#
CancellationToken
CancellationToken
CancellationToken
Struct

## Definition

Propagates notification that operations should be canceled.

`public value class CancellationToken`

```
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(false)]
public struct CancellationToken
```

`Public Structure CancellationToken`

- Inheritance

- Attributes

## Examples

The following example uses a random number generator to emulate a data collection application that reads 10 integral values from eleven different instruments. A value of zero indicates that the measurement has failed for one instrument, in which case the operation should be cancelled and no overall mean should be computed.

To handle the possible cancellation of the operation, the example instantiates a CancellationTokenSource object that generates a cancellation token which is passed to a TaskFactory object. The TaskFactory object in turn passes the cancellation token to each of the tasks responsible for collecting readings for a particular instrument. The TaskFactory.ContinueWhenAll<TAntecedentResult,TResult>(Task<TAntecedentResult>[], Func<Task<TAntecedentResult>[],TResult>, CancellationToken) method is called to ensure that the mean is computed only after all readings have been gathered successfully. If a task has not because it has been cancelled, the call to the TaskFactory.ContinueWhenAll method throws an exception.

```
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
public class Example
{
public static void Main()
{
// Define the cancellation token.
CancellationTokenSource source = new CancellationTokenSource();
CancellationToken token = source.Token;
Random rnd = new Random();
Object lockObj = new Object();
List<Task<int[]>> tasks = new List<Task<int[]>>();
TaskFactory factory = new TaskFactory(token);
for (int taskCtr = 0; taskCtr <= 10; taskCtr++) {
int iteration = taskCtr + 1;
tasks.Add(factory.StartNew( () => {
int value;
int[] values = new int[10];
for (int ctr = 1; ctr <= 10; ctr++) {
lock (lockObj) {
value = rnd.Next(0,101);
}
if (value == 0) {
source.Cancel();
Console.WriteLine("Cancelling at task {0}", iteration);
break;
}
values[ctr-1] = value;
}
return values;
}, token));
}
try {
Task<double> fTask = factory.ContinueWhenAll(tasks.ToArray(),
(results) => {
Console.WriteLine("Calculating overall mean...");
long sum = 0;
int n = 0;
foreach (var t in results) {
foreach (var r in t.Result) {
sum += r;
n++;
}
}
return sum/(double) n;
} , token);
Console.WriteLine("The mean is {0}.", fTask.Result);
}
catch (AggregateException ae) {
foreach (Exception e in ae.InnerExceptions) {
if (e is TaskCanceledException)
Console.WriteLine("Unable to compute mean: {0}",
((TaskCanceledException) e).Message);
else
Console.WriteLine("Exception: " + e.GetType().Name);
}
}
finally {
source.Dispose();
}
}
}
// Repeated execution of the example produces output like the following:
// Cancelling at task 5
// Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
//
// Cancelling at task 10
// Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
//
// Calculating overall mean...
// The mean is 5.29545454545455.
//
// Cancelling at task 4
// Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
//
// Cancelling at task 5
// Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
//
// Cancelling at task 6
// Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
//
// Calculating overall mean...
// The mean is 4.97363636363636.
//
// Cancelling at task 4
// Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
//
// Cancelling at task 5
// Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
//
// Cancelling at task 4
// Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
//
// Calculating overall mean...
// The mean is 4.86545454545455.
```

```
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Threading.Tasks
Module Example
Public Sub Main()
' Define the cancellation token.
Dim source As New CancellationTokenSource()
Dim token As CancellationToken = source.Token
Dim lockObj As New Object()
Dim rnd As New Random
Dim tasks As New List(Of Task(Of Integer()))
Dim factory As New TaskFactory(token)
For taskCtr As Integer = 0 To 10
Dim iteration As Integer = taskCtr + 1
tasks.Add(factory.StartNew(Function()
Dim value, values(9) As Integer
For ctr As Integer = 1 To 10
SyncLock lockObj
value = rnd.Next(0,101)
End SyncLock
If value = 0 Then
source.Cancel
Console.WriteLine("Cancelling at task {0}", iteration)
Exit For
End If
values(ctr-1) = value
Next
Return values
End Function, token))
Next
Try
Dim fTask As Task(Of Double) = factory.ContinueWhenAll(tasks.ToArray(),
Function(results)
Console.WriteLine("Calculating overall mean...")
Dim sum As Long
Dim n As Integer
For Each t In results
For Each r In t.Result
sum += r
n+= 1
Next
Next
Return sum/n
End Function, token)
Console.WriteLine("The mean is {0}.", fTask.Result)
Catch ae As AggregateException
For Each e In ae.InnerExceptions
If TypeOf e Is TaskCanceledException
Console.WriteLine("Unable to compute mean: {0}",
CType(e, TaskCanceledException).Message)
Else
Console.WriteLine("Exception: " + e.GetType().Name)
End If
Next
Finally
source.Dispose()
End Try
End Sub
End Module
' Repeated execution of the example produces output like the following:
' Cancelling at task 5
' Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
'
' Cancelling at task 10
' Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
'
' Calculating overall mean...
' The mean is 5.29545454545455.
'
' Cancelling at task 4
' Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
'
' Cancelling at task 5
' Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
'
' Cancelling at task 6
' Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
'
' Calculating overall mean...
' The mean is 4.97363636363636.
'
' Cancelling at task 4
' Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
'
' Cancelling at task 5
' Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
'
' Cancelling at task 4
' Unable to compute mean: A task was canceled.
'
' Calculating overall mean...
' The mean is 4.86545454545455.
```

## Remarks

A CancellationToken enables cooperative cancellation between threads, thread pool work items, or Task objects. You create a cancellation token by instantiating a CancellationTokenSource object, which manages cancellation tokens retrieved from its CancellationTokenSource.Token property. You then pass the cancellation token to any number of threads, tasks, or operations that should receive notice of cancellation. The token cannot be used to initiate cancellation. When the owning object calls CancellationTokenSource.Cancel, the IsCancellationRequested property on every copy of the cancellation token is set to `true`

. The objects that receive the notification can respond in whatever manner is appropriate.

For more information and code examples see Cancellation in Managed Threads.

## Constructors

CancellationToken(Boolean) CancellationToken(Boolean) CancellationToken(Boolean) |
Initializes the CancellationToken. |

## Properties

CanBeCanceled CanBeCanceled CanBeCanceled |
Gets whether this token is capable of being in the canceled state. |

IsCancellationRequested IsCancellationRequested IsCancellationRequested |
Gets whether cancellation has been requested for this token. |

None None None |
Returns an empty CancellationToken value. |

WaitHandle WaitHandle WaitHandle |
Gets a WaitHandle that is signaled when the token is canceled. |

## Methods

## Operators

Equality(CancellationToken, CancellationToken) Equality(CancellationToken, CancellationToken) Equality(CancellationToken, CancellationToken) |
Determines whether two CancellationToken instances are equal. |

Inequality(CancellationToken, CancellationToken) Inequality(CancellationToken, CancellationToken) Inequality(CancellationToken, CancellationToken) |
Determines whether two CancellationToken instances are not equal. |

## Applies to

## Thread Safety

All public and protected members of CancellationToken are thread-safe and may be used concurrently from multiple threads.