Change the print orientation of a word processing document

This topic shows how to use the classes in the Open XML SDK 2.5 for Office to programmatically set the print orientation of a Microsoft Word 2010 or Microsoft Word 2013 document. It contains an example SetPrintOrientation method to illustrate this task.

To use the sample code in this topic, you must install the Open XML SDK 2.5. You must explicitly reference the following assemblies in your project:

  • WindowsBase

  • DocumentFormat.OpenXml (installed by the Open XML SDK)

You must also use the following using directives or Imports statements to compile the code in this topic.

    using System.Linq;
    using DocumentFormat.OpenXml;
    using DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Packaging;
    using DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Wordprocessing;
    Imports DocumentFormat.OpenXml
    Imports DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Packaging
    Imports DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Wordprocessing

SetPrintOrientation Method

You can use the SetPrintOrientation method to change the print orientation of a word processing document. The method accepts two parameters that indicate the name of the document to modify (string) and the new print orientation (PageOrientationValues).

The following code shows the SetPrintOrientation method.

    public static void SetPrintOrientation(
      string fileName, PageOrientationValues newOrientation)
    Public Sub SetPrintOrientation(
      ByVal fileName As String, 
      ByVal newOrientation As PageOrientationValues)

For each section in the document, if the new orientation differs from the section's current print orientation, the code modifies the print orientation for the section. In addition, the code must manually update the width, height, and margins for each section.


Calling the Sample SetPrintOrientation Method

To call the sample SetPrintOrientation method, pass a string that contains the name of the file to convert. The following code shows an example method call.

    SetPrintOrientation(@"C:\Users\Public\Documents\ChangePrintOrientation.docx", 
        PageOrientationValues.Landscape);
    SetPrintOrientation("C:\Users\Public\Documents\ChangePrintOrientation.docx",
        PageOrientationValues.Landscape)

How the Code Works

The following code first opens the document by using the Open method and sets the isEditable parameter to true to indicate that the document should be read/write. The code maintains a Boolean variable that tracks whether the document has changed (so that it can save the document later, if the document has changed). The code retrieves a reference to the main document part, and then uses that reference to retrieve a collection of all of the descendants of type SectionProperties within the content of the document. Later code will use this collection to set the orientation for each section in turn.

    using (var document = 
        WordprocessingDocument.Open(fileName, true))
    {
        bool documentChanged = false;

        var docPart = document.MainDocumentPart;
        var sections = docPart.Document.Descendants<SectionProperties>();
        // Code removed here...
    }
    Using document =
        WordprocessingDocument.Open(fileName, True)
        Dim documentChanged As Boolean = False

        Dim docPart = document.MainDocumentPart
        Dim sections = docPart.Document.Descendants(Of SectionProperties)()
        ' Code removed here...
    End Using

Iterating Through All the Sections

The next block of code iterates through all the sections in the collection of SectionProperties elements. For each section, the code initializes a variable that tracks whether the page orientation for the section was changed so the code can update the page size and margins. (If the new orientation matches the original orientation, the code will not update the page.) The code continues by retrieving a reference to the first PageSize descendant of the SectionProperties element. If the reference is not null, the code updates the orientation as required.

    foreach (SectionProperties sectPr in sections)
    {
        bool pageOrientationChanged = false;

        PageSize pgSz = sectPr.Descendants<PageSize>().FirstOrDefault();
        if (pgSz != null)
        {
            // Code removed here...
        }
    }
    For Each sectPr As SectionProperties In sections

        Dim pageOrientationChanged As Boolean = False

        Dim pgSz As PageSize =
            sectPr.Descendants(Of PageSize).FirstOrDefault
        If pgSz IsNot Nothing Then
            ' Code removed here...
        End If
    Next

Setting the Orientation for the Section

The next block of code first checks whether the Orient property of the PageSize element exists. As with many properties of Open XML elements, the property or attribute might not exist yet. In that case, retrieving the property returns a null reference. By default, if the property does not exist, and the new orientation is Portrait, the code will not update the page. If the Orient property already exists, and its value differs from the new orientation value supplied as a parameter to the method, the code sets the Value property of the Orient property, and sets both the pageOrientationChanged and the documentChanged flags. (The code uses the pageOrientationChanged flag to determine whether it must update the page size and margins. It uses the documentChanged flag to determine whether it must save the document at the end.)

Note

If the code must create the Orient property, it must also create the value to store in the property, as a new EnumValue<T> instance, supplying the new orientation in the EnumValue constructor.

    if (pgSz.Orient == null)
    {
        if (newOrientation != PageOrientationValues.Portrait)
        {
            pageOrientationChanged = true;
            documentChanged = true;
            pgSz.Orient = 
                new EnumValue<PageOrientationValues>(newOrientation);
        }
    }
    else
    {
        if (pgSz.Orient.Value != newOrientation)
        {
            pgSz.Orient.Value = newOrientation;
            pageOrientationChanged = true;
            documentChanged = true;
        }
    }
    If pgSz.Orient Is Nothing Then
        If newOrientation <> PageOrientationValues.Portrait Then
            pageOrientationChanged = True
            documentChanged = True
            pgSz.Orient =
                New EnumValue(Of PageOrientationValues)(newOrientation)
        End If
    Else
        If pgSz.Orient.Value <> newOrientation Then
            pgSz.Orient.Value = newOrientation
            pageOrientationChanged = True
            documentChanged = True
        End If
    End If

Updating the Page Size

At this point in the code, the page orientation may have changed. If so, the code must complete two more tasks. It must update the page size, and update the page margins for the section. The first task is easy—the following code just swaps the page height and width, storing the values in the PageSize element.

    if (pageOrientationChanged)
    {
        // Changing the orientation is not enough. You must also 
        // change the page size.
        var width = pgSz.Width;
        var height = pgSz.Height;
        pgSz.Width = height;
        pgSz.Height = width;
        // Code removed here...
    }
    If pageOrientationChanged Then
        ' Changing the orientation is not enough. You must also 
        ' change the page size.
        Dim width = pgSz.Width
        Dim height = pgSz.Height
        pgSz.Width = height
        pgSz.Height = width
        ' Code removed here...
    End If

Updating the Margins

The next step in the sample procedure handles margins for the section. If the page orientation has changed, the code must rotate the margins to match. To do so, the code retrieves a reference to the PageMargin element for the section. If the element exists, the code rotates the margins. Note that the code rotates the margins by 90 degrees—some printers rotate the margins by 270 degrees instead and you could modify the code to take that into account. Also be aware that the Top and Bottom properties of the PageMargin object are signed values, and the Left and Right properties are unsigned values. The code must convert between the two types of values as it rotates the margin settings, as shown in the following code.

    PageMargin pgMar = 
        sectPr.Descendants<PageMargin>().FirstOrDefault();
    if (pgMar != null)
    {
        var top = pgMar.Top.Value;
        var bottom = pgMar.Bottom.Value;
        var left = pgMar.Left.Value;
        var right = pgMar.Right.Value;

        pgMar.Top = new Int32Value((int)left);
        pgMar.Bottom = new Int32Value((int)right);
        pgMar.Left = 
            new UInt32Value((uint)System.Math.Max(0, bottom));
        pgMar.Right = 
            new UInt32Value((uint)System.Math.Max(0, top));
    }
    Dim pgMar As PageMargin =
      sectPr.Descendants(Of PageMargin).FirstOrDefault()
    If pgMar IsNot Nothing Then
        Dim top = pgMar.Top.Value
        Dim bottom = pgMar.Bottom.Value
        Dim left = pgMar.Left.Value
        Dim right = pgMar.Right.Value

        pgMar.Top = CType(left, Int32Value)
        pgMar.Bottom = CType(right, Int32Value)
        pgMar.Left = CType(System.Math.Max(0,
            CType(bottom, Int32Value)), UInt32Value)
        pgMar.Right = CType(System.Math.Max(0,
            CType(top, Int32Value)), UInt32Value)
    End If

Saving the Document

After all the modifications, the code determines whether the document has changed. If the document has changed, the code saves it.

    if (documentChanged)
    {
        docPart.Document.Save();
    }
    If documentChanged Then
        docPart.Document.Save()
    End If

Sample Code

The following is the complete SetPrintOrientation code sample in C# and Visual Basic.

    using System.Linq;
    using DocumentFormat.OpenXml;
    using DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Packaging;
    using DocumentFormat.OpenXml.Wordprocessing;

    namespace ChangePrintOrientation
    {
        class Program
        {
            static void Main(string[] args)
            {
                SetPrintOrientation(@"C:\Users\Public\Documents\ChangePrintOrientation.docx", 
                    PageOrientationValues.Landscape);
            }

            // Given a document name, set the print orientation for 
            // all the sections of the document.
            public static void SetPrintOrientation(
              string fileName, PageOrientationValues newOrientation)
            {
                using (var document = 
                    WordprocessingDocument.Open(fileName, true))
                {
                    bool documentChanged = false;

                    var docPart = document.MainDocumentPart;
                    var sections = docPart.Document.Descendants<SectionProperties>();

                    foreach (SectionProperties sectPr in sections)
                    {
                        bool pageOrientationChanged = false;

                        PageSize pgSz = sectPr.Descendants<PageSize>().FirstOrDefault();
                        if (pgSz != null)
                        {
                            // No Orient property? Create it now. Otherwise, just 
                            // set its value. Assume that the default orientation 
                            // is Portrait.
                            if (pgSz.Orient == null)
                            {
                                // Need to create the attribute. You do not need to 
                                // create the Orient property if the property does not 
                                // already exist, and you are setting it to Portrait. 
                                // That is the default value.
                                if (newOrientation != PageOrientationValues.Portrait)
                                {
                                    pageOrientationChanged = true;
                                    documentChanged = true;
                                    pgSz.Orient = 
                                        new EnumValue<PageOrientationValues>(newOrientation);
                                }
                            }
                            else
                            {
                                // The Orient property exists, but its value
                                // is different than the new value.
                                if (pgSz.Orient.Value != newOrientation)
                                {
                                    pgSz.Orient.Value = newOrientation;
                                    pageOrientationChanged = true;
                                    documentChanged = true;
                                }
                            }

                            if (pageOrientationChanged)
                            {
                                // Changing the orientation is not enough. You must also 
                                // change the page size.
                                var width = pgSz.Width;
                                var height = pgSz.Height;
                                pgSz.Width = height;
                                pgSz.Height = width;

                                PageMargin pgMar = 
                                    sectPr.Descendants<PageMargin>().FirstOrDefault();
                                if (pgMar != null)
                                {
                                    // Rotate margins. Printer settings control how far you 
                                    // rotate when switching to landscape mode. Not having those
                                    // settings, this code rotates 90 degrees. You could easily
                                    // modify this behavior, or make it a parameter for the 
                                    // procedure.
                                    var top = pgMar.Top.Value;
                                    var bottom = pgMar.Bottom.Value;
                                    var left = pgMar.Left.Value;
                                    var right = pgMar.Right.Value;

                                    pgMar.Top = new Int32Value((int)left);
                                    pgMar.Bottom = new Int32Value((int)right);
                                    pgMar.Left = 
                                        new UInt32Value((uint)System.Math.Max(0, bottom));
                                    pgMar.Right = 
                                        new UInt32Value((uint)System.Math.Max(0, top));
                                }
                            }
                        }
                    }
                    if (documentChanged)
                    {
                        docPart.Document.Save();
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
    ' Given a document name, set the print orientation for 
    ' all the sections of the document.
    Public Sub SetPrintOrientation(
      ByVal fileName As String, ByVal newOrientation As PageOrientationValues)
        Using document =
            WordprocessingDocument.Open(fileName, True)
            Dim documentChanged As Boolean = False

            Dim docPart = document.MainDocumentPart
            Dim sections = docPart.Document.Descendants(Of SectionProperties)()

            For Each sectPr As SectionProperties In sections

                Dim pageOrientationChanged As Boolean = False

                Dim pgSz As PageSize =
                    sectPr.Descendants(Of PageSize).FirstOrDefault
                If pgSz IsNot Nothing Then
                    ' No Orient property? Create it now. Otherwise, just 
                    ' set its value. Assume that the default orientation 
                    ' is Portrait.
                    If pgSz.Orient Is Nothing Then
                        ' Need to create the attribute. You do not need to 
                        ' create the Orient property if the property does not 
                        ' already exist and you are setting it to Portrait. 
                        ' That is the default value.
                        If newOrientation <> PageOrientationValues.Portrait Then
                            pageOrientationChanged = True
                            documentChanged = True
                            pgSz.Orient =
                                New EnumValue(Of PageOrientationValues)(newOrientation)
                        End If
                    Else
                        ' The Orient property exists, but its value
                        ' is different than the new value.
                        If pgSz.Orient.Value <> newOrientation Then
                            pgSz.Orient.Value = newOrientation
                            pageOrientationChanged = True
                            documentChanged = True
                        End If
                    End If

                    If pageOrientationChanged Then
                        ' Changing the orientation is not enough. You must also 
                        ' change the page size.
                        Dim width = pgSz.Width
                        Dim height = pgSz.Height
                        pgSz.Width = height
                        pgSz.Height = width

                        Dim pgMar As PageMargin =
                          sectPr.Descendants(Of PageMargin).FirstOrDefault()
                        If pgMar IsNot Nothing Then
                            ' Rotate margins. Printer settings control how far you 
                            ' rotate when switching to landscape mode. Not having those
                            ' settings, this code rotates 90 degrees. You could easily
                            ' modify this behavior, or make it a parameter for the 
                            ' procedure.
                            Dim top = pgMar.Top.Value
                            Dim bottom = pgMar.Bottom.Value
                            Dim left = pgMar.Left.Value
                            Dim right = pgMar.Right.Value

                            pgMar.Top = CType(left, Int32Value)
                            pgMar.Bottom = CType(right, Int32Value)
                            pgMar.Left = CType(System.Math.Max(0,
                                CType(bottom, Int32Value)), UInt32Value)
                            pgMar.Right = CType(System.Math.Max(0,
                                CType(top, Int32Value)), UInt32Value)
                        End If
                    End If
                End If
            Next

            If documentChanged Then
                docPart.Document.Save()
            End If
        End Using
    End Sub

See also