Using Variance in Delegates (Visual Basic)
When you assign a method to a delegate, covariance and contravariance provide flexibility for matching a delegate type with a method signature. Covariance permits a method to have return type that is more derived than that defined in the delegate. Contravariance permits a method that has parameter types that are less derived than those in the delegate type.
Example 1: Covariance
This example demonstrates how delegates can be used with methods that have return types that are derived from the return type in the delegate signature. The data type returned by
DogsHandler is of type
Dogs, which derives from the
Mammals type that is defined in the delegate.
Class Mammals End Class Class Dogs Inherits Mammals End Class Class Test Public Delegate Function HandlerMethod() As Mammals Public Shared Function MammalsHandler() As Mammals Return Nothing End Function Public Shared Function DogsHandler() As Dogs Return Nothing End Function Sub Test() Dim handlerMammals As HandlerMethod = AddressOf MammalsHandler ' Covariance enables this assignment. Dim handlerDogs As HandlerMethod = AddressOf DogsHandler End Sub End Class
Example 2: Contravariance
This example demonstrates how delegates can be used with methods that have parameters whose types are base types of the delegate signature parameter type. With contravariance, you can use one event handler instead of separate handlers. The following example makes use of two delegates:
Public Delegate Sub KeyEventHandler(sender As Object, e As KeyEventArgs)
Public Delegate Sub MouseEventHandler(sender As Object, e As MouseEventArgs)
The example defines an event handler with an EventArgs parameter and uses it to handle both the
Button.MouseClick events. It can do this because EventArgs is a base type of both KeyEventArgs and MouseEventArgs.
' Event handler that accepts a parameter of the EventArgs type. Private Sub MultiHandler(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Label1.Text = DateTime.Now End Sub Private Sub Form1_Load(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Load ' You can use a method that has an EventArgs parameter, ' although the event expects the KeyEventArgs parameter. AddHandler Button1.KeyDown, AddressOf MultiHandler ' You can use the same method ' for the event that expects the MouseEventArgs parameter. AddHandler Button1.MouseClick, AddressOf MultiHandler End Sub