<utility> functions

as_const

template <class T> constexpr add_const_t<T>& as_const(T& t) noexcept;
template <class T> void as_const(const T&&) = delete;

Return Value

Returns T.

declval

template <class T> add_rvalue_reference_t<T> declval() noexcept;  // as unevaluated operand

exchange

(C++14) Assigns a new value to an object and returns its old value.

template <class T, class Other = T>
    T exchange(T& val, Other&& new_val)

Parameters

val
The object that will receive the value of new_val.

new_val
The object whose value is copied or moved into val.

Remarks

For complex types, exchange avoids copying the old value when a move constructor is available, avoids copying the new value if it’s a temporary object or is moved, and accepts any type as the new value, using any available converting assignment operator. The exchange function is different from std::swap in that the left argument isn't moved or copied to the right argument.

Example

The following example shows how to use exchange. In the real world, exchange is most useful with large objects that are expensive to copy:

#include <utility>
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

struct C
{
   int i;
   //...
};

int main()
{
   // Use brace initialization
   C c1{ 1 };
   C c2{ 2 };
   C result = exchange(c1, c2);
   cout << "The old value of c1 is: " << result.i << endl;
   cout << "The new value of c1 after exchange is: " << c1.i << endl;

   return 0;
}
The old value of c1 is: 1
The new value of c1 after exchange is: 2

forward

Conditionally casts its argument to an rvalue reference if the argument is an rvalue or rvalue reference. This restores the rvalue-ness of an argument to the forwarding function in support of perfect forwarding.

template <class Type>    // accepts lvalues
    constexpr Type&& forward(typename remove_reference<Type>::type& Arg) noexcept

template <class Type>    // accepts everything else
    constexpr Type&& forward(typename remove_reference<Type>::type&& Arg) noexcept

Parameters

Type
The type of the value passed in Arg, which might be different than the type of Arg. Typically determined by a template argument of the forwarding function.

Arg
The argument to cast.

Return Value

Returns an rvalue reference to Arg if the value passed in Arg was originally an rvalue or a reference to an rvalue; otherwise, returns Arg without modifying its type.

Remarks

You must specify an explicit template argument to call forward.

forward doesn't forward its argument. Instead, by conditionally casting its argument to an rvalue reference if it was originally an rvalue or rvalue reference, forward enables the compiler to perform overload resolution with knowledge of the forwarded argument's original type. The apparent type of an argument to a forwarding function might be different than its original type—for example, when an rvalue is used as an argument to a function and is bound to a parameter name; having a name makes it an lvalue, with whatever value actually exists as an rvalue— forward restores the rvalue-ness of the argument.

Restoring the rvalue-ness of an argument's original value to do overload resolution is known as perfect forwarding. Perfect forwarding enables a template function to accept an argument of either reference type and to restore its rvalue-ness when it's necessary for correct overload resolution. By using perfect forwarding, you can preserve move semantics for rvalues and avoid having to provide overloads for functions that vary only by the reference type of their arguments.

from_chars

from_chars_result from_chars(const char* first, const char* last, see below& value, int base = 10);

from_chars_result from_chars(const char* first, const char* last, float& value, chars_format fmt = chars_format::general);

from_chars_result from_chars(const char* first, const char* last, double& value, chars_format fmt = chars_format::general);

from_chars_result from_chars(const char* first, const char* last, long double& value, chars_format fmt = chars_format::general);

get

Gets an element from a pair object by index position, or by type.

// get reference to element at Index in pair Pr
template <size_t Index, class T1, class T2>
    constexpr tuple_element_t<Index, pair<T1, T2>>&
    get(pair<T1, T2>& Pr) noexcept;

// get reference to element T1 in pair Pr
template <class T1, class T2>
    constexpr T1& get(pair<T1, T2>& Pr) noexcept;

// get reference to element T2 in pair Pr
template <class T2, class T1>
    constexpr T2& get(pair<T1, T2>& Pr) noexcept;

// get const reference to element at Index in pair Pr
template <size_t Index, class T1, class T2>
    constexpr const tuple_element_t<Index, pair<T1, T2>>&
    get(const pair<T1, T2>& Pr) noexcept;

// get const reference to element T1 in pair Pr
template <class T1, class T2>
    constexpr const T1& get(const pair<T1, T2>& Pr) noexcept;

// get const reference to element T2 in pair Pr
template <class T2, class T1>
    constexpr const T2& get(const pair<T1, T2>& Pr) noexcept;

// get rvalue reference to element at Index in pair Pr
template <size_t Index, class T1, class T2>
    constexpr tuple_element_t<Index, pair<T1, T2>>&&
    get(pair<T1, T2>&& Pr) noexcept;

// get rvalue reference to element T1 in pair Pr
template <class T1, class T2>
    constexpr T1&& get(pair<T1, T2>&& Pr) noexcept;

// get rvalue reference to element T2 in pair Pr
template <class T2, class T1>
    constexpr T2&& get(pair<T1, T2>&& Pr) noexcept;

Parameters

Index
The 0-based index of the chosen element.

T1
The type of the first pair element.

T2
The type of the second pair element.

pr
The pair to select from.

Remarks

The template functions each return a reference to an element of its pair argument.

For the indexed overloads, if the value of Index is 0 the functions return pr.first and if the value of Index is 1 the functions return pr.second. The type RI is the type of the returned element.

For the overloads that don't have an Index parameter, the element to return is deduced by the type argument. Calling get<T>(Tuple) will produce a compiler error if pr contains more or less than one element of type T.

Example

#include <utility>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{

    typedef pair<int, double> MyPair;

    MyPair c0(9, 3.14);

    // get elements by index
    cout << " " << get<0>(c0);
    cout << " " << get<1>(c0) << endl;

    // get elements by type (C++14)
    MyPair c1(1, 0.27);
    cout << " " << get<int>(c1);
    cout << " " << get<double>(c1) << endl;
}
9 3.14
1 0.27

index_sequence

template<size_t... I>
    using index_sequence = integer_sequence<size_t, I...>;

index_sequence_for

template<class... T>
    using index_sequence_for = make_index_sequence<sizeof...(T)>;

make_index_sequence

template<size_t N>
    using make_index_sequence = make_integer_sequence<size_t, N>;

make_integer_sequence

template<class T, T N>
    using make_integer_sequence = integer_sequence<T, see below >;

make_pair

A template function that you can use to construct objects of type pair, where the component types are automatically chosen based on the data types that are passed as parameters.

template <class T, class U>
    pair<T, U> make_pair(T& Val1, U& Val2);

template <class T, class U>
    pair<T, U> make_pair(T& Val1, U&& Val2);

template <class T, class U>
    pair<T, U> make_pair(T&& Val1, U& Val2);

template <class T, class U>
    pair<T, U> make_pair(T&& Val1, U&& Val2);

Parameters

Val1
Value that initializes the first element of pair.

Val2
Value that initializes the second element of pair.

Return Value

The pair object that's constructed: pair<T,U>(Val1, Val2).

Remarks

make_pair converts object of type reference_wrapper Class to reference types and converts decaying arrays and functions to pointers.

In the returned pair object, T is determined as follows:

  • If the input type T is reference_wrapper<X>, the returned type T is X&.

  • Otherwise, the returned type T is decay<T>::type. If decay Class isn't supported, the returned type T is the same as the input type T.

The returned type U is similarly determined from the input type U.

One advantage of make_pair is that the types of objects that are being stored are determined automatically by the compiler and don't have to be explicitly specified. Don't use explicit template arguments such as make_pair<int, int>(1, 2) when you use make_pair because it's verbose and adds complex rvalue reference problems that might cause compilation failure. For this example, the correct syntax would be make_pair(1, 2)

The make_pair helper function also makes it possible to pass two values to a function that requires a pair as an input parameter.

Example

For an example about how to use the helper function make_pair to declare and initialize a pair, see pair Structure.

move

Unconditionally casts its argument to an rvalue reference, and thereby signals that it can be moved if its type is move-enabled.

template <class Type>
    constexpr typename remove_reference<Type>::type&& move(Type&& Arg) noexcept;

Parameters

Type
A type deduced from the type of the argument passed in Arg, together with the reference collapsing rules.

Arg
The argument to cast. Although the type of Arg appears to be specified as an rvalue reference, move also accepts lvalue arguments because lvalue references can bind to rvalue references.

Return Value

Arg as an rvalue reference, whether or not its type is a reference type.

Remarks

The template argument Type isn't intended to be specified explicitly, but to be deduced from the type of the value passed in Arg. The type of Type is further adjusted according to the reference collapsing rules.

move doesn't move its argument. Instead, by unconditionally casting its argument—which might be an lvalue—to an rvalue reference, it enables the compiler to subsequently move, rather than copy, the value passed in Arg if its type is move-enabled. If its type isn't move-enabled, it's copied instead.

If the value passed in Arg is an lvalue—that is, it has a name or its address can be taken—it's invalidated when the move occurs. Don't refer to the value passed in Arg by its name or address after it's been moved.

move_if_noexcept

template <class T> constexpr conditional_t< !is_nothrow_move_constructible_v<T> && is_copy_constructible_v<T>, const T&, T&&> move_if_noexcept(T& x) noexcept;

swap

Exchanges the elements of two type or pair Structure objects.

template <class T>
    void swap(T& left, T& right) noexcept(see below );
template <class T, size_t N>
    void swap(T (&left)[N], T (&right)[N]) noexcept(is_nothrow_swappable_v<T>);
template <class T, class U>
    void swap(pair<T, U>& left, pair<T, U>& right);

Parameters

left
An object of type or type pair.

right
An object of type or type pair.

Remarks

One advantage of swap is that the types of objects that are being stored are determined automatically by the compiler and don't have to be explicitly specified. Don't use explicit template arguments such as swap<int, int>(1, 2) when you use swap because it's verbose and adds complex rvalue reference problems that might cause compilation failure.

to_chars

to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, see below value, int base = 10);
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, float value);
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, double value);
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, long double value);
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, float value, chars_format fmt);
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, double value, chars_format fmt);
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, long double value, chars_format fmt);
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, float value, chars_format fmt, int precision);
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, double value, chars_format fmt, int precision);
to_chars_result to_chars(char* first, char* last, long double value, chars_format fmt, int precision);

Remarks

Converts value into a character string by filling the range [first, last), where [first, last) is required to be a valid range.