Reference semantics with value types

An advantage to using value types is that they often avoid heap allocations. The corresponding disadvantage is that they are copied by value. This tradeoff makes it harder to optimize algorithms that operate on large amounts of data. New language features in C# 7.2 provide mechanisms that enable pass-by-reference semantics with value types. If you use these features wisely you can minimize both allocations and copy operations. This article explores those new features.

Much of the sample code in this article demonstrates features added in C# 7.2. In order to use those features, you have to configure your project to use C# 7.2 or later in your project. You can use Visual Studio to select it. For each project, select Project from the menu, then Properties. Select the Build tab and click Advanced. From there, you can configure the language version. Choose either "7.2", or "latest". Or you can edit the csproj file and add the following node:


You can use either "7.2" or "latest" for the value.

Specifying in parameters

C# 7.2 adds the in keyword to complement the existing ref and out keywords when you write a method that passes arguments by reference. The in keyword specifies that you are passing the parameter by reference and the called method does not modify the value passed to it.

This addition provides a full vocabulary to express your design intent. Value types are copied when passed to a called method when you do not specify any of the following modifiers. Each of these modifiers specify that a value type is passed by reference, avoiding the copy. Each modifier expresses a different intent:

  • out: This method sets the value of the argument used as this parameter.
  • ref: This method may set the value of the argument used as this parameter.
  • in: This method does not modify the value of the argument used as this parameter.

When you add the in modifier to pass an argument by reference, you declare your design intent is to pass arguments by reference to avoid unnecessary copying. You do not intend to modify the object used as that argument. The following code shows an example of a method that calculates the distance between two points in 3D space.

private static double CalculateDistance(in Point3D point1, in Point3D point2)
    double xDifference = point1.X - point2.X;
    double yDifference = point1.Y - point2.Y;
    double zDifference = point1.Z - point2.Z;

    return Math.Sqrt(xDifference * xDifference + yDifference * yDifference + zDifference * zDifference);

The arguments are two structures that each contain three doubles. A double is 8 bytes, so each argument is 24 bytes. By specifying the in modifier, you pass 4-byte or 8-byte reference to those arguments, depending on the architecture of the machine. The difference in size is small, but it can quickly add up when your application calls this method in a tight loop using many different values.

The in modifier complements out and ref in other ways as well. You cannot create overloads of a method that differ only in the presence of in, out, or ref. These new rules extend the same behavior that had always been defined for out and ref parameters.

The in modifier may be applied to any member that takes parameters: methods, delegates, lambdas, local functions, indexers, operators.

Unlike ref and out arguments, you may use literal values or constants for the argument to an in parameter. Also, unlike a ref or out parameter, you don't need to apply the in modifier at the call site. The following code shows you two examples of calling the CalculateDistance method. The first uses two local variables passed by reference. The second includes a temporary variable created as part of the method call.

var distance = CalculateDistance(pt1, pt2);
var fromOrigin = CalculateDistance(pt1, new Point3D());

There are several ways in which the compiler ensures that the read-only nature of an in argument is enforced. First of all, the called method can't directly assign to an in parameter. It can't directly assign to any field of an in parameter. In addition, you cannot pass an in parameter to any method demanding the ref or out modifier. The compiler enforces that the in argument is a readonly variable. You can call any instance method that uses pass-by-value semantics. In those instances, a copy of the in parameter is created. Because the compiler can create a temporary variable for any in parameter, you can also specify default values for any in parameter. The follow code uses that to specify the origin (point 0,0) as the default value for the second point:

private static double CalculateDistance2(in Point3D point1, in Point3D point2 = default)
    double xDifference = point1.X - point2.X;
    double yDifference = point1.Y - point2.Y;
    double zDifference = point1.Z - point2.Z;

    return Math.Sqrt(xDifference * xDifference + yDifference * yDifference + zDifference * zDifference);

The in parameter designation can also be used with reference types or built in numeric values. However, the benefits in both cases are minimal, if any.

ref readonly returns

You may also want to return a value type by reference, but disallow the caller from modifying that value. Use the ref readonly modifier to express that design intent. It notifies readers that you are returning a reference to existing data, but not allowing modification.

The compiler enforces that the caller cannot modify the reference. Attempts to assign to the value directly generate a compile-time error. However, the compiler cannot know if any member method modifies the state of the struct. To ensure that the object is not modified, the compiler creates a copy and calls member references using that copy. Any modifications are to that defensive copy.

It's likely that the library using Point3D would often use the origin throughout the code. Every instance creates a new object on the stack. It may be advantageous to create a constant and return it by reference. But, if you return a reference to internal storage, you may want to enforce that the caller cannot modify the referenced storage. The following code defines a read-only property that returns a readonly ref to a Point3D that specifies the origin.

private static Point3D origin = new Point3D();
public static ref readonly Point3D Origin => ref origin;

Creating a copy of a ref readonly return is easy: Just assign it to a variable not declared with the ref readonly modifier. The compiler generates code to copy the object as part of the assignment.

When you assign a variable to a ref readonly return, you can specify either a ref readonly variable, or a by-value copy of the readonly reference:

var originValue = Point3D.Origin;
ref readonly var originReference = ref Point3D.Origin;

The first assignment in the preceding code makes a copy of the Origin constant and assigns that copy. The second assigns a reference. Notice that the readonly modifier must be part of the declaration of the variable. The reference to which it refers cannot be modified. Attempts to do so result in a compile-time error.

readonly struct type

Applying ref readonly to high-traffic uses of a struct may be sufficient. Other times, you may want to create an immutable struct. Then you can always pass by readonly reference. That practice removes the defensive copies that take place when you access methods of a struct used as an in parameter.

You can do that by creating a readonly struct type. You can add the readonly modifier to a struct declaration. The compiler enforces that all instance members of the struct are readonly; the struct must be immutable.

There are other optimizations for a readonly struct. You can use the in modifier at every location where a readonly struct is an argument. In addition, you can return a readonly struct as a ref return when you are returning an object whose lifetime extends beyond the scope of the method returning the object.

Finally, the compiler generates more efficient code when you call members of a readonly struct: The this reference, instead of a copy of the receiver, is always an in parameter passed by reference to the member method. This optimization saves more copying when you use a readonly struct. The Point3D is a great candidate for this change. The following code shows an updated ReadonlyPoint3D structure:

readonly public struct ReadonlyPoint3D
    public ReadonlyPoint3D(double x, double y, double z)
        this.X = x;
        this.Y = y;
        this.Z = z;

    public double X { get; }
    public double Y { get; }
    public double Z { get; }

    private static readonly ReadonlyPoint3D origin = new ReadonlyPoint3D();
    public static ref readonly ReadonlyPoint3D Origin => ref origin;

ref struct type

Another related language feature is the ability to declare a value type that must be stack allocated. In other words, these types can never be created on the heap as a member of another class. The primary motivation for this feature was Span<T> and related structures. Span<T> may contain a managed pointer as one of its members, the other being the length of the span. It's actually implemented a bit differently because C# doesn't support pointers to managed memory outside of an unsafe context. Any write that changes the pointer and the length is not atomic. That means a Span<T> would be subject to out of range errors or other type safety violations were it not constrained to a single stack frame. In addition, putting a managed pointer on the GC heap typically crashes at JIT time.

You may have similar requirements working with memory created using stackalloc or when using memory from interop APIs. You can define your own ref struct types for those needs. In this article, you see examples using Span<T> for simplicity.

The ref struct declaration declares that a struct of this type must be on the stack. The language rules ensure the safe use of these types. Other types declared as ref struct include ReadOnlySpan<T>.

The goal of keeping a ref struct type as a stack-allocated variable introduces several rules that the compiler enforces for all ref struct types.

  • You can't box a ref struct. You cannot assign a ref struct type to a variable of type object, dynamic, or any interface type.
  • You can't declare a ref struct as a member of a class or a normal struct.
  • You cannot declare local variables that are ref struct types in async methods. You can declare them in synchronous methods that return Task, Task<T> or Task-like types.
  • You cannot declare ref struct local variables in iterators.
  • You cannot capture ref struct variables in lambda expressions or local functions.

These restrictions ensure that you do not accidentally use a ref struct in a manner that could promote it to the managed heap.

readonly ref struct type

Declaring a struct as readonly ref combines the benefits and restrictions of ref struct and readonly struct delcarations.

The following example demonstrates the declaration of readonly ref struct.

readonly ref struct ReadOnlyRefPoint2D
    public int X { get; }
    public int Y { get; }

    ReadOnlyRefPoint2D(int x, int y) => (X, Y) = (x, y);


These enhancements to the C# language are designed for performance critical algorithms where memory allocations can be critical to achieving the necessary performance. You may find that you don't often use these features in the code you write. However, these enhancements have been adopted in many locations in the .NET Framework. As more and more APIs make use of these features, you'll see the performance of your own applications improve.