unordered_set Class

The template class describes an object that controls a varying-length sequence of elements of type const Key. The sequence is weakly ordered by a hash function, which partitions the sequence into an ordered set of subsequences called buckets. Within each bucket a comparison function determines whether any pair of elements has equivalent ordering. Each element serves as both a sort key and a value. The sequence is represented in a way that permits lookup, insertion, and removal of an arbitrary element with a number of operations that can be independent of the number of elements in the sequence (constant time), at least when all buckets are of roughly equal length. In the worst case, when all of the elements are in one bucket, the number of operations is proportional to the number of elements in the sequence (linear time). Moreover, inserting an element invalidates no iterators, and removing an element invalidates only those iterators which point at the removed element.

Syntax

template <
   class Key,
   class Hash = std::hash<Key>,
   class Pred = std::equal_to<Key>,
   class Alloc = std::allocator<Key>>
class unordered_set;

Parameters

Key
The key type.

Hash
The hash function object type.

Pred
The equality comparison function object type.

Alloc
The allocator class.

Members

Typedefs

allocator_type The type of an allocator for managing storage.
const_iterator The type of a constant iterator for the controlled sequence.
const_local_iterator The type of a constant bucket iterator for the controlled sequence.
const_pointer The type of a constant pointer to an element.
const_reference The type of a constant reference to an element.
difference_type The type of a signed distance between two elements.
hasher The type of the hash function.
iterator The type of an iterator for the controlled sequence.
key_equal The type of the comparison function.
key_type The type of an ordering key.
local_iterator The type of a bucket iterator for the controlled sequence.
pointer The type of a pointer to an element.
reference The type of a reference to an element.
size_type The type of an unsigned distance between two elements.
value_type The type of an element.

Functions

begin Designates the beginning of the controlled sequence.
bucket Gets the bucket number for a key value.
bucket_count Gets the number of buckets.
bucket_size Gets the size of a bucket.
cbegin Designates the beginning of the controlled sequence.
cend Designates the end of the controlled sequence.
clear Removes all elements.
count Finds the number of elements matching a specified key.
emplace Adds an element constructed in place.
emplace_hint Adds an element constructed in place, with hint.
empty Tests whether no elements are present.
end Designates the end of the controlled sequence.
equal_range Finds range that matches a specified key.
erase Removes elements at specified positions.
find Finds an element that matches a specified key.
get_allocator Gets the stored allocator object.
hash_function Gets the stored hash function object.
insert Adds elements.
key_eq Gets the stored comparison function object.
load_factor Counts the average elements per bucket.
max_bucket_count Gets the maximum number of buckets.
max_load_factor Gets or sets the maximum elements per bucket.
max_size Gets the maximum size of the controlled sequence.
rehash Rebuilds the hash table.
size Counts the number of elements.
swap Swaps the contents of two containers.
unordered_set Constructs a container object.

Operators

unordered_set::operator= Copies a hash table.

Remarks

The object orders the sequence it controls by calling two stored objects, a comparison function object of typeunordered_set::key_equal and a hash function object of typeunordered_set::hasher. You access the first stored object by calling the member functionunordered_set::key_eq(); and you access the second stored object by calling the member functionunordered_set::hash_function(). Specifically, for all values X and Y of type Key, the call key_eq()(X, Y) returns true only if the two argument values have equivalent ordering; the call hash_function()(keyval) yields a distribution of values of type size_t. Unlike template classunordered_multiset Class, an object of template class unordered_set ensures that key_eq()(X, Y) is always false for any two elements of the controlled sequence. (Keys are unique.)

The object also stores a maximum load factor, which specifies the maximum desired average number of elements per bucket. If inserting an element causesunordered_set::load_factor() to exceed the maximum load factor, the container increases the number of buckets and rebuilds the hash table as needed.

The actual order of elements in the controlled sequence depends on the hash function, the comparison function, the order of insertion, the maximum load factor, and the current number of buckets. You cannot in general predict the order of elements in the controlled sequence. You can always be assured, however, that any subset of elements that have equivalent ordering are adjacent in the controlled sequence.

The object allocates and frees storage for the sequence it controls through a stored allocator object of typeunordered_set::allocator_type. Such an allocator object must have the same external interface as an object of template class allocator. Note that the stored allocator object is not copied when the container object is assigned.

unordered_set::allocator_type

The type of an allocator for managing storage.

typedef Alloc allocator_type;

Remarks

The type is a synonym for the template parameter Alloc.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_allocator_type.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
typedef std::allocator<std::pair<const char, int> > Myalloc;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    Myset::allocator_type al = c1.get_allocator();
    std::cout << "al == std::allocator() is "
    << std::boolalpha << (al == Myalloc()) << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
al == std::allocator() is true

begin

Designates the beginning of the controlled sequence or a bucket.

iterator begin();

const_iterator begin() const;

local_iterator begin(size_type nbucket);

const_local_iterator begin(size_type nbucket) const;

Parameters

nbucket
The bucket number.

Remarks

The first two member functions return a forward iterator that points at the first element of the sequence (or just beyond the end of an empty sequence). The last two member functions return a forward iterator that points at the first element of bucket nbucket (or just beyond the end of an empty bucket).

Example

// unordered_set_begin.cpp
// compile using: cl.exe /EHsc /nologo /W4 /MTd
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

typedef unordered_set<char> MySet;

int main()
{
    MySet c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents using range-based for
    for (auto it : c1) {
    cout << "[" << it << "] ";
    }

    cout << endl;

    // display contents using explicit for
    for (MySet::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it) {
        cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    }

    cout << std::endl;

    // display first two items
    MySet::iterator it2 = c1.begin();
    cout << "[" << *it2 << "] ";
    ++it2;
    cout << "[" << *it2 << "] ";
    cout << endl;

    // display bucket containing 'a'
    MySet::const_local_iterator lit = c1.begin(c1.bucket('a'));
    cout << "[" << *lit << "] ";

    return (0);
}
[a] [b] [c]
[a] [b] [c]
[a] [b]
[a]

bucket

Gets the bucket number for a key value.

size_type bucket(const Key& keyval) const;

Parameters

keyval
The key value to map.

Remarks

The member function returns the bucket number currently corresponding to the key value keyval.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_bucket.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // display buckets for keys
    Myset::size_type bs = c1.bucket('a');
    std::cout << "bucket('a') == " << bs << std::endl;
    std::cout << "bucket_size(" << bs << ") == " << c1.bucket_size(bs)
    << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
bucket('a') == 7
bucket_size(7) == 1

bucket_count

Gets the number of buckets.

size_type bucket_count() const;

Remarks

The member function returns the current number of buckets.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_bucket_count.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // inspect current parameters
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_bucket_count() == "
    << c1.max_bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == "
    << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // change max_load_factor and redisplay
    c1.max_load_factor(0.10f);
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_bucket_count() == "
    << c1.max_bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == "
    << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // rehash and redisplay
    c1.rehash(100);
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_bucket_count() == "
    << c1.max_bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == "
    << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
bucket_count() == 8
load_factor() == 0.375
max_bucket_count() == 8
max_load_factor() == 4

bucket_count() == 8
load_factor() == 0.375
max_bucket_count() == 8
max_load_factor() == 0.1

bucket_count() == 128
load_factor() == 0.0234375
max_bucket_count() == 128
max_load_factor() == 0.1

bucket_size

Gets the size of a bucket

size_type bucket_size(size_type nbucket) const;

Parameters

nbucket
The bucket number.

Remarks

The member functions returns the size of bucket number nbucket.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_bucket_size.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // display buckets for keys
    Myset::size_type bs = c1.bucket('a');
    std::cout << "bucket('a') == " << bs << std::endl;
    std::cout << "bucket_size(" << bs << ") == " << c1.bucket_size(bs)
    << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
bucket('a') == 7
bucket_size(7) == 1

cbegin

Returns a const iterator that addresses the first element in the range.

const_iterator cbegin() const;

Return Value

A const forward-access iterator that points at the first element of the range, or the location just beyond the end of an empty range (for an empty range, cbegin() == cend()).

Remarks

With the return value of cbegin, the elements in the range cannot be modified.

You can use this member function in place of the begin() member function to guarantee that the return value is const_iterator. Typically, it's used in conjunction with theauto type deduction keyword, as shown in the following example. In the example, consider Container to be a modifiable (non- const) container of any kind that supports begin() and cbegin().

auto i1 = Container.begin();
// i1 isContainer<T>::iterator
auto i2 = Container.cbegin();

// i2 isContainer<T>::const_iterator

cend

Returns a const iterator that addresses the location just beyond the last element in a range.

const_iterator cend() const;

Return Value

A const forward-access iterator that points just beyond the end of the range.

Remarks

cend is used to test whether an iterator has passed the end of its range.

You can use this member function in place of the end() member function to guarantee that the return value is const_iterator. Typically, it's used in conjunction with theauto type deduction keyword, as shown in the following example. In the example, consider Container to be a modifiable (non- const) container of any kind that supports end() and cend().

auto i1 = Container.end();
// i1 isContainer<T>::iterator
auto i2 = Container.cend();

// i2 isContainer<T>::const_iterator

The value returned by cend should not be dereferenced.

clear

Removes all elements.

void clear();

Remarks

The member function callsunordered_set::erase( unordered_set::begin(), unordered_set::end()).

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_clear.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // clear the container and reinspect
    c1.clear();
    std::cout << "size == " << c1.size() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "empty() == " << std::boolalpha << c1.empty() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    c1.insert('d');
    c1.insert('e');

    // display contents "[e] [d] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    std::cout << "size == " << c1.size() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "empty() == " << std::boolalpha << c1.empty() << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
size == 0
empty() == true
[e] [d]
size == 2
empty() == false

const_iterator

The type of a constant iterator for the controlled sequence.

typedef T1 const_iterator;

Remarks

The type describes an object that can serve as a constant forward iterator for the controlled sequence. It is described here as a synonym for the implementation-defined type T1.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_const_iterator.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
    std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]

const_local_iterator

The type of a constant bucket iterator for the controlled sequence.

typedef T5 const_local_iterator;

Remarks

The type describes an object that can serve as a constant forward iterator for a bucket. It is described here as a synonym for the implementation-defined type T5.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_const_local_iterator.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // inspect bucket containing 'a'
    Myset::const_local_iterator lit = c1.begin(c1.bucket('a'));
    std::cout << "[" << *lit << "] ";

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
[a]

const_pointer

The type of a constant pointer to an element.

typedef Alloc::const_pointer const_pointer;

Remarks

The type describes an object that can serve as a constant pointer to an element of the controlled sequence.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_const_pointer.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
    {
        Myset::const_pointer p = &*it;
        std::cout << "[" << *p << "] ";
    }
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]

const_reference

The type of a constant reference to an element.

typedef Alloc::const_reference const_reference;

Remarks

The type describes an object that can serve as a constant reference to an element of the controlled sequence.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_const_reference.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
    {
        Myset::const_reference ref = *it;
        std::cout << "[" << ref << "] ";
    }
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]

count

Finds the number of elements matching a specified key.

size_type count(const Key& keyval) const;

Parameters

keyval
Key value to search for.

Remarks

The member function returns the number of elements in the range delimited byunordered_set::equal_range(keyval).

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_count.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    std::cout << "count('A') == " << c1.count('A') << std::endl;
    std::cout << "count('b') == " << c1.count('b') << std::endl;
    std::cout << "count('C') == " << c1.count('C') << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
count('A') == 0
count('b') == 1
count('C') == 0

difference_type

The type of a signed distance between two elements.

typedef T3 difference_type;

Remarks

The signed integer type describes an object that can represent the difference between the addresses of any two elements in the controlled sequence. It is described here as a synonym for the implementation-defined type T3.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_difference_type.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // compute positive difference
    Myset::difference_type diff = 0;
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        ++diff;
    std::cout << "end()-begin() == " << diff << std::endl;

    // compute negative difference
    diff = 0;
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.end(); it != c1.begin(); --it)
        --diff;
    std::cout << "begin()-end() == " << diff << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
end()-begin() == 3
begin()-end() == -3

emplace

Inserts an element constructed in place (no copy or move operations are performed).

template <class... Args>
pair<iterator, bool>
emplace(
Args&&... args);

Parameters

args
The arguments forwarded to construct an element to be inserted into the unordered_set unless it already contains an element whose value is equivalently ordered.

Return Value

A pair whose bool component returns true if an insertion was made and false if the unordered_set already contained an element whose key had an equivalent value in the ordering, and whose iterator component returns the address where a new element was inserted or where the element was already located.

To access the iterator component of a pair pr returned by this member function, use pr.first, and to dereference it, use *(pr.first). To access the bool component of a pair pr returned by this member function, use pr.second.

Remarks

No iterators or references are invalidated by this function.

During the insertion, if an exception is thrown but does not occur in the container's hash function, the container is not modified. If the exception is thrown in the hash function, the result is undefined.

For a code example, seeset::emplace.

emplace_hint

Inserts an element constructed in place (no copy or move operations are performed), with a placement hint.

template <class... Args>
iterator emplace_hint(
const_iteratorwhere,
Args&&... args);

Parameters

args
The arguments forwarded to construct an element to be inserted into the unordered_set unless the unordered_set already contains that element or, more generally, unless it already contains an element whose key is equivalently ordered.

where
A hint regarding the place to start searching for the correct point of insertion.

Return Value

An iterator to the newly inserted element.

If the insertion failed because the element already exists, returns an iterator to the existing element.

Remarks

No iterators or references are invalidated by this function.

During the insertion, if an exception is thrown but does not occur in the container's hash function, the container is not modified. If the exception is thrown in the hash function, the result is undefined.

For a code example, seeset::emplace_hint.

empty

Tests whether no elements are present.

bool empty() const;

Remarks

The member function returns true for an empty controlled sequence.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_empty.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // clear the container and reinspect
    c1.clear();
    std::cout << "size == " << c1.size() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "empty() == " << std::boolalpha << c1.empty() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    c1.insert('d');
    c1.insert('e');

    // display contents "[e] [d] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    std::cout << "size == " << c1.size() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "empty() == " << std::boolalpha << c1.empty() << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
size == 0
empty() == true
[e] [d]
size == 2
empty() == false

end

Designates the end of the controlled sequence.

iterator end();

const_iterator end() const;

local_iterator end(size_type nbucket);

const_local_iterator end(size_type nbucket) const;

Parameters

nbucket
The bucket number.

Remarks

The first two member functions return a forward iterator that points just beyond the end of the sequence. The last two member functions return a forward iterator that points just beyond the end of bucket nbucket.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_end.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // inspect last two items "[a] [b] "
    Myset::iterator it2 = c1.end();
    --it2;
    std::cout << "[" << *it2 << "] ";
    --it2;
    std::cout << "[" << *it2 << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // inspect bucket containing 'a'
    Myset::const_local_iterator lit = c1.end(c1.bucket('a'));
    --lit;
    std::cout << "[" << *lit << "] ";

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
[a] [b]
[a]

equal_range

Finds range that matches a specified key.

std::pair<iterator, iterator>
equal_range(const Key& keyval);

std::pair<const_iterator, const_iterator>
equal_range(const Key& keyval) const;

Parameters

keyval
Key value to search for.

Remarks

The member function returns a pair of iterators X such that[X.first, X.second) delimits just those elements of the controlled sequence that have equivalent ordering with keyval. If no such elements exist, both iterators are end().

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_equal_range.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // display results of failed search
    std::pair<Myset::iterator, Myset::iterator> pair1 =
    c1.equal_range('x');
    std::cout << "equal_range('x'):";
    for (; pair1.first != pair1.second; ++pair1.first)
        std::cout << "[" << *pair1.first << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // display results of successful search
    pair1 = c1.equal_range('b');
    std::cout << "equal_range('b'):";
    for (; pair1.first != pair1.second; ++pair1.first)
        std::cout << "[" << *pair1.first << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
equal_range('x'):
equal_range('b'): [b]

erase

Removes an element or a range of elements in a unordered_set from specified positions or removes elements that match a specified key.

iterator erase(const_iterator Where);

iterator erase(const_iterator First, const_iterator Last);

size_type erase(const key_type& Key);

Parameters

Where
Position of the element to be removed.

First
Position of the first element to be removed.

Last
Position just beyond the last element to be removed.

Key
The key value of the elements to be removed.

Return Value

For the first two member functions, a bidirectional iterator that designates the first element remaining beyond any elements removed, or an element that is the end of the unordered_set if no such element exists.

For the third member function, returns the number of elements that have been removed from the unordered_set.

Remarks

For a code example, seeset::erase.

find

Finds an element that matches a specified key.

const_iterator find(const Key& keyval) const;

Parameters

keyval
Key value to search for.

Remarks

The member function returnsunordered_set::equal_range(keyval).first.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_find.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // try to find and fail
    std::cout << "find('A') == "
    << std::boolalpha << (c1.find('A') != c1.end()) << std::endl;

    // try to find and succeed
    Myset::iterator it = c1.find('b');
    std::cout << "find('b') == "
    << std::boolalpha << (it != c1.end())
    << ": [" << *it << "] " << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
find('A') == false
find('b') == true: [b]

get_allocator

Gets the stored allocator object.

Alloc get_allocator() const;

Remarks

The member function returns the stored allocator object.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_get_allocator.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
typedef std::allocator<std::pair<const char, int> > Myalloc;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    Myset::allocator_type al = c1.get_allocator();
    std::cout << "al == std::allocator() is "
    << std::boolalpha << (al == Myalloc()) << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
al == std::allocator() is true

hash_function

Gets the stored hash function object.

Hash hash_function() const;

Remarks

The member function returns the stored hash function object.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_hash_function.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    Myset::hasher hfn = c1.hash_function();
    std::cout << "hfn('a') == " << hfn('a') << std::endl;
    std::cout << "hfn('b') == " << hfn('b') << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
hfn('a') == 1630279
hfn('b') == 1647086

hasher

The type of the hash function.

typedef Hash hasher;

Remarks

The type is a synonym for the template parameter Hash.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_hasher.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    Myset::hasher hfn = c1.hash_function();
    std::cout << "hfn('a') == " << hfn('a') << std::endl;
    std::cout << "hfn('b') == " << hfn('b') << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
hfn('a') == 1630279
hfn('b') == 1647086

insert

Inserts an element or a range of elements into an unordered_set.

// (1) single element
pair<iterator, bool> insert(const value_type& Val);

// (2) single element, perfect forwarded
template <class ValTy>
pair<iterator, bool> insert(ValTy&& Val);

// (3) single element with hint
iterator insert(const_iterator Where, const value_type& Val);

// (4) single element, perfect forwarded, with hint
template <class ValTy>
iterator insert(const_iterator Where, ValTy&& Val);

// (5) range
template <class InputIterator>
void insert(InputIterator First, InputIterator Last);

// (6) initializer list
void insert(initializer_list<value_type> IList);

Parameters

Val
The value of an element to be inserted into the unordered_set unless it already contains an element whose key is equivalently ordered.

Where
The place to start searching for the correct point of insertion.

ValTy
Template parameter that specifies the argument type that the unordered_set can use to construct an element ofvalue_type, and perfect-forwards Val as an argument.

First
The position of the first element to be copied.

Last
The position just beyond the last element to be copied.

InputIterator
Template function argument that meets the requirements of aninput iterator that points to elements of a type that can be used to constructvalue_type objects.

IList
Theinitializer_list from which to copy the elements.

Return Value

The single-element member functions, (1) and (2), return apair whose bool component is true if an insertion was made, and false if the unordered_set already contained an element whose key had an equivalent value in the ordering. The iterator component of the return-value pair points to the newly inserted element if the bool component is true, or to the existing element if the bool component is false.

The single-element-with-hint member functions, (3) and (4), return an iterator that points to the position where the new element was inserted into the unordered_set or, if an element with an equivalent key already exists, to the existing element.

Remarks

No iterators, pointers, or references are invalidated by this function.

During the insertion of just one element, if an exception is thrown but does not occur in the container's hash function, the container's state is not modified. If the exception is thrown in the hash function, the result is undefined. During the insertion of multiple elements, if an exception is thrown, the container is left in an unspecified but valid state.

To access the iterator component of a pair pr that's returned by the single-element member functions, use pr.first; to dereference the iterator within the returned pair, use*pr.first, giving you an element. To access the bool component, use pr.second. For an example, see the sample code later in this article.

Thevalue_type of a container is a typedef that belongs to the container, and, for set, unordered_set<V>::value_type is type const V.

The range member function (5) inserts the sequence of element values into an unordered_set that corresponds to each element addressed by an iterator in the range [First, Last); therefore, Last does not get inserted. The container member function end() refers to the position just after the last element in the container—for example, the statement s.insert(v.begin(), v.end()); attempts to insert all elements of v into s. Only elements that have unique values in the range are inserted; duplicates are ignored. To observe which elements are rejected, use the single-element versions of insert.

The initializer list member function (6) uses aninitializer_list to copy elements into the unordered_set.

For insertion of an element constructed in place—that is, no copy or move operations are performed—seeset::emplace andset::emplace_hint.

For a code example, seeset::insert.

iterator

A type that provides a constantforward iterator that can read elements in an unordered_set.

typedef implementation-defined iterator;

Example

See the example forbegin for an example of how to declare and use aniterator.

key_eq

Gets the stored comparison function object.

Pred key_eq() const;

Remarks

The member function returns the stored comparison function object.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_key_eq.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    Myset::key_equal cmpfn = c1.key_eq();
    std::cout << "cmpfn('a', 'a') == "
    << std::boolalpha << cmpfn('a', 'a') << std::endl;
    std::cout << "cmpfn('a', 'b') == "
    << std::boolalpha << cmpfn('a', 'b') << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
cmpfn('a', 'a') == true
cmpfn('a', 'b') == false

key_equal

The type of the comparison function.

typedef Pred key_equal;

Remarks

The type is a synonym for the template parameter Pred.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_key_equal.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    Myset::key_equal cmpfn = c1.key_eq();
    std::cout << "cmpfn('a', 'a') == "
    << std::boolalpha << cmpfn('a', 'a') << std::endl;
    std::cout << "cmpfn('a', 'b') == "
    << std::boolalpha << cmpfn('a', 'b') << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
cmpfn('a', 'a') == true
cmpfn('a', 'b') == false

key_type

The type of an ordering key.

typedef Key key_type;

Remarks

The type is a synonym for the template parameter Key.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_key_type.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // add a value and reinspect
    Myset::key_type key = 'd';
    Myset::value_type val = key;
    c1.insert(val);

    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
[d] [c] [b] [a]

load_factor

Counts the average elements per bucket.

float load_factor() const;

Remarks

The member function returns(float)unordered_set::size() / (float)unordered_set::bucket_count(), the average number of elements per bucket.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_load_factor.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // inspect current parameters
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_bucket_count() == "
    << c1.max_bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == "
    << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // change max_load_factor and redisplay
    c1.max_load_factor(0.10f);
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_bucket_count() == "
    << c1.max_bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == "
    << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // rehash and redisplay
    c1.rehash(100);
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_bucket_count() == "
    << c1.max_bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == "
    << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
bucket_count() == 8
load_factor() == 0.375
max_bucket_count() == 8
max_load_factor() == 4

bucket_count() == 8
load_factor() == 0.375
max_bucket_count() == 8
max_load_factor() == 0.1

bucket_count() == 128
load_factor() == 0.0234375
max_bucket_count() == 128
max_load_factor() == 0.1

local_iterator

The type of a bucket iterator.

typedef T4 local_iterator;

Remarks

The type describes an object that can serve as a forward iterator for a bucket. It is described here as a synonym for the implementation-defined type T4.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_local_iterator.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // inspect bucket containing 'a'
    Myset::local_iterator lit = c1.begin(c1.bucket('a'));
    std::cout << "[" << *lit << "] ";

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
[a]

max_bucket_count

Gets the maximum number of buckets.

size_type max_bucket_count() const;

Remarks

The member function returns the maximum number of buckets currently permitted.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_max_bucket_count.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // inspect current parameters
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_bucket_count() == "
    << c1.max_bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == "
    << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // change max_load_factor and redisplay
    c1.max_load_factor(0.10f);
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_bucket_count() == "
    << c1.max_bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == "
    << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // rehash and redisplay
    c1.rehash(100);
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_bucket_count() == "
    << c1.max_bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == "
    << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
bucket_count() == 8
load_factor() == 0.375
max_bucket_count() == 8
max_load_factor() == 4

bucket_count() == 8
load_factor() == 0.375
max_bucket_count() == 8
max_load_factor() == 0.1

bucket_count() == 128
load_factor() == 0.0234375
max_bucket_count() == 128
max_load_factor() == 0.1

max_load_factor

Gets or sets the maximum elements per bucket.

float max_load_factor() const;

void max_load_factor(float factor);

Parameters

factor
The new maximum load factor.

Remarks

The first member function returns the stored maximum load factor. The second member function replaces the stored maximum load factor with factor.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_max_load_factor.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // inspect current parameters
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_bucket_count() == "
    << c1.max_bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == "
    << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // change max_load_factor and redisplay
    c1.max_load_factor(0.10f);
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_bucket_count() == "
    << c1.max_bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == "
    << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // rehash and redisplay
    c1.rehash(100);
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_bucket_count() == "
    << c1.max_bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == "
    << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
bucket_count() == 8
load_factor() == 0.375
max_bucket_count() == 8
max_load_factor() == 4

bucket_count() == 8
load_factor() == 0.375
max_bucket_count() == 8
max_load_factor() == 0.1

bucket_count() == 128
load_factor() == 0.0234375
max_bucket_count() == 128
max_load_factor() == 0.1

max_size

Gets the maximum size of the controlled sequence.

size_type max_size() const;

Remarks

The member function returns the length of the longest sequence that the object can control.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_max_size.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    std::cout << "max_size() == " << c1.max_size() << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
max_size() == 4294967295

operator=

Copies a hash table.

unordered_set& operator=(const unordered_set& right);

unordered_set& operator=(unordered_set&& right);

Parameters

right
Theunordered_set being copied into the unordered_set.

Remarks

After erasing any existing elements in an unordered_set, operator= either copies or moves the contents of right into the unordered_set.

Example

// unordered_set_operator_as.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

int main( )
{
    using namespace std;
    unordered_set<int> v1, v2, v3;
    unordered_set<int>::iterator iter;

    v1.insert(10);

    cout << "v1 = " ;
    for (iter = v1.begin(); iter != v1.end(); iter++)
        cout << *iter << " ";
    cout << endl;

    v2 = v1;
    cout << "v2 = ";
    for (iter = v2.begin(); iter != v2.end(); iter++)
        cout << *iter << " ";
    cout << endl;

    // move v1 into v2
    v2.clear();
    v2 = move(v1);
    cout << "v2 = ";
    for (iter = v2.begin(); iter != v2.end(); iter++)
        cout << *iter << " ";
    cout << endl;
}

pointer

The type of a pointer to an element.

typedef Alloc::pointer pointer;

Remarks

The type describes an object that can serve as a pointer to an element of the controlled sequence.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_pointer.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
    {
        Myset::key_type key = *it;
        Myset::pointer p = &key;
        std::cout << "[" << *p << "] ";
    }
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]

reference

The type of a reference to an element.

typedef Alloc::reference reference;

Remarks

The type describes an object that can serve as a reference to an element of the controlled sequence.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_reference.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
    {
        Myset::key_type key = *it;
        Myset::reference ref = key;
        std::cout << "[" << ref << "] ";
    }
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]

rehash

Rebuilds the hash table.

void rehash(size_type nbuckets);

Parameters

nbuckets
The requested number of buckets.

Remarks

The member function alters the number of buckets to be at least nbuckets and rebuilds the hash table as needed.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_rehash.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // inspect current parameters
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == " << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // change max_load_factor and redisplay
    c1.max_load_factor(0.10f);
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == " << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // rehash and redisplay
    c1.rehash(100);
    std::cout << "bucket_count() == " << c1.bucket_count() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "load_factor() == " << c1.load_factor() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "max_load_factor() == " << c1.max_load_factor() << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
bucket_count() == 8
load_factor() == 0.375
max_load_factor() == 4

bucket_count() == 8
load_factor() == 0.375
max_load_factor() == 0.1

bucket_count() == 128
load_factor() == 0.0234375
max_load_factor() == 0.1

size

Counts the number of elements.

size_type size() const;

Remarks

The member function returns the length of the controlled sequence.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_size.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // clear the container and reinspect
    c1.clear();
    std::cout << "size == " << c1.size() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "empty() == " << std::boolalpha << c1.empty() << std::endl;
    std::cout << std::endl;

    c1.insert('d');
    c1.insert('e');

    // display contents "[e] [d] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    std::cout << "size == " << c1.size() << std::endl;
    std::cout << "empty() == " << std::boolalpha << c1.empty() << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
size == 0
empty() == true

[e] [d]
size == 2
empty() == false

size_type

The type of an unsigned distance between two elements.

typedef T2 size_type;

Remarks

The unsigned integer type describes an object that can represent the length of any controlled sequence. It is described here as a synonym for the implementation-defined type T2.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_size_type.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;
    Myset::size_type sz = c1.size();

    std::cout << "size == " << sz << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
size == 0

swap

Swaps the contents of two containers.

void swap(unordered_set& right);

Parameters

right
The container to swap with.

Remarks

The member function swaps the controlled sequences between *this and right. If unordered_set::get_allocator() == right.get_allocator(), it does so in constant time, it throws an exception only as a result of copying the stored traits object of type Tr, and it invalidates no references, pointers, or iterators that designate elements in the two controlled sequences. Otherwise, it performs a number of element assignments and constructor calls proportional to the number of elements in the two controlled sequences.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_swap.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    Myset c2;

    c2.insert('d');
    c2.insert('e');
    c2.insert('f');

    c1.swap(c2);

    // display contents "[f] [e] [d] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    swap(c1, c2);

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
[f] [e] [d]
[c] [b] [a]

unordered_set

Constructs a container object.

unordered_set(const unordered_set& Right);

explicit unordered_set(
    size_typebucket_count = N0,
    const Hash& Hash = Hash(),
    const Comp& Comp = Comp(),
    const Allocator& Al = Alloc());

unordered_set(unordered_set&& Right);

unordered_set(initializer_list<Type> IList);

unordered_set(initializer_list<Type> IList, size_typebucket_count);

unordered_set(
    initializer_list<Type> IList,
    size_typebucket_count,
    const Hash& Hash);

unordered_set(
    initializer_list<Type> IList,
    size_typebucket_count,
    const Hash& Hash,
    const Comp& Comp);

unordered_set(
    initializer_list<Type> IList,
    size_typebucket_count,
    const Hash& Hash,
    const Comp& Comp,
    const Allocator& Al);

template <class InputIterator>
unordered_set(
    InputIteratorfirst,
    InputIteratorlast,
    size_typebucket_count = N0,
    const Hash& Hash = Hash(),
    const Comp& Comp = Comp(),
    const Allocator& Al = Alloc());

Parameters

InputIterator
The iterator type.

Al
The allocator object to store.

Comp
The comparison function object to store.

Hash
The hash function object to store.

bucket_count
The minimum number of buckets.

Right
The container to copy.

IList
The initializer_list containing the elements to copy.

Remarks

The first constructor specifies a copy of the sequence controlled by Right. The second constructor specifies an empty controlled sequence. The third constructor specifies a copy of the sequence by moving Right The fourth through eighth constructors use an initializer_list to specify the elements to copy. The ninth constructor inserts the sequence of element values[first, last).

All constructors also initialize several stored values. For the copy constructor, the values are obtained from Right. Otherwise:

The minimum number of buckets is the argument bucket_count, if present; otherwise it is a default value described here as the implementation-defined value N0.

The hash function object is the argument Hash, if present; otherwise it is Hash().

The comparison function object is the argument Comp, if present; otherwise it is Comp().

The allocator object is the argument Al, if present; otherwise, it is Alloc().

value_type

The type of an element.

typedef Key value_type;

Remarks

The type describes an element of the controlled sequence.

Example

// std__unordered_set__unordered_set_value_type.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <unordered_set>
#include <iostream>

typedef std::unordered_set<char> Myset;
int main()
{
    Myset c1;

    c1.insert('a');
    c1.insert('b');
    c1.insert('c');

    // display contents "[c] [b] [a] "
    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    // add a value and reinspect
    Myset::key_type key = 'd';
    Myset::value_type val = key;
    c1.insert(val);

    for (Myset::const_iterator it = c1.begin(); it != c1.end(); ++it)
        std::cout << "[" << *it << "] ";
    std::cout << std::endl;

    return (0);
}
[c] [b] [a]
[d] [c] [b] [a]