Getting started with F# in Visual Studio
F# and the Visual F# tooling are supported in the Visual Studio IDE. To begin, you should download Visual Studio, if you haven't already. This article uses the Visual Studio 2017 Community Edition, but you can use F# with the version of your choice.
If you're downloading Visual Studio for the first time, it will first install the Visual Studio installer. Install any version of Visual Studio 2017 from the installer. If you already have it installed, click Modify.
You'll next see a list of Workloads. You can install F# through any of the following workloads:
|.NET desktop development||Select F# language support from the right-hand side|
|ASP.NET and web development||Select F# language support from the right-hand side|
|Data storage and processing||Select F# language support from the right-hand side|
|Mobile development with .NET||No action - F# is installed by default|
Alternatively, you can select Individual components and install F# language support from there. Feel free to select as many Workloads or Individual Components as you like.
Finally, click Modify in the lower right-hand side. This will install everything you have selected. You can then open Visual Studio 2017 with F# language support by clicking Launch.
Creating a console application
One of the most basic projects in Visual Studio is the Console Application. Here's how to do it. Once Visual Studio is open:
On the File menu, point to New, and then choose Project.
In the New Project dialog, under Templates, you should see Visual F#. Choose this to show the F# templates.
Choose the Okay button to create the F# project! You should now see an F# project in the Solution Explorer.
Writing your code
Let's get started by writing some code first. Make sure that the
Program.fs file is open, and then replace its contents with the following:
module HelloSquare let square x = x * x [<EntryPoint>] let main argv = printfn "%d squared is: %d!" 12 (square 12) 0 // Return an integer exit code
In the previous code sample, a function
square has been defined which takes an input named
x and multiplies it by itself. Because F# uses Type Inference, the type of
x doesn't need to be specified. The F# compiler understands the types where multiplication is valid, and will assign a type to
x based on how
square is called. If you hover over
square, you should see the following:
val square: x:int -> int
This is what is known as the function's type signature. It can be read like this: "Square is a function which takes an integer named x and produces an integer". Note that the compiler gave
int type for now - this is because multiplication is not generic across all types, but rather is generic across a closed set of types. The F# compiler picked
int at this point, but it will adjust the type signature if you call
square with a different input type, such as a
main, is defined, which is decorated with the
EntryPoint attribute to tell the F# compiler that program execution should start there. It follows the same convention as other C-style programming languages, where command-line arguments can be passed to this function, and an integer code is returned (typically
It is in this function that we call the
square function with an argument of
12. The F# compiler then assigns the type of
square to be
int -> int (that is, a function which takes an
int and produces an
int). The call to
printfn is a formatted printing function which uses a format string, similar to C-style programming languages, parameters which correspond to those specified in the format string, and then prints the result and a new line.
Running your code
You can run the code and see results by pressing ctrl-f5. This will run the program without debugging and allows you to see the results. Alternatively, you can choose the Debug top-level menu item in Visual Studio and choose Start Without Debugging.
You should now see the following printed to the console window that Visual Studio popped up:
12 squared is 144!
Congratulations! You've created your first F# project in Visual Studio, written an F# function printed the results of calling that function, and run the project to see some results.
Using F# Interactive
One of the best features of the Visual F# tooling in Visual Studio is the F# Interactive Window. It allows you to send code over to a process where you can call that code and see the result interactively.
To begin using it, highlight the
square function defined in your code. Next, hold the Alt key and press Enter. This executes the code in the F# Interactive Window. You should see the F# Interactive Window appear with the following in it:
> val square : x:int -> int >
This shows the same function signature for the
square function, which you saw earlier when you hovered over the function. Because
square is now defined in the F# Interactive process, you can call it with different values:
> square 12;; val it : int = 144 >square 13;; val it : int = 169
This executes the function, binds the result to a new name
it, and displays the type and value of
it. Note that you must terminate each line with
;;. This is how F# Interactive knows when your function call is finished. You can also define new functions in F# Interactive:
> let isOdd x = x % 2 <> 0;; val isOdd : x:int -> bool > isOdd 12;; val it : bool = false
The above defines a new function,
isOdd, which takes an
int and checks to see if it's odd! You can call this function to see what it returns with different inputs. You can call functions within function calls:
> isOdd (square 15);; val it : bool = true
You can also use the pipe-forward operator to pipeline the value into the two functions:
> 15 |> square |> isOdd;; val it : bool = true
The pipe-forward operator, and more, are covered in later tutorials.
This is only a glimpse into what you can do with F# Interactive. To learn more, check out Interactive Programming with F#.
If you haven't already, check out the Tour of F#, which covers some of the core features of the F# language. It will give you an overview of some of the capabilities of F#, and provide ample code samples that you can copy into Visual Studio and run. There are also some great external resources you can use, showcased in the F# Guide.