basic_ostream Class

This template class describes an object that controls insertion of elements and encoded objects into a stream buffer with elements of type Elem, also known as char_type, whose character traits are determined by the class Tr, also known as traits_type.

Syntax

template <class Elem, class Tr = char_traits<Elem>>
class basic_ostream : virtual public basic_ios<Elem, Tr>

Parameters

Elem
A char_type.

Tr
The character traits_type.

Remarks

Most of the member functions that overload operator<< are formatted output functions. They follow the pattern:

iostate state = goodbit;
const sentry ok(*this);

if (ok)
{try
{<convert and insert elements
    accumulate flags in state> }
    catch (...)
{try
{setstate(badbit);

}
    catch (...)
{}
    if ((exceptions()& badbit) != 0)
    throw; }}
width(0);
// Except for operator<<(Elem)
setstate(state);

return (*this);

Two other member functions are unformatted output functions. They follow the pattern:

iostate state = goodbit;
const sentry ok(*this);

if (!ok)
    state |= badbit;
else
{try
{<obtain and insert elements
    accumulate flags in state> }
    catch (...)
{try
{setstate(badbit);

}
    catch (...)
{}
    if ((exceptions()& badbit) != 0)
    throw; }}
setstate(state);

return (*this);

Both groups of functions call setstate(badbit) if they encounter a failure while inserting elements.

An object of class basic_istream< Elem, Tr> stores only a virtual public base object of class basic_ios<Elem, Tr>.

Example

See the example for basic_ofstream Class to learn more about output streams.

Constructors

Constructor Description
basic_ostream Constructs a basic_ostream object.

Member functions

Member function Description
flush Flushes the buffer.
put Puts a character in a stream.
seekp Resets position in output stream.
sentry The nested class describes an object whose declaration structures the formatted output functions and the unformatted output functions.
swap Exchanges the values of this basic_ostream object for those of the provided basic_ostream object.
tellp Reports position in output stream.
write Puts characters in a stream.

Operators

Operator Description
operator= Assigns the value of the provided basic_ostream object parameter to this object.
operator<< Writes to the stream.

Requirements

Header: <ostream>

Namespace: std

basic_ostream::basic_ostream

Constructs a basic_ostream object.

explicit basic_ostream(
    basic_streambuf<Elem, Tr>* strbuf,
    bool _Isstd = false);

basic_ostream(basic_ostream&& right);

Parameters

strbuf
An object of type basic_streambuf.

_Isstd
true if this is a standard stream; otherwise, false.

right
An rvalue reference to an object of type basic_ostream.

Remarks

The first constructor initializes the base class by calling init(strbuf). The second constructor initializes the base class by calling basic_ios::move(right).

Example

See the example for basic_ofstream::basic_ofstream to learn more about output streams.

basic_ostream::flush

Flushes the buffer.

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& flush();

Return Value

A reference to the basic_ostream object.

Remarks

If rdbuf is not a null pointer, the function calls rdbuf->pubsync. If that returns -1, the function calls setstate(badbit). It returns *this.

Example

// basic_ostream_flush.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <iostream>

int main( )
{
   using namespace std;
   cout << "test";
   cout.flush();
}
test

basic_ostream::operator<<

Writes to the stream.

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(
    basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& (* Pfn)(basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>&));

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(
    ios_base& (* Pfn)(ios_base&));

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(
    basic_ios<Elem, Tr>& (* Pfn)(basic_ios<Elem, Tr>&));

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(basic_streambuf<Elem, Tr>* strbuf);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(bool val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(short val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(unsigned short val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(int __w64  val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(unsigned int __w64  val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(long val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(unsigned long __w64  val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(long long val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(unsigned long long val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(float val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(double val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(long double val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(const void* val);

Parameters

Pfn
A function pointer.

strbuf
A pointer to a stream_buf object.

val
An element to write to the stream.

Return Value

A reference to the basic_ostream object.

Remarks

The <ostream> header also defines several global insertion operators. For more information, see operator<<.

The first member function ensures that an expression of the form ostr << endl calls endl(ostr), and then returns *this. The second and third functions ensure that other manipulators, such as hex, behave similarly. The remaining functions are all formatted output functions.

The function

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(basic_streambuf<Elem, Tr>* strbuf);

extracts elements from strbuf, if strbuf is not a null pointer, and inserts them. Extraction stops on end of file, or if an extraction throws an exception (which is rethrown). It also stops, without extracting the element in question, if an insertion fails. If the function inserts no elements, or if an extraction throws an exception, the function calls setstate(failbit). In any case, the function returns *this.

The function

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(bool val);

converts _Val to a Boolean field and inserts it by calling use_facet<num_put<Elem, OutIt>(getloc). put(OutIt(rdbuf), *this, getloc, val). Here, OutIt is defined as ostreambuf_iterator<Elem, Tr>. The function returns *this.

The functions

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(short val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(unsigned short val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(int val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(unsigned int __w64  val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(long val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(unsigned long val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(long long val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(unsigned long long val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(const void* val);

each convert val to a numeric field and insert it by calling use_facet<num_put<Elem, OutIt>(getloc). put(OutIt(rdbuf), *this, getloc, val). Here, OutIt is defined as ostreambuf_iterator<Elem, Tr>. The function returns *this.

The functions

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(float val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(double val);
basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& operator<<(long double val);

each convert val to a numeric field and insert it by calling use_facet<num_put<Elem, OutIt>(getloc). put(OutIt(rdbuf), *this, getloc, val). Here, OutIt is defined as ostreambuf_iterator<Elem, Tr>. The function returns *this.

Example

// basic_ostream_op_write.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <iostream>
#include <string.h>

using namespace std;

ios_base& hex2( ios_base& ib )
{
   ib.unsetf( ios_base::dec );
   ib.setf( ios_base::hex );
   return ib;
}

basic_ostream<char, char_traits<char> >& somefunc(basic_ostream<char, char_traits<char> > &i)
{
    if (i == cout)
    {
        i << "i is cout" << endl;
    }
    return i;
}

class CTxtStreambuf : public basic_streambuf< char, char_traits< char > >
{
public:
    CTxtStreambuf(char *_pszText)
    {
        pszText = _pszText;
        setg(pszText, pszText, pszText + strlen(pszText));
    };
    char *pszText;
};

int main()
{
    cout << somefunc;
    cout << 21 << endl;

    hex2(cout);
    cout << 21 << endl;

    CTxtStreambuf f("text in streambuf");
    cout << &f << endl;
}

basic_ostream::operator=

Assigns values for the provided basic_ostream object parameter to this object.

basic_ostream& operator=(basic_ostream&& right);

Parameters

right
An rvalue reference to a basic_ostream object.

Remarks

The member operator calls swap (right).

basic_ostream::put

Puts a character in a stream.

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& put(char_type _Ch);

Parameters

_Ch
A character.

Return Value

A reference to the basic_ostream object.

Remarks

The unformatted output function inserts the element _Ch. It returns *this.

Example

// basic_ostream_put.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <iostream>

int main( )
{
   using namespace std;
   cout.put( 'v' );
   cout << endl;
   wcout.put( L'l' );
}
v
l

basic_ostream::seekp

Reset position in output stream.

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& seekp(pos_type _Pos);

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& seekp(off_type _Off, ios_base::seekdir _Way);

Parameters

_Pos
The position in the stream.

_Off
The offset relative to _Way.

_Way
One of the ios_base::seekdir enumerations.

Return Value

A reference to the basic_ostream object.

Remarks

If fail is false, the first member function calls newpos = rdbuf-> pubseekpos(_Pos), for some pos_type temporary object newpos. If fail is false, the second function calls newpos = rdbuf-> pubseekoff(_Off, _Way). In either case, if (off_type)newpos == (off_type)(-1) (the positioning operation fails), then the function calls istr.setstate(failbit). Both functions return *this.

Example

// basic_ostream_seekp.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <fstream>
#include <iostream>

int main()
{
    using namespace std;
    ofstream x("basic_ostream_seekp.txt");
    streamoff i = x.tellp();
    cout << i << endl;
    x << "testing";
    i = x.tellp();
    cout << i << endl;
    x.seekp(2);   // Put char in third char position in file
    x << " ";

    x.seekp(2, ios::end);   // Put char two after end of file
    x << "z";
}
0
7

basic_ostream::sentry

The nested class describes an object whose declaration structures the formatted output functions and the unformatted output functions.

class sentry { public: explicit sentry(basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& _Ostr); operator bool() const; ~sentry(); };

Remarks

The nested class describes an object whose declaration structures the formatted output functions and the unformatted output functions. If ostr.good is true and ostr.tie is not a null pointer, the constructor calls ostr.tie->flush. The constructor then stores the value returned by ostr.good in status. A later call to operator bool delivers this stored value.

If uncaught_exception returns false and flags & unitbuf is nonzero, the destructor calls flush.

basic_ostream::swap

Exchanges the values of this basic_ostream object for the values of the provided basic_ostream.

void swap(basic_ostream& right);

Parameters

right
A reference to a basic_ostream object.

Remarks

The member function calls basic_ios::swap(right) to exchange the contents of this object for the contents of right.

basic_ostream::tellp

Report position in output stream.

pos_type tellp();

Return Value

Position in output stream.

Remarks

If fail is false, the member function returns rdbuf-> pubseekoff(0, cur, in). Otherwise, it returns pos_type(-1).

Example

See seekp for an example using tellp.

basic_ostream::write

Put characters in a stream.

basic_ostream<Elem, Tr>& write(const char_type* str, streamsize count);

Parameters

count
Count of characters to put into the stream.

str
Characters to put into the stream.

Return Value

A reference to the basic_ostream object.

Remarks

The unformatted output function inserts the sequence of count elements beginning at str.

Example

See streamsize for an example using write.

See also

Thread Safety in the C++ Standard Library
iostream Programming
iostreams Conventions