NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute Class

Definition

Informs the resource manager of an app's default culture. This class cannot be inherited.

public ref class NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute sealed : Attribute
[System.AttributeUsage(System.AttributeTargets.Assembly, AllowMultiple=false)]
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
public sealed class NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute : Attribute
type NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute = class
    inherit Attribute
Public NotInheritable Class NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute
Inherits Attribute
Inheritance
NeutralResourcesLanguageAttributeNeutralResourcesLanguageAttributeNeutralResourcesLanguageAttributeNeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute
Attributes

Examples

The following example uses a simple "Hello World" app to illustrate the use of the NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute attribute to define a default or fallback culture. It requires the creation of separate resource files for the English (en), English (United States) (en-US), and French (France) (fr-FR) cultures. The following shows the contents of a text file named ExampleResources.txt for the English culture.

# Resources for the default (en) culture.  
Greeting=Hello  

To use the resource file in an app, you must use the to convert the file from its text (.txt) format to a binary (.resources) format as follows:

resgen ExampleResources.txt  

When the app is compiled, the binary resource file will be embedded in the main app assembly.

The following shows the contents of a text file named ExampleResources.en-US.txt that provides resources for the English (United States) culture.

# Resources for the en-US culture.  
Greeting=Hi  

The text file can be converted to a binary resources file by using the at the command line as follows:

resgen ExampleResources.en-US.txt ExampleResources.en-US.resources  

The binary resource file should then be compiled into an assembly by using and placed in the en-US subdirectory of the app directory by issuing the following command:

al /t:lib /embed:ExampleResources.en-US.resources /culture:en-US /out:en-us\Example.resources.dll  

The following shows the contents of a text file named ExampleResources.fr-FR.txt that provides resources for the French (France) culture.

# Resources for the fr-FR culture.  
Greeting=Bonjour  

The text file can be converted to a binary resource file by using ResGen.exe at the command line as follows:

resgen ExampleResources.fr-FR.txt ExampleResources.fr-FR.resources  

The binary resources file should then be compiled into an assembly by using Assembly Linker and placed in the fr-FR subdirectory of the app directory by issuing the following command:

al /t:lib /embed:ExampleResources.fr-FR.resources /culture:fr-FR /out:fr-FR\Example.resources.dll  

The following example provides the executable code that sets the current culture, prompts for the user's name, and displays a localized string.

using System;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Resources;
using System.Threading;

[assembly:NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute("en")]
public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      // Select the current culture randomly to test resource fallback.
      string[] cultures = { "de-DE", "en-us", "fr-FR" };
      Random rnd = new Random();
      int index = rnd.Next(0, cultures.Length);
      Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentUICulture = CultureInfo.CreateSpecificCulture(cultures[index]);      
      Console.WriteLine("The current culture is {0}", 
                        CultureInfo.CurrentUICulture.Name);       

      // Retrieve the resource.
      ResourceManager rm = new ResourceManager("ExampleResources" , 
                                               typeof(Example).Assembly);
      string greeting = rm.GetString("Greeting");
      
      Console.Write("Enter your name: ");
      string name = Console.ReadLine();
      Console.WriteLine("{0} {1}!", greeting, name);
   }
}
Imports System.Globalization
Imports System.Reflection
Imports System.Resources
Imports System.Threading 

<Assembly:NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute("en")>

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      ' Select the current culture randomly to test resource fallback.
      Dim cultures() As String = { "de-DE", "en-us", "fr-FR" }
      Dim rnd As New Random()
      Dim index As Integer = rnd.Next(0, cultures.Length)
      Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentUICulture = CultureInfo.CreateSpecificCulture(cultures(index))      
      Console.WriteLine("The current culture is {0}", 
                        CultureInfo.CurrentUICulture.Name)       

      ' Retrieve the resource.
      Dim rm As New ResourceManager("ExampleResources" , GetType(Example).Assembly)
      Dim greeting As String = rm.GetString("Greeting")
      
      Console.Write("Enter your name: ")
      Dim name As String = Console.ReadLine()
      Console.WriteLine("{0} {1}", greeting, name)
   End Sub
End Module

It can be compiled by using the following command in Visual Basic:

vbc Example.vb /resource:ExampleResources.resources  

or by using the following command in C#:

csc Example.cs /resource:ExampleResources.resources  

Remarks

Desktop Apps

In desktop apps, the NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute attribute informs the resource manager of an app's default culture and the location of its resources. By default, resources are embedded in the main app assembly, and you can use the attribute as follows. This statement specifies that the English (United States) is the app's default culture.

using System.Resources;

[assembly:NeutralResourcesLanguage("en-US")]
Imports System.Resources

<Assembly:NeutralResourcesLanguage("en-US")>

You can also use the NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute attribute to indicate where ResourceManager can find the resources of the default culture by providing an UltimateResourceFallbackLocation enumeration value in the attribute statement. This is most commonly done to indicate that the resources reside in a satellite assembly. For example, the following statement specifies that English (United States) is the app's default or neutral culture and that its resources reside in a satellite assembly. The ResourceManager object will look for them in a subdirectory named en-US.

using System.Resources;

[assembly:NeutralResourcesLanguage("en-US", UltimateResourceFallbackLocation.Satellite)]
Imports System.Resources

<Assembly:NeutralResourcesLanguage("en-US", UltimateResourceFallbackLocation.Satellite)>

Tip

We recommend that you always use the NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute attribute to define the default culture of your app.

The attribute performs two roles:

  • If the default culture's resources are embedded in the app's main assembly and ResourceManager has to retrieve resources that belong to the same culture as the default culture, the ResourceManager automatically uses the resources located in the main assembly instead of searching for a satellite assembly. This bypasses the usual assembly probe, improves lookup performance for the first resource you load, and can reduce your working set. See Packaging and Deploying Resources for the process ResourceManager uses to probe for resource files.

  • If the default culture's resources are located in a satellite assembly rather than in the main app assembly, the NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute attribute specifies the culture and the directory from which the runtime can load the resources.

Windows 8.x Store Apps

In Windows 8.x Store apps whose resources are loaded and retrieved by using the ResourceManager class, the NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute attribute defines the neutral culture whose resources are used in the event of a failed probe. It does not specify the location of the resources. By default, ResourceManager uses the app's package resource index (PRI) file to locate the resources of the default culture. The neutral culture that is defined by the NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute attribute is added to the end of the UI language list to simulate this effect.

If you load and retrieve resources by using the Windows RuntimeWindows.ApplicationModel.Resources.ResourceLoader class or the types in the Windows.ApplicationModel.Resources.Core namespace, the NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute attribute is ignored.

Constructors

NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute(String) NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute(String) NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute(String) NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute(String)

Initializes a new instance of the NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute class.

NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute(String, UltimateResourceFallbackLocation) NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute(String, UltimateResourceFallbackLocation) NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute(String, UltimateResourceFallbackLocation) NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute(String, UltimateResourceFallbackLocation)

Initializes a new instance of the NeutralResourcesLanguageAttribute class with the specified ultimate resource fallback location.

Properties

CultureName CultureName CultureName CultureName

Gets the culture name.

Location Location Location Location

Gets the location for the ResourceManager class to use to retrieve neutral resources by using the resource fallback process.

TypeId TypeId TypeId TypeId

When implemented in a derived class, gets a unique identifier for this Attribute.

(Inherited from Attribute)

Methods

Equals(Object) Equals(Object) Equals(Object) Equals(Object)

Returns a value that indicates whether this instance is equal to a specified object.

(Inherited from Attribute)
GetHashCode() GetHashCode() GetHashCode() GetHashCode()

Returns the hash code for this instance.

(Inherited from Attribute)
GetType() GetType() GetType() GetType()

Gets the Type of the current instance.

(Inherited from Object)
IsDefaultAttribute() IsDefaultAttribute() IsDefaultAttribute() IsDefaultAttribute()

When overridden in a derived class, indicates whether the value of this instance is the default value for the derived class.

(Inherited from Attribute)
Match(Object) Match(Object) Match(Object) Match(Object)

When overridden in a derived class, returns a value that indicates whether this instance equals a specified object.

(Inherited from Attribute)
MemberwiseClone() MemberwiseClone() MemberwiseClone() MemberwiseClone()

Creates a shallow copy of the current Object.

(Inherited from Object)
ToString() ToString() ToString() ToString()

Returns a string that represents the current object.

(Inherited from Object)

Explicit Interface Implementations

_Attribute.GetIDsOfNames(Guid, IntPtr, UInt32, UInt32, IntPtr) _Attribute.GetIDsOfNames(Guid, IntPtr, UInt32, UInt32, IntPtr) _Attribute.GetIDsOfNames(Guid, IntPtr, UInt32, UInt32, IntPtr) _Attribute.GetIDsOfNames(Guid, IntPtr, UInt32, UInt32, IntPtr)

Maps a set of names to a corresponding set of dispatch identifiers.

(Inherited from Attribute)
_Attribute.GetTypeInfo(UInt32, UInt32, IntPtr) _Attribute.GetTypeInfo(UInt32, UInt32, IntPtr) _Attribute.GetTypeInfo(UInt32, UInt32, IntPtr) _Attribute.GetTypeInfo(UInt32, UInt32, IntPtr)

Retrieves the type information for an object, which can be used to get the type information for an interface.

(Inherited from Attribute)
_Attribute.GetTypeInfoCount(UInt32) _Attribute.GetTypeInfoCount(UInt32) _Attribute.GetTypeInfoCount(UInt32) _Attribute.GetTypeInfoCount(UInt32)

Retrieves the number of type information interfaces that an object provides (either 0 or 1).

(Inherited from Attribute)
_Attribute.Invoke(UInt32, Guid, UInt32, Int16, IntPtr, IntPtr, IntPtr, IntPtr) _Attribute.Invoke(UInt32, Guid, UInt32, Int16, IntPtr, IntPtr, IntPtr, IntPtr) _Attribute.Invoke(UInt32, Guid, UInt32, Int16, IntPtr, IntPtr, IntPtr, IntPtr) _Attribute.Invoke(UInt32, Guid, UInt32, Int16, IntPtr, IntPtr, IntPtr, IntPtr)

Provides access to properties and methods exposed by an object.

(Inherited from Attribute)

Applies to

See also