      nPrivate = 1
nFirstPrivate = 3
  nLastPrivate = 1
       nShared = 1

These are the variables at entry of loop 2 of thread 2.
nThreadPrivate = 2
      nPrivate = 2
nFirstPrivate = 3
  nLastPrivate = 2
       nShared = 2

These are the variables at entry of loop 2 of thread 3.
nThreadPrivate = 3
      nPrivate = 3
nFirstPrivate = 3
  nLastPrivate = 3
       nShared = 3

These are the variables after exit from the parallel region.
nThreadPrivate = 0 (The last value in the master thread)
      nPrivate = 4 (The value prior to entering parallel region)
nFirstPrivate = 4 (The value prior to entering parallel region)
  nLastPrivate = 3 (The value from the last iteration of the loop)
       nShared = 1 (The value assigned, from the delayed thread, 1)

reduction

Specifies that one or more variables that are private to each thread are the subject of a reduction operation at the end of the parallel region.

reduction(operation:var)

Parameters

operation
The operator for the operation to do on the variables var at the end of the parallel region.

var
One or more variables on which to do scalar reduction. If more than one variable is specified, separate variable names with a comma.

Remarks

reduction applies to the following directives:

For more information, see 2.7.2.6 reduction.

Example

// omp_reduction.cpp
// compile with: /openmp
#include <stdio.h>
#include <omp.h>

#define NUM_THREADS 4
#define SUM_START   1
#define SUM_END     10
#define FUNC_RETS   {1, 1, 1, 1, 1}

int bRets[5] = FUNC_RETS;
int nSumCalc = ((SUM_START + SUM_END) * (SUM_END - SUM_START + 1)) / 2;

int func1( ) {return bRets[0];}
int func2( ) {return bRets[1];}
int func3( ) {return bRets[2];}
int func4( ) {return bRets[3];}
int func5( ) {return bRets[4];}

int main( )
{
    int nRet = 0,
        nCount = 0,
        nSum = 0,
        i,
        bSucceed = 1;

    omp_set_num_threads(NUM_THREADS);

    #pragma omp parallel reduction(+ : nCount)
    {
        nCount += 1;

        #pragma omp for reduction(+ : nSum)
        for (i = SUM_START ; i <= SUM_END ; ++i)
            nSum += i;

        #pragma omp sections reduction(&& : bSucceed)
        {
            #pragma omp section
            {
                bSucceed = bSucceed && func1( );
            }

            #pragma omp section
            {
                bSucceed = bSucceed && func2( );
            }

            #pragma omp section
            {
                bSucceed = bSucceed && func3( );
            }

            #pragma omp section
            {
                bSucceed = bSucceed && func4( );
            }

            #pragma omp section
            {
                bSucceed = bSucceed && func5( );
            }
        }
    }

    printf_s("The parallel section was executed %d times "
             "in parallel.\n", nCount);
    printf_s("The sum of the consecutive integers from "
             "%d to %d, is %d\n", 1, 10, nSum);

    if (bSucceed)
        printf_s("All of the functions, func1 through "
                 "func5 succeeded!\n");
    else
        printf_s("One or more of the functions, func1 "
                 "through func5 failed!\n");

    if (nCount != NUM_THREADS)
    {
        printf_s("ERROR: For %d threads, %d were counted!\n",
                 NUM_THREADS, nCount);
        nRet |= 0x1;
   }

    if (nSum != nSumCalc)
    {
        printf_s("ERROR: The sum of %d through %d should be %d, "
                "but %d was reported!\n",
                SUM_START, SUM_END, nSumCalc, nSum);
        nRet |= 0x10;
    }

    if (bSucceed != (bRets[0] && bRets[1] &&
                     bRets[2] && bRets[3] && bRets[4]))
    {
        printf_s("ERROR: The sum of %d through %d should be %d, "
                 "but %d was reported!\n",
                 SUM_START, SUM_END, nSumCalc, nSum);
        nRet |= 0x100;
    }
}
The parallel section was executed 4 times in parallel.
The sum of the consecutive integers from 1 to 10, is 55
All of the functions, func1 through func5 succeeded!

schedule

Applies to the for directive.

schedule(type[,size])

Parameters

type
The kind of scheduling, either dynamic, guided, runtime, or static.

size
(Optional) Specifies the size of iterations. size must be an integer. Not valid when type is runtime.

Remarks

For more information, see 2.4.1 for construct.

Example

// omp_schedule.cpp
// compile with: /openmp
#include <windows.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <omp.h>

#define NUM_THREADS 4
#define STATIC_CHUNK 5
#define DYNAMIC_CHUNK 5
#define NUM_LOOPS 20
#define SLEEP_EVERY_N 3

int main( )
{
    int nStatic1[NUM_LOOPS],
        nStaticN[NUM_LOOPS];
    int nDynamic1[NUM_LOOPS],
        nDynamicN[NUM_LOOPS];
    int nGuided[NUM_LOOPS];

    omp_set_num_threads(NUM_THREADS);

    #pragma omp parallel
    {
        #pragma omp for schedule(static, 1)
        for (int i = 0 ; i < NUM_LOOPS ; ++i)
        {
            if ((i % SLEEP_EVERY_N) == 0)
                Sleep(0);
            nStatic1[i] = omp_get_thread_num( );
        }

        #pragma omp for schedule(static, STATIC_CHUNK)
        for (int i = 0 ; i < NUM_LOOPS ; ++i)
        {
            if ((i % SLEEP_EVERY_N) == 0)
                Sleep(0);
            nStaticN[i] = omp_get_thread_num( );
        }

        #pragma omp for schedule(dynamic, 1)
        for (int i = 0 ; i < NUM_LOOPS ; ++i)
        {
            if ((i % SLEEP_EVERY_N) == 0)
                Sleep(0);
            nDynamic1[i] = omp_get_thread_num( );
        }

        #pragma omp for schedule(dynamic, DYNAMIC_CHUNK)
        for (int i = 0 ; i < NUM_LOOPS ; ++i)
        {
            if ((i % SLEEP_EVERY_N) == 0)
                Sleep(0);
            nDynamicN[i] = omp_get_thread_num( );
        }

        #pragma omp for schedule(guided)
        for (int i = 0 ; i < NUM_LOOPS ; ++i)
        {
            if ((i % SLEEP_EVERY_N) == 0)
                Sleep(0);
            nGuided[i] = omp_get_thread_num( );
        }
    }

    printf_s("------------------------------------------------\n");
    printf_s("| static | static | dynamic | dynamic | guided |\n");
    printf_s("|    1   |    %d   |    1    |    %d    |        |\n",
             STATIC_CHUNK, DYNAMIC_CHUNK);
    printf_s("------------------------------------------------\n");

    for (int i=0; i<NUM_LOOPS; ++i)
    {
        printf_s("|    %d   |    %d   |    %d    |    %d    |"
                 "    %d   |\n",
                 nStatic1[i], nStaticN[i],
                 nDynamic1[i], nDynamicN[i], nGuided[i]);
    }

    printf_s("------------------------------------------------\n");
}
------------------------------------------------
| static | static | dynamic | dynamic | guided |
|    1   |    5   |    1    |    5    |        |
------------------------------------------------
|    0   |    0   |    0    |    2    |    1   |
|    1   |    0   |    3    |    2    |    1   |
|    2   |    0   |    3    |    2    |    1   |
|    3   |    0   |    3    |    2    |    1   |
|    0   |    0   |    2    |    2    |    1   |
|    1   |    1   |    2    |    3    |    3   |
|    2   |    1   |    2    |    3    |    3   |
|    3   |    1   |    0    |    3    |    3   |
|    0   |    1   |    0    |    3    |    3   |
|    1   |    1   |    0    |    3    |    2   |
|    2   |    2   |    1    |    0    |    2   |
|    3   |    2   |    1    |    0    |    2   |
|    0   |    2   |    1    |    0    |    3   |
|    1   |    2   |    2    |    0    |    3   |
|    2   |    2   |    2    |    0    |    0   |
|    3   |    3   |    2    |    1    |    0   |
|    0   |    3   |    3    |    1    |    1   |
|    1   |    3   |    3    |    1    |    1   |
|    2   |    3   |    3    |    1    |    1   |
|    3   |    3   |    0    |    1    |    3   |
------------------------------------------------

shared

Specifies that one or more variables should be shared among all threads.

shared(var)

Parameters

var
One or more variables to share. If more than one variable is specified, separate variable names with a comma.

Remarks

Another way to share variables among threads is with the copyprivate clause.

shared applies to the following directives:

For more information, see 2.7.2.4 shared.

Example

See private for an example of using shared.