Application.DVar method (Access)

Estimates the variance across a sample in a specified set of records (a domain).


expression. DVar( _Expr_, _Domain_, _Criteria_ )

expression A variable that represents an Application object.


Name Required/Optional Data type Description
Expr Required String An expression that identifies the numeric field on which you want to find the variance. It can be a string expression identifying a field from a table or query, or it can be an expression that performs a calculation on data in that field . In expr, you can include the name field in a table, a control on a form, a constant, or a function. If expr includes a function, it can be either built-in or user-defined, but not another domain aggregate or SQL aggregate function. Any field included in expr must be a numeric field.
Domain Required String A string expression identifying the set of records that constitutes the domain. It can be a table name or a query name for a query that does not require a parameter.
Criteria Optional Variant An optional string expression used to restrict the range of data on which the DVar function is performed. For example, criteria is often equivalent to the WHERE clause in an SQL expression, without the word WHERE. If criteria is omitted, the DVar function evaluates expr against the entire domain. Any field that is included in criteria must also be a field in domain; otherwise the DVar function returns a Null.

Return value



For example, you could use the DVar function to calculate the variance across a set of students' test scores.

If domain refers to fewer than two records or if fewer than two records satisfy criteria, the DVar functions return a Null, indicating that a variance can't be calculated.

Whether you use the DVar function in a macro, module, query expression, or calculated control, you must construct the criteria argument carefully to ensure that it will be evaluated correctly.

You can use the DVar function to specify criteria in the Criteria row of a select query, in a calculated field expression in a query, or in the Update To row of an update query.

Note You can use the DVar function or the Var function in a calculated field expression in a totals query. If you use the DVar function, values are calculated before data is grouped. If you use the Var function, the data is grouped before values in the field expression are evaluated.

Use the DVar function in a calculated control when you need to specify criteria to restrict the range of data on which the function is performed. For example, to display a variance for orders to be shipped to California, set the ControlSource property of a text box to the following expression:

=DVar("[Freight]", "Orders", "[ShipRegion] = 'CA'")

If you simply want to find the standard deviation across all records in domain, use the Var or VarP function.


The following example returns estimates of the variance for a population and a population sample for orders shipped to the United Kingdom. The domain is an Orders table. The criteria argument restricts the resulting set of records to those for which ShipCountry equals UK.

Dim dblX As Double 
Dim dblY As Double 
' Sample estimate. 
dblX = DVar("[Freight]", "Orders", "[ShipCountry] = 'UK'") 
' Population estimate. 
dblY = DVarP("[Freight]", "Orders", "[ShipCountry] = 'UK'")

The next example returns estimates by using a variable, strCountry, in the criteria argument. Note that single quotation marks (') are included in the string expression, so that when the strings are concatenated, the string literal UK will be enclosed in single quotation marks.

Dim strCountry As String| 
Dim dblX As Double 
strCountry = "UK" 
dblX = DVar("[Freight]", "Orders", "[ShipCountry] = '" _ 
    & strCountry & "'")

The following examples show how to use various types of criteria with the DVar function.

Sample code provided by: Community Member Icon TheUtterAccess community

    ' ***************************
    ' Typical Use
    ' Numerical values. Replace "number" with the number to use.
    variable = DVar("[FieldName]", "TableName", "[Criteria] = number")

    ' Strings.
    ' Numerical values. Replace "string" with the string to use.
    variable = DVar("[FieldName]", "TableName", "[Criteria]= 'string'")

    ' Dates. Replace "date" with the string to use.
    variable = DVar("[FieldName]", "TableName", "[Criteria]= #date#")
    ' ***************************

    ' ***************************
    ' Referring to a control on a form
    ' Numerical values
    variable = DVar("[FieldName]", "TableName", "[Criteria] = " &; Forms!FormName!ControlName)

    ' Strings
    variable = DVar("[FieldName]", "TableName", "[Criteria] = '" &; Forms!FormName!ControlName &; "'")

    ' Dates
    variable = DVar("[FieldName]", "TableName", "[Criteria] = #" &; Forms!FormName!ControlName &; "#")
    ' ***************************

    ' ***************************
    ' Combinations
    ' Multiple types of criteria
    variable = DVar("[FieldName]", "TableName", "[Criteria1] = " &; Forms![FormName]![Control1] _
             &; " AND [Criteria2] = '" &; Forms![FormName]![Control2] &; "'" _
            &; " AND [Criteria3] =#" &; Forms![FormName]![Control3] &; "#")
    ' Use two fields from a single record.
    variable = DVar("[LastName] &; ', ' &; [FirstName]", "tblPeople", "[PrimaryKey] = 7")
    ' Expressions
    variable = DVar("[Field1] + [Field2]", "tableName", "[PrimaryKey] = 7")
    ' Control Structures
    variable = DVar("IIf([LastName] Like 'Smith', 'True', 'False')", "tableName", "[PrimaryKey] = 7")
    ' ***************************

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See also

Application Object