Introduction to SQL Server CLR Integration
The common language runtime (CLR) is the heart of .NET Framework and provides the execution environment for all .NET Framework code. Code that runs within the CLR is referred to as managed code. The CLR provides various functions and services required for program execution, including just-in-time (JIT) compilation, allocating and managing memory, enforcing type safety, exception handling, thread management, and security.
With the CLR hosted in Microsoft SQL Server (called CLR integration), you can author stored procedures, triggers, user-defined functions, user-defined types, and user-defined aggregates in managed code. Because managed code compiles to native code prior to execution, you can achieve significant performance increases in some scenarios.
Managed code running on .NET Framework uses Code Access Security (CAS), code links, and application domains to prevent assemblies from performing certain operations. SQL Server uses CAS to help secure the managed code and prevent compromise of the operating system or database server.
Code Access Security (CAS) has been deprecated across all versions of .NET Framework and .NET. Recent versions of .NET do not honor CAS annotations and produce errors if CAS-related APIs are used. Developers should seek alternative means of accomplishing security tasks.
This section is meant to provide only enough information to get started programming with SQL Server CLR integration, and is not meant to be comprehensive. For more detailed information, see Common Language Runtime (CLR) Integration Overview.
Enabling CLR Integration
The common language runtime (CLR) integration feature is off by default in Microsoft SQL Server, and must be enabled in order to use objects that are implemented using CLR integration. To enable CLR integration using Transact-SQL, use the
clr enabled option of the
sp_configure stored procedure as shown:
sp_configure 'clr enabled', 1 GO RECONFIGURE GO
You can disable CLR integration by setting the
clr enabled option to 0. When you disable CLR integration, SQL Server stops executing all CLR routines and unloads all application domains.
For more detailed information, see Enabling CLR Integration.
Deploying a CLR Assembly
Once the CLR methods have been tested and verified on the test server, they can be distributed to production servers using a deployment script. The deployment script can be generated manually, or by using SQL Server Management Studio. For more detailed information, see the version of SQL Server documentation for the version of SQL Server you are using.
SQL Server documentation
CLR Integration Security
The security model of the Microsoft SQL Server integration with the Microsoft .NET Framework common language runtime (CLR) manages and secures access between different types of CLR and non-CLR objects running within SQL Server. These objects may be called by a Transact-SQL statement or another CLR object running in the server.
For more detailed information, see CLR Integration Security.
Debugging a CLR Assembly
Microsoft SQL Server provides support for debugging Transact-SQL and common language runtime (CLR) objects in the database. Debugging works across languages: users can step seamlessly into CLR objects from Transact-SQL, and vice versa.
For more detailed information, see Debugging CLR Database Objects.