Interlocked.Decrement Method

Definition

Decrements a specified variable and stores the result, as an atomic operation.

Overloads

Decrement(Int32)

Decrements a specified variable and stores the result, as an atomic operation.

Decrement(Int64)

Decrements the specified variable and stores the result, as an atomic operation.

Decrement(Int32)

Decrements a specified variable and stores the result, as an atomic operation.

public static int Decrement (ref int location);
Parameters
location
Int32

The variable whose value is to be decremented.

Returns

The decremented value.

Exceptions

The address of location is a null pointer.

Examples

The following example determines how many random numbers that range from 0 to 1,000 are required to generate 1,000 random numbers with a midpoint value. To keep track of the number of midpoint values, a variable, midpointCount, is set equal to 1,000 and decremented each time the random number generator returns a midpoint value. Because three threads generate the random numbers, the Decrement(Int32) method is called to ensure that multiple threads don't update midpointCount concurrently. Note that a lock is also used to protect the random number generator, and that a CountdownEvent object is used to ensure that the Main method doesn't finish execution before the three threads.

using System;
using System.Threading;

public class Example
{
   const int LOWERBOUND = 0;
   const int UPPERBOUND = 1001;
   
   static Object lockObj = new Object();
   static Random rnd = new Random();
   static CountdownEvent cte;
   
   static int totalCount = 0;
   static int totalMidpoint = 0;
   static int midpointCount = 10000;

   public static void Main()
   {
      cte = new CountdownEvent(1);
      // Start three threads. 
      for (int ctr = 0; ctr <= 2; ctr++) {
         cte.AddCount();
         Thread th = new Thread(GenerateNumbers);
         th.Name = "Thread" + ctr.ToString();
         th.Start();
      }
      cte.Signal();
      cte.Wait();
      Console.WriteLine();
      Console.WriteLine("Total midpoint values:  {0,10:N0} ({1:P3})",
                        totalMidpoint, totalMidpoint/((double)totalCount));
      Console.WriteLine("Total number of values: {0,10:N0}", 
                        totalCount);                  
   }

   private static void GenerateNumbers()
   {
      int midpoint = (UPPERBOUND - LOWERBOUND) / 2;
      int value = 0;
      int total = 0;
      int midpt = 0;
      
      do {
         lock (lockObj) {
            value = rnd.Next(LOWERBOUND, UPPERBOUND);
         }
         if (value == midpoint) { 
            Interlocked.Decrement(ref midpointCount);
            midpt++;
         }
         total++;    
      } while (midpointCount > 0);
      
      Interlocked.Add(ref totalCount, total);
      Interlocked.Add(ref totalMidpoint, midpt);
      
      string s = String.Format("Thread {0}:\n", Thread.CurrentThread.Name) +
                 String.Format("   Random Numbers: {0:N0}\n", total) + 
                 String.Format("   Midpoint values: {0:N0} ({1:P3})", midpt, 
                               ((double) midpt)/total);
      Console.WriteLine(s);
      cte.Signal();
   }
}
// The example displays output like the following:
//       Thread Thread2:
//          Random Numbers: 3,204,021
//          Midpoint values: 3,156 (0.099 %)
//       Thread Thread0:
//          Random Numbers: 4,073,592
//          Midpoint values: 4,015 (0.099 %)
//       Thread Thread1:
//          Random Numbers: 2,828,192
//          Midpoint values: 2,829 (0.100 %)
//       
//       Total midpoint values:      10,000 (0.099 %)
//       Total number of values: 10,105,805
Imports System.Threading

Module Example
   Const LOWERBOUND As Integer = 0
   Const UPPERBOUND As Integer = 1001
   
   Dim lockObj As New Object()
   Dim rnd As New Random()
   Dim cte As CountdownEvent
   
   Dim totalCount As Integer = 0
   Dim totalMidpoint As Integer = 0
   Dim midpointCount As Integer = 10000

   Public Sub Main()
      cte = New CountdownEvent(1)
      ' Start three threads. 
      For ctr As Integer = 0 To 2
         cte.AddCount()
         Dim th As New Thread(AddressOf GenerateNumbers)
         th.Name = "Thread" + ctr.ToString()
         th.Start()
      Next
      cte.Signal()
      cte.Wait()
      Console.WriteLine()
      Console.WriteLine("Total midpoint values:  {0,10:N0} ({1:P3})",
                        totalMidpoint, totalMidpoint/totalCount)
      Console.WriteLine("Total number of values: {0,10:N0}", 
                        totalCount)                  
   End Sub
   
   Private Sub GenerateNumbers()
      Dim midpoint As Integer = (upperBound - lowerBound) \ 2
      Dim value As Integer = 0
      Dim total As Integer = 0
      Dim midpt As Integer = 0
      Do
         SyncLock lockObj
            value = rnd.Next(lowerBound, upperBound)
         End SyncLock
         If value = midpoint Then 
            Interlocked.Decrement(midpointCount)
            midpt += 1
         End If
         total += 1    
      Loop While midpointCount > 0
      
      Interlocked.Add(totalCount, total)
      Interlocked.Add(totalMidpoint, midpt)
      
      Dim s As String = String.Format("Thread {0}:", Thread.CurrentThread.Name) + vbCrLf +
                        String.Format("   Random Numbers: {0:N0}", total) + vbCrLf +
                        String.Format("   Midpoint values: {0:N0} ({1:P3})", midpt, midpt/total)
      Console.WriteLine(s)
      cte.Signal()
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output like the following:
'       Thread Thread2:
'          Random Numbers: 3,204,021
'          Midpoint values: 3,156 (0.099 %)
'       Thread Thread0:
'          Random Numbers: 4,073,592
'          Midpoint values: 4,015 (0.099 %)
'       Thread Thread1:
'          Random Numbers: 2,828,192
'          Midpoint values: 2,829 (0.100 %)
'       
'       Total midpoint values:      10,000 (0.099 %)
'       Total number of values: 10,105,805

The following example is similar to the previous one, except that it uses the instead of a thread procedure to generate 50,000 random midpoint integers. In this example, a lambda expression replaces the GenerateNumbers thread procedure, and the call to the Task.WaitAll method eliminates the need for the CountdownEvent object.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class Example
{
   const int LOWERBOUND = 0;
   const int UPPERBOUND = 1001;
   
   static Object lockObj = new Object();
   static Random rnd = new Random();
   
   static int totalCount = 0;
   static int totalMidpoint = 0;
   static int midpointCount = 50000;

   public static void Main()
   {
      List<Task> tasks = new List<Task>();

      // Start three tasks. 
      for (int ctr = 0; ctr <= 2; ctr++) 
         tasks.Add(Task.Run( () => { int midpoint = (UPPERBOUND - LOWERBOUND) / 2;
                                     int value = 0;
                                     int total = 0;
                                     int midpt = 0;
      
                                     do {
                                        lock (lockObj) {
                                           value = rnd.Next(LOWERBOUND, UPPERBOUND);
                                        }
                                        if (value == midpoint) { 
                                           Interlocked.Decrement(ref midpointCount);
                                           midpt++;
                                        }
                                        total++;    
                                     } while (midpointCount > 0 );
                                          
                                     Interlocked.Add(ref totalCount, total);
                                     Interlocked.Add(ref totalMidpoint, midpt);
                                          
                                     string s = String.Format("Task {0}:\n", Task.CurrentId) +
                                                String.Format("   Random Numbers: {0:N0}\n", total) + 
                                                String.Format("   Midpoint values: {0:N0} ({1:P3})", midpt, 
                                                              ((double) midpt)/total);
                                     Console.WriteLine(s); 
                                   } ));

      Task.WaitAll(tasks.ToArray());

      Console.WriteLine();
      Console.WriteLine("Total midpoint values:  {0,10:N0} ({1:P3})",
                        totalMidpoint, totalMidpoint/((double)totalCount));
      Console.WriteLine("Total number of values: {0,10:N0}", 
                        totalCount);                  
   }
}
// The example displays output like the following:
//       Task 1:
//          Random Numbers: 24,530,624
//          Midpoint values: 24,675 (0.101 %)
//       Task 2:
//          Random Numbers: 7,079,718
//          Midpoint values: 7,093 (0.100 %)
//       Task 3:
//          Random Numbers: 18,284,617
//          Midpoint values: 18,232 (0.100 %)
//       
//       Total midpoint values:      50,000 (0.100 %)
//       Total number of values: 49,894,959
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Threading.Tasks

Module Example
   Const LOWERBOUND As Integer = 0
   Const UPPERBOUND As Integer = 1001
   
   Dim lockObj As New Object()
   Dim rnd As New Random()
   
   Dim totalCount As Integer = 0
   Dim totalMidpoint As Integer = 0
   Dim midpointCount As Integer = 50000

   Public Sub Main()
      Dim tasks As New List(Of Task)()

      ' Start three tasks. 
      For ctr As Integer = 0 To 2
         tasks.Add( Task.Run(Sub() 
                                Dim midpoint As Integer = (upperBound - lowerBound) \ 2
                                Dim value As Integer = 0
                                Dim total As Integer = 0
                                Dim midpt As Integer = 0
                                Do
                                   SyncLock lockObj
                                      value = rnd.Next(lowerBound, upperBound)
                                   End SyncLock
                                   If value = midpoint Then 
                                      Interlocked.Decrement(midpointCount)
                                      midpt += 1
                                   End If
                                   total += 1    
                                Loop While midpointCount > 0
                              
                                Interlocked.Add(totalCount, total)
                                Interlocked.Add(totalMidpoint, midpt)
                              
                                Dim s As String = String.Format("Task {0}:", Task.CurrentId) + vbCrLf +
                                                  String.Format("   Random Numbers: {0:N0}", total) + vbCrLf +
                                                  String.Format("   Midpoint values: {0:N0} ({1:P3})", midpt, midpt/total)
                                Console.WriteLine(s)
                             End Sub ))
      Next
      Task.WaitAll(tasks.ToArray())
      Console.WriteLine()
      Console.WriteLine("Total midpoint values:  {0,10:N0} ({1:P3})",
                        totalMidpoint, totalMidpoint/totalCount)
      Console.WriteLine("Total number of values: {0,10:N0}", 
                        totalCount)                  
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output like the following:
'       Task 1:
'          Random Numbers: 24,530,624
'          Midpoint values: 24,675 (0.101 %)
'       Task 2:
'          Random Numbers: 7,079,718
'          Midpoint values: 7,093 (0.100 %)
'       Task 3:
'          Random Numbers: 18,284,617
'          Midpoint values: 18,232 (0.100 %)
'       
'       Total midpoint values:      50,000 (0.100 %)
'       Total number of values: 49,894,959

Remarks

This method handles an overflow condition by wrapping: If location = Int32.MinValue, location - 1 = Int32.MaxValue. No exception is thrown.

Decrement(Int64)

Decrements the specified variable and stores the result, as an atomic operation.

public static long Decrement (ref long location);
Parameters
location
Int64

The variable whose value is to be decremented.

Returns

The decremented value.

Exceptions

The address of location is a null pointer.

Remarks

This method handles an overflow condition by wrapping: if location = Int64.MinValue, location - 1 = Int64.MaxValue. No exception is thrown.

The Read method and the 64-bit overloads of the Increment, Decrement, and Add methods are truly atomic only on systems where a System.IntPtr is 64 bits long. On other systems, these methods are atomic with respect to each other, but not with respect to other means of accessing the data. Thus, to be thread safe on 32-bit systems, any access to a 64-bit value must be made through the members of the Interlocked class.

See Also

Applies to